EXam 2 Study Guide
EXam 2 Study Guide MSCI 210 001
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MSCI 210 001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Hubacher on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 210 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lori Anne Ziolkowski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Oceans and Society in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
EXAM 03 STUDY GUIDE Atmospheric Circulation 0 atmosphere and ocean are intimately related equator receives more solar ratdiation than poles continual heat transfer from equator to polesheat transfer earth39s rotation yield major atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns rotation of Earth causes de ection Coriolis forceatmosphere circulates vertically in six large circuits three in each hemisphere Hadey cells in tropics Ferrel cells in midlatitudes Polar cells in polar regions Energy balance of the earthNot all energy is equal electromagnetic spectrum short wavelengths are higher energy and come from the sun 30 of incoming radiation immediately re ected back to space other 70 is absorbed heats things up onger wavelengths are lower energy and are heat relatedoutgoing radiation from the earthwhen this type of radiation is trapped it heats things up greenhouse effect amount of energy depends angle of the sunhigher latitude less energy per unit arealatitude with greatest solar radiation changes with seaon Earth is not equally heated 0 net energy transport is poleward 0 Air circulation is impacted by heating convection cell Density drives the circulation warm low density air rises cool high density air sinks Atmospheric circulaton simplified version two cells on in each hemisphere but we are on a rotating planet so other forces are at play CORIOLIS EFFECT this force affects moving objects de ection is due to different latitudes moving at different speeds Buffalo and Quito diskin northern hemisphere de ection is to the right in southern hemisphere de ection is to the left Mon Sept 21 Due to unequal heating coriolis effect there are six cells three in each hemisphere Vertical circulation Hadley cell heat rises at equator cools and sinks at 30Nsinking air rushing to the same location causes high pressure Ferrel cell sinking air at 30N and rising air at 60N Polar cell over the polesdeserts commonly found at 30M and 305 due to dry sinking air high pressure at these latitutes Horizontal circulation instead of traveling in a straight path it is de ected by coriolis North Hemisphere air turns to the right Southern Hemisphere air turns to the left Storms variations in large scale atmospheric circulation cycone rotating organized system tropical cyclones originate in tropical region extratropica cyclones occur at midlatitudes hurricane tropical cyclone with winds 74 mph or higher called typhoons in N Paci c cyclones in Indian and South Paci c ocean Monsoons wind patterns that change with the season the intertropical convergence zone ITCZ migrates this brings rain during certain seasons and not others Ocean circulation two types shallow and deep shallow surface currents wind coriolis gravity and sun driven upper 400 m deep vertical density driven thermohaline circulation Surface currents wind pulls water in the direction of the wind but the water is transported in a different direction due to friction and coriolis transport due to wind on any scale Ekman transport watch the video links on Blackboard This is an important concept generalized surface current pattern is circulation around the edges of the ocean basins gyres there are ve major gyres lt 0 also the largest ocean current is the L14 Wed Sept 23 generalized surface current pattern is circulation around the edges of the ocean basins gyres there are ve major gyres lt important know where they are located The largest ocean current is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Each gyre is made up of four currents but I mainly want you to know about two of those currents travels polarward narrow deep warm fast lt importantpiled up water in center of gyre is shifted to the west due to rotation of earth intensified speed of currents on the western side of the gyre traves equatorward wide shallow cool slow lt important ekman transport does cause surface transport at but the water generally moves in the same direction as the winds because of geostrophic balance as water is transported to the center of the ocean it piles upgravity pulls the pile back down This gravity force is strong enough to make the water be transported in same direction as wind Current transport is measured in Sverdrups 1 million cubic centimeters per second One sverdrup is equal to 264000000 US gallons per second Upwelling when water comes from deeper in the ocean to the surface Coastal upwelling occurs when winds blow parallel to the coast Winds generate ekman transport offshore Yields cooler more productive waters Equatorial upwelling As winds blow along the equator there is ekman transport to both the north and the south with cause upwelling an atmospheric phenomenon that effects the ocean In normal circulation wind blows across the Paci c taking the cool waters from the eastern S Paci c to the warm pool near Indonesia This is called called Walker circulation One giant atmospheric circulation cell During El Nino the atmospheric circulation is broken into two cells that are split in the central paci c This causes the ocean circulation to be reverse downwelling now occurs in eastern S Paci c E nino is bad for S American sherman as it stops upwelling E nino and its counterpart La Nina reoccur every 3 to 7 yearsit has big implications for N America even though we are so far away from this ocean basin Fri Sept 25 Thermohaline circulation thermo heat haline salt density driven circulationvertical circulation in the ocean important for climate and ocean biology quotdeep waterquot is quotformedquot at the surface by freezing of seaice and dry arctic air this occurs in the N Atlantic and the S Ocean near Antarcticacooling at surface and extra salt causes the water to sink once water reaches water of the same density it spreads outwhen to water masses meet 0 the lessdense water oats on top of the denser waters density 0 strati cation Atlantic is over all saltier than the Paci c 0 Therefore more deep water formation in the Atlantic Oldest water in the North Paci c Youngest water in the North Atlantic Youngest water in the North Atlantic time scale for cycling is 1000 yearsHow do we know how fast the deep ocean circulates by tracking environmental pollutants Chloro uorocarbons products of nuclear weapons testing 0 looking at the age of the carbon dissolved in the water Mon Sept 28 Waves httpsciencekqedorgquestvideoscienceof bigwaves Waves propagate energy not massenergy passes through the water by cyclic motion but the water itself doesn39t move the medium water does not travelwave motion is not the ow of water but the ow of energy Wa ve characteristics Parts of a wave height H distance between the crest and troughWaveIength L distance between 2 successive crests or troughs Steepness ratio of wave height to wavelength HL Period T time for one full wave to pass through a xed point Speed S wavelength divided by period LT Frequency f the number of wavelengths that pass through a xed point per unit time Major factors that make waves Wind speed how fast the wind blows Duration amount of time that wind blows in one direction Fetch the distance over which wind blows in a single directionquotfully developed seaquot when the maximum fetch and duration are achieved for a given wind speed Two main types of waves Deep water waves generally when the depth is greater than half the wavelength L2 Speed wavelength and height are constant over a long distance Shallow water waves surf generation when depth is less than L20 waves breakSpeed and wavelength decrease height increases at L2 rounded tops at L20 wave breaks How a wave breaks depends on bottom topography plunging breakers steep beaches good for experienced Spilling breakers gradual slope good for beginners Interference patterns waves can collide the energy can be ampli ed destroyed or do nothing constructive interference waves are inphase and their energy is added together to make bigger waves destructive interference waves are out of phase their energy cancels each other out and waves get smaller mixed interference combination of constructive and destructive interference Most common 0 can lead to rogue waves largest possible rogue wave 100ft wave refraction common at coasts parts of wave that contact the bottom are bent or refracted energy is then focusedcan cause erosion Classi cation of waves capillary waves smallest type of wave caused by wind wind waves caused by wind wavelengths between 60 and 150m storm surge caused by pressure changes hurricane wavelength 100km tsunami caused by earth quakes or land slides wavelength 200km speed is determined by water depth open ocean can travel 435 milesh very small waves at sea but very large when they reach land tides caused by gravity moon and sun wavelength 20000 km
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