Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ARCH - 10001 - 001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irene Huda on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH - 10001 - 001 at Kent State University taught by David Hughes (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 694 views. For similar materials see UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE in Architecture at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Understanding Architecture Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 2 4 7 Quotes Intro 1 Architecture is what nature cannot make Kahn 2 the will of an epoch translated into space van der Rohe 3 the magnificent play of form in light Le Corbusier 4 a cultural instrument Kahn S It is very necessary in the outset of all inquiry to distinguish carefully between Architecture and Building Ruskin 6 Great nations write their autobiographies in three manuscripts the book of their deeds the book of their words and the book of their art Not one of these books can be understood unless we read the other two but of the three the only quite trustworthy one is the last Ruskin Chapter 1 7 The history of architecture is primarily a history of man shaping space Pevsner 8 we shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us Churchill Chapter 2 9 Now these aspects of building should be so carried out that account is taken of strength utility grace Vitruvius 10 In architecture as in all other operative arts the end must direct the operation The end is to build well Well building hath three conditions Commoditie Firmeness and Delight Wotton 11 A thing is determined by its nature and if it is to be fashioned so as to work properly its essence must be investigated and fully grasped A thing must answer its purpose in every way that is fulfill its function in a practical sense and must this be serviceable reliable and cheap Gropius 12 The house is a machine for living in Le Corbusier 13 The aim of architecture is the creation of the perfect and therefore most beautiful efficiency Taut 14 When you make a building you make a life It comes out of life and you really make a life It talks to you When you have only the comprehension of the function of a building it would not become an environment of a life Kahn 15 one single building for all nations and climates Le Corbusier Chapter 4 16 Our eyes are made to see forms in light Le Corbusier 17 Life is not life at all without delight Patmore 18 We have given color its rightful place in architecture De Stijl theorists 19 Ornament is the chief part of architecture Ruskin 20 The evolution of culture is synonymous with the removal of ornament from utilitarian objects Loos Chapter 7 21 The Architect must be looked upon as something much more than a designer of buildings lovely elegant charming and efficient though they may be His greater role is that of being the delineator the definer the engraver of the history of his time Raskin 22 so great a profession as this Vitruvius 23 hunting the shadow not the substance Vitruvius Architecture Chapter 1 physical perceptual conceptual behavioral space circulation spaces for social function prestige Tjibaou Cultural Center New Caledonia Renzo Piano architecture blended into nature behavioral space Piazza di San Marco Italy physical perceptual behavioral space decompartmentalized interwoven spaces horizontal linesamp planes of WNP P PP N domestic tranquility 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 tttteswevett speees eestsesttttg textures nondirectional space exception to International Modemism s color scheme bc demonstration piece to represent best of German industry William F Fahnestock NY Charles A Flatt compartmentalized Harold F McCormick House IL Charles A Flatt compartmentalized negative urban space positive urban space personal spacecultural factors Chapter 2 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 AEG turbine factory Germany Peter Behrens Intemational Modern architecture Fagus factory Germany Walter Gropiusamp Adolf Meyer Intemational Modern architecture functional accommodation and beautv even rhvthm allpurpose space or universal space utilitarian zones functional zones each expressed by change in blocks verticality ornament for articulationclear expression of building parts Mount Angel Abbey Library OR Alvar Aalto different functional activities Boiler House IIT IL Ludwig Mies van der Rohe utilitarian similar appearance to early churches Chapel IIT IL Ludwig Mies van der Rohe allpurpose looks similar to boiler house Zion Lutheran Church OR Pietro Belluschi simple design to evoke church character governmental architecture Minnesota State Capitol MN Cass Gilbert center dome based on Basilica dome amp 2 side chambers symbolic representation of magic of ight RiverBend Sacred Heart Medical Center OR Todd Tiemeyamp Bill Lee physicalamp mental healing healing gardens outdoor walking paths cozy lobby daybeds psychological as well as utilitarian function separate lab spaces for experimentationamp re ection concrete texture Chapter 4 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 no straightregular lines Gothic cathedrals of Chartresamp Amiens France not bilaterally symmetrical facades repetitive facades industrial structural rhythm hidden behind even window rhvthm Boston City Hall MA Kallman McKinnelamp Knowles variation of window shapesamp sizes Memorial to the March Victims Germany Walter Gropius sharp hard diagonals for dramatic effect Marine Corps War Memorial Washington DC Felix W de Weldon dramatic diagonals Einstein observatory tower Germany Erich Mendelsohn rounded soft used Fibonacci seriesamp proportional system Modulor man bold visual texture rough but rich tactile physically felt texture overscaled elements difficult to judge scale N forms industrial Garden facade of Palazzo del Te Italy Giulio Romano ordered variations on seemingly even rhythm bilaterally symmetrical 2 overlaid rhythms varied columns on seemingly repetitive windows structural rhythm hidden behind even window rhvthm repetitive external rhythm but asymmetrical internal rhythm rich visual texture Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Italy Francesco Borromini curvesamp countercurves undulating form rough visualamp tactile texture concrete forms bold visual texture rough tactile texture 1 of first to exploit texture after International Modernism ended Palazzo de Medici Italy Michelozzo di Bartolomeo different types of masonry to create contrasting textures landscape texture variation Japanese house and garden subtle interplay of textures fusion of buildingamp landscape 50 elegantamp understated exploitation of texture 51 Chapel of Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria Italy Gian Lorenzo Bemini light manipulation 52 hgm manipulation 53 Neolithic houses Romania colorful patterns on plaster 54 Palace at Knossos Crete red columns colorful muralsamp decorative bands 55 Greek temples Sicily originally colorful not always pure white as believed bleached by sun over years 56 Egyptian temples originally colorful bleached by sun over years tomb murals still colorful 57 Early Christian churches colorful interior murals veined marble columnsamp inlaid oor patterns 58 Apse of San Apollinare Italy early Christian church 59 Church of San Vitale Italy Emperor Justinian early Christian church mosaics 60 SainteChapelle France restored by EugeneEmmanual Viollet le Duc Gothic church colorful interior 61 colorful ceramic tiles 62 Pilgrimage Church of the Fourteen Saints Germany Johann Balthasar Neumann color for designamp embellishment carvedamp gilded stuccowork colorsamp patterns usually made by paint on plaster 63 Chapel of Priory of La Tourette France Le Corbusier primary colorsamp light to direct focus on altars 64 Piazza d Italia LA Charles Moore exploitation of ornament coloramp texture for visual delight 65 ugliness 66 67 elimination of ornament elaborate ornament built of durableamp soft redwood economicamp social purpose public works project during recession 68 Cartuja Carthusian monastery Spain omamental interior solely for pure visual delight 69 Amalienburg pavilion of Nymphenburg Palace Germany Francois Cuvilli s JB Zimmermanamp Joachim Dietrich omamental mirrored interior for visual delight 70 Gothic Revival limestone for beneficial weathering effect ornamental detailing to emphasize verticality inspired by Woolworth Building NotreDame de Amiens France omamental gargoyles for longevity utilitarian purpose ornament as acoustical function redesigned from Philharmonic Hall ornament as 71 72 73 acoustical function 74 NotreDame de Reims France Gothic ornament to accentuate function expressive utilitarian purpose storytelling through ornament related to building function 75 Woolworth Building NY Cass Gilbert Gothic ornamental detailing to emphasize verticality 76 NotreDame de Chartres France storytelling through ornament related to building function 77 storytelling through ornament related to building function Doric architecture Chapter 7 78 theoreticalamp geometric Renaissance ideals NeoPlatonism 79 80 81 restrained design French national character overhead skylights hollow clayamp plaster domes detailed design plans Vocabulary Chapter 1 1 Physical space volume of air bounded by walls ooramp ceiling of a room easily measured in cubic feet or cubic meters 2 Perceptual space can be perceivedseen may extend beyond glass wallsamp be impossible to measure 3 Conceptual space mental mapplan in our memory 4 Behavioral space move through and use 5 Interwoven spaces uid owing spaces created by interweaving connected spaces 6 Static spaces compartmentalized discrete rooms accommodating clearly understood function 7 Directional space structures direct movement to single focus 8 Nondirectional space no single obvious path through building 9 Positive space void wrapped in a built shell specifically erected to defineamp contain it 10 Negative space created by hollowing out a solid that already exists 11 Personal space distance that members of a particular species naturallyautomatically put between themselves Chapter 2 1 Client persongroup who calls building into being provides commission source of funding controls project 2 Architect designer who gives client s wishes physical form 3 Builders carry out construction process following architect s instructions 4 Function pragmatic utility of an object 5 UtilitarianPragmatic utility accommodation of a specific use or activity in a specific room or space 6 Circulatory function making of appropriate spaces to accommodate directamp facilitate movement from area to area Chapter 4 1 Gestalt psychology study of how mind interprets formsamp patterns presented to it 2 Proximity objects close to one another are seen to represent a pattern points in space are interpreted as lying on a single plane even if one is distantamp another is closer Repetition equalities of spacingdistance are seen even where none eXist 4 Simplestamp largest figure when presented w elements that suggest an image it can recognize mind fills in any missing pieces to form Simplestamp largest meaningful figure a Mental impulse toward continuityamp closure Figureto ground relationship a shape seen in context of an enclosing shape will be interpreted as a form against a background w mind deliberately choosing which is which 6 Volute spiral ornament Classical Ionic capital 7 Quarryfaced ashlar masonry aggressively rough stone masonry 8 9 E Squot Rusticated masonry individual blocks have their edges cut back to emphasize joints Smooth ashlar masonry j oints between stone blocks are almost impossible to see from the street Chapter 7 Ancient Egypt priestarchitect 1 26352595 BCE a Credits Pharaoh Zoser s tomb intro of stone construction invention of pyramid basis for later Western architecture 2 Senmut 15031482 BCE Queen Hatshepsut s Mortuary Temple 3 Ostraka at limestone akes from larger building blocks on which Egyptian architects sketched designs Ancient Greece architect chief builder craftsman 1 Plato architects were directors of workers theoretical knowledgeamp practical skills 2 Daedalus Greek mythical status a Credits Minotaur s labyrinth on Crete mating apparatus for Queen Pasiphaeamp bull feather wings underground steam bath for King Kokkalos Roman Empire architecturepolitical statement 1 Cicero architect in same class as physicianamp teacher 2 9020 BCE so great a profession as this a Credits practicalamp theoretical knowledge high education to achieve plans Ichnographia ground plans laid out w compassamp ruler Orthographia elevation drawings as vertical image of the front Scaenographia perspectives w shadingamp retreating lines converging at vanishing point Collegium trade org for each building operation iron workers brick makers etc Anthemios 500540 CE church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople ellipse drawing Middle Ages architectapprenticeljourneymanljmastermason designeramp contractorbuilder technicalamp practical experience 1 Abbott Haito large sheepskin parchment drawing of ideal monastery layout for Saint Gall Switzerland 2 Guilds orgs that provided training for youthsamp network for transmitting ideas across Europe 3 Villard de Honnecourt designeramp mason journeyman a Credits 82pg scrapbook cathedral at Vaucelles helped w cathedral in Reims 4 Mastermason architectus magister master maestro Meister ingeniator engineer artifeX operarius mechanicus 5 Stoneworker lapicida cementarius lathomus washes 6 Pierre de Montreuil abbey church of SaintDenis NotreDame in Paris doctor lathomorum professor of freemasons 7 Hugh Libergier cathedral in Reims Renaissance architectClassical humanistartistdesigner theoretical knowledge artisantechnician to scholartheoretician goalorderedamp balanced architecture that might serve as example for later architects 1 pilgrimage to ancient Rome 2 14041472 humanist scholaramp theorist a Credits churchamp palace designs Latin manuscript concerning building 3 1444 1514 artistarchitect Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome pure geometry of Neo Platonism 4 artist architect Sistine Chapel ceiling painting wood model for completing Saint Peter s dome 5 Sebastiano Serlio published illustrated books describing how to proportion Classical orders 6 Bramante s nephew 4 mural frescoes in Vatican Palace School of Athens 7 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola published illustrated books describing how to proportion Classical orders a Credits 1St plates to show relative proportions of each order based on column s diameter 8 15081580 not classically educated stonemason s apprentice a Credits Giangiorgio Trissino s protege worked w Daniele Barbaro in illustrating Vitruvius translation clearly proportionedamp simple architecture restorations of major Roman ruins 4 Books on Architecture greatest continuing impact of any from Renaissance period 9 small aerial perspective technique w planamp building masses together France Renaissance Classicismljroyal architecture 1 Royal Building Administration corps of architectsamp builders to carry out royal building projects a Credits Versailles Marly 2 Jean Baptiste Colbert chief minister administered Royal Building Admin 3 Louis Le Vau 211d to Colbert King Louis XIV s chief architect interior court of Louvre helped prepare 8thfinal design for Louvre s east wing Louvre extension of royal residence in Paris several stages under different royal architects Gian Lorenzo Bernini most famous Roman architect around 1665 won design contest for Louvre s east wing Charles Le Brun King Louis XIV s painter helped prepare 8thfinal design for Louvre s east wing Claude Perrault physicianamp skilled amateur architect helped prepare 8th nal design for Louvre s east wing a Credits publication on his interpretation of 5 Classical orders 8 Royal Academy of Architecture created in 1671 became Ecole des BeauXArts provided architectural instruction for students worldwide in 1800samp early 1900s path to success in architecture profession 9 Grand PriX de Rome coveted award that ensured winner would get successive publicbuilding commissionsamp appt to teach at Ecole des BeauXArts England architects gentleman amateurs wealthy traveled wellread aristocrats or pro architects trained in of ces but littleno theoretical edu normal pathapprenticeamp assistant in an architect s of ce 1 Richard Boyle Third Earl of Burlington 16941753 aristocratic patron studied Palladio s work in Italy a Credits his own Chiswick House based on Palladio s Villa Rotonda 2 Henry Holland 17451806 pro architectamp builder educated by architect father 3 Sir John Soane 17531837 combo of pro architectamp aristocrat builder s son trained in architectural offices of George Dance the Younger and Henry Holland attended art lectures at Royal Academy of Arts participated in Academy s design competitions supervised training of 40 young architects in his office a Credits marking emergence of modern architect in England architect to Bank of England ingenious solutions to structuralamp lighting problems overhead skylights lightweight hollow clayamp plaster domes American Colonies architects gentlemanamateurs no payment for work only loveamp satisfaction 1 Peter Harrison wealthy merchant selftaught architect 2 Thomas J efferson best known American gentlemanamateur architect studied Palladioamp Italian United States architectstrained by other architects bc no architectural schools 1 J oseph J acques Ram e pro trained architect emigrated from Europe 2 J oseph Francois Maguin protrained architect emigrated from Europe 3 bornamp trained in England went to US in 1797 gt195 6 7 a Credits most significant impact in US 1St modern pro architect in US Baltimore Cathedral Modern pro architect makes living only designing buildings for others to construct practicalamp theoretical training school in an office on job site supervises construction to ensure plan followthrough gets paid monetary fee based on cost of building being constructed Ithiel Town traveled to supervise bridge constructions that used his patented truss pattern a Credits truss pattern partnership w Alexander Jackson Davis1st American architectural firm Richard Morris Hunt 1St American architect to attend Ecole des BeauxArts 1845 Henry Hobson Richardson 211d American architect to attend Ecole des BeauxArts 1860 Modern Day architectpro status equivalent to medical doctorsamp lawyers of cial licensing exams 1 2 5quot H9908 11 General building contractor signs contract to agree to erect proposed buildings exactly as speci ed in agreed to drawingsamp written specifications at agreedupon price Subcontractors examine engineeringamp structural aspects provide building materials createamp install heatingamp cooling systems make finishesamp furnishings of completed building International Modern movement included Walter Gropius Max Taut J J P Oud etc Hassan Fathy Egyptian architect rediscovered traditional adobe mud brick architecture of Egypt used it for housing clustersamp public buildings Geoffrey Bawa referred to traditional vernacular Sri Lankan village council house in new Parliament building for Sri Lanka 19791982 Julia Morgan American architecture pioneer early 1900s Marion Mahony Griffin American architecture pioneer early 1900s Eleanor Raymond architect mid1900s Natalie de Blois architect mid1900s Zaha Hadid 1St woman to win Pritzker Prize 2004 born in Baghdad trained at Architectural Assoc in London later partner in Office of Metropolitan Architecture w Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas now has indep office in London Pritzker Prize started in 1979 recognizes distinguished achievement globally 1 2 Kazuyo Sejima 211d woman to win Pritzker Prize 2010 shared prize w husbandpartner at Sejima Nishizawa and Associates SANAA
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