Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

UA - HDFS 101 - NHM 101- EXAM 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

Created by: Alexia Acebo Elite Notetaker

> > > > UA - HDFS 101 - NHM 101- EXAM 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

UA - HDFS 101 - NHM 101- EXAM 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Human Development
Course: Intro Human Nutrition
Professor: Libo Tan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: NHM 101- EXAM 2 Study Guide
Description: A comprehensive, complete study guide for Exam 2! Detailed explanations, images and processes are included!
Uploaded: 10/03/2015
5 5 3 60 Reviews
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 9 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image   NHM 101- Exam 1 Study Guide    Carbohydrates  **what are they? ! Macronutrient  !Contain C, H, and O atoms, usually with a H:O atom ratio of 2:1.  !The name (hydrates of carbon) comes from an early observation that heating these compounds 
produced water and a black residue of carbon. 
1.  Dietary carbohydrates and sources  o  Starch: grain products 
o  Fiber: legumes, vegetables, and fruits 
o  Sugars: natural sugars (milk, fruits), added sugars 
i.  Major Functions:  1.  Provide energy through their oxidation in the body: energy-producing. 
2.  Serve as a storage form of energy (i.e. glycogen) 
3.  Supply carbon atoms for biosynthesis of other organic molecules 
4.  Act as structural components.  
  2.  Classification of carbohydrates  a.  Simple carbohydrates:  i.  Monosaccharides- single sugars  1.  Glucose, fructose, galactose  ii.  Disaccharides- pairs of monosaccharides  1.  Maltose, sucrose, lactose  b.  Complex carbohydrates:  i.  Oligosaccharides- 3-10 monosaccharides  ii.  Polysaccharides- long chain of monosaccharides  1.  Glycogen, starch, fiber      •  Glucose is the energy source for all cells. 
•  Maltose: glucose + glucose; Sucrose: glucose + fructose; Lactose: glucose + 
galactose  •  Starch: storage form of glucose/energy in plants; Glycogen: storage form of  glucose/energy in animals (liver and muscle)  •  Fiber: cannot be digested. Why? ! —Bonds between fibers monosaccharides  cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes 
 
 
3.  Carbohydrate digestion  •  Begins in the mouth 
background image   •  Functions of :  o  pancreatic amylase- Digest (most) starch to maltose 
o  maltase- digest maltose into glucose 
o  lactase- digest lactose to glucose and galactose 
o   sucrase- digest sucrose to glucose and fructose 
•  Digestion products: glucose, fructose, galactose    4.  Causes of lactose intolerance  a.  —Lactase declines with age: only about 30% of adults have enough lactase  b.  —Lactase deficiency: Intestinal villi are damaged by disease, medications, prolonged 
diarrhea 
  5.  Glucose in the body  •  Glycogen formation: excess glucose in the body is stored as glycogen in the liver  and muscles  •   glycogen breakdown: When blood glucose falls, liver break down glycogen and  release glucose into the blood, which becomes available to supply energy to 
tissues; Muscle break down their glycogen to use by themselves
•  Gluconeogenesis: the making of new glucose from body protein when adequate  dietary carbohydrates do not exist.    •  Blood glucose homeostasis: regulation by insulin and glucagon  o  Insulin: Blood glucose rises ! insulin released  !  moves glucose from  blood into cells  !blood glucose returns to normal     o  Glucagon: Blood glucose falls between meals !glucagon released              signals liver to breakdown glycogen stores!   blood glucose returns to 
normal  
•  Diabetesv: blood glucose remains above normal after a meal due to inadequate or  ineffective insulin  o  Type 1 Diabetes  "   Pancreas does not produce any or enough insulin  "   Typically diagnosed in childhood  o  Type 2 Diabetes  "   Cells do not respond to insulin  "   Typically occurs due to obesity   
 
6.  Identify added sugars on the ingredient label.  a.  •Corn syrup solids 
b.  •Dextrose 
c.  •Fructose 
d.  •High fructose corn syrup 
e.  •Honey 
f.  •Lactose 
g.  •Malt Syrup 
h.  •Nectars 
i.  •Raw sugar 
background image   j.  •Sucrose      7.  Health effects and Recommended intake  a.  Sugar in excess can be detrimental. 
b.  Obesity and Chronic Disease 
i.  Americans who drink sugar-sweetened beverages have a higher energy intake  1.  Weigh more with high intake of added sugar  ii.  Increased risk of diabetes, inflammation, hypertension, heart disease  c.  Nutrient Deficiencies  i.  Foods and beverages containing lots of added sugars deliver very few  essential nutrients or fiber.  d.  Dental Caries  **Reduce intake of kcal from added sugars  -According to the DRIs, sugar should make up no more than 25% of your kcal  •  AMDR for carbohydrates= 45-65%  #   Example: Michael eats 2500 kcalories a day and 300 grams of  carbohydrates.  Is he consuming enough carbohydrates according to the 
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrates?  
#   Answer: 300 g * 4 kcal/g = 1200 kcal; 1200/2500= 0.48 = 48% (Yes)  •  Recommended intake of fiber for men and women  #   Men: 35 g or more  #   Women: 25 g or more    Proteins  1.  Amino acids  •  Protein is made of amino acids. 
•  Basic structure of amino acids 
—Central carbon atom  —Hydrogen atom  —Acid group (COOH)  —Amino Group (NH 2 o  Side group varies with different amino acids.  •  Essential amino acids: the body cannot synthesize  o  Histidine, Isoleucine, leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine,  Tryptophan, Valine    2.  Structure of proteins  •  Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds. 
•  Dipeptide 
—  Two amino acids bonded together 

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa who use StudySoup to get ahead
9 Pages 37 Views 29 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Human Development
Course: Intro Human Nutrition
Professor: Libo Tan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: NHM 101- EXAM 2 Study Guide
Description: A comprehensive, complete study guide for Exam 2! Detailed explanations, images and processes are included!
Uploaded: 10/03/2015
9 Pages 37 Views 29 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UA - NHM 101 - Study Guide
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UA - NHM 101 - Study Guide

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here