Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Hist 150
Popular in The West in the World
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Hamke on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 685 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
HIS TORY 150 STUDY GUIDE EXAMINATION TWO Medieval Civilization papa used by patriarchs in Rome to assert authority Pope from 1190 1216 Believed that the soul is more important than body developed spiritual weapons To be cast out of the church Until leader did what the pope wanted no sacraments offered Eternal damnation to Hell Required rituals to get into heaven Certain saints to intercede to God on the behalf of regular people Quest for Christianity ended up losing holy land Peasant Village with elds and commons Social and economic system where Lord pro ts from serf labor Leader of the church or member of feudal class unfree peasant farmer open eld system 3 eld system used 13 was planted 13 was tilled 13 unused mediator between West and East introduced HinduArabic numeral system pap er making Church at center common areas elds B9 group of skilled middle class workers G9 self governed organization similar to a union that set standards for quality and prices within their profession University of Bologna University of Paris Addition of Oxford University later on Grammar Logic Rhetoric Arithmetic Geometry Astronomy Music Lecturemost common form of instruction Prof would read directly fromtext Disputation formal debate in Latin between two students Columbian Exchange Most deadly disease among Native Americans brought to New World by settlers consisted of high fever and sores all over the body STD spread between Old and New World by sailors among seaports hard sores all over the body doctors would treat it with mercury OW olives wheat grapes NW Corn potatoes tomatoes chili peppers OW horses pigs sheep goats oxen NW llama dog turkey guinea pig various species of ducks 1500 s Labor shortage in NW due to the death of many Native Americans caused for desperate need of labor to harvest new resources settlers looked to Africa for laborers to harvest the 3 main crops speci cally Brazil of tobacco sugar and cotton The Reformation Member of Augustinian Order Professor at University of Wittenberg ordained priest strongly opposed the church s selling of indulgences Went from town to town selling indulgences based off of his chart of sins and their various accompanying prices Luther s response to the church s selling of indulgenc es catalyst for new reformation of the church Having faith is key to getting into heaven Come before church of cials source of spiritual truth Everyone can communicate with God not just priests or clergymen people could have a direct relationship with God inventor of the printing press movable type identical copies Luther publishes pamphlets to public more and more people begin to question the church s intentions and ideas one of Luther s most famous pamphlets emphasized faith scripture priesthood of believers Science and The Enlightenment 0 Geocentric The earth is the center of the universe 0 Also the idea that the earth is imperfect and everchanging o Heliocentric The earth revolves around the sun 0 Scientist known for creating the idea of the heliocentric universe 0 Popularized Copernicus s idea of a heliocentric view 0 Studies the moon and planets o Emphasized the relationship between religious and scienti c truth 0 Very interested in the study of light developed the idea that light consists of a spectrum of colors 0 Conducted the eyeball experiment on himself to see how the eye reacts to light 0 Developed Natural Laws amp Controls for both gravity and gravitational force 0 Knowledge is power 0 Creator of the Scienti c Method 0 Argued that science could bene t society as a whole the idea of ob serving and recording data creating laws and controls for that data and conducting various experiments as science begins to become more and more popular academies and societies of science begin to appear 0 Society of London 0 French Academy of Sciences 0 University of Bologna also became a major proponent for sciences o Held regular dissections for the public aka philosophers Critical of religion politics despotism concentration of political power and law Famous philosopher playwright author and focused on the problem of organized religion e specially Catholicism o Argued that organized religion led to superstitious and unjust views 0 Fanaticism o Superstition 0 Religious violence Questioned basic Christian views and the Bible Believed in the existence of God but believed that he created natural law Saw Bible as more of a moral teaching than an actual recording of God Did not view Jesus as the actual Son and Savior of God but as more of a moral philosopher 0 Good republican with a Deistic view 0 Known for writing the The Age of Reason Very deistic view 16431715 0 Believed that he ruled by divine right his power was given to him directly from God 0 Very lavish monarch Absolute monarchy God s Lieutenant Kings relationship with God 0 Advocated direct democracy 0 Looked towards Athens as a model 0 Citizen is directly involved in all political decisions 0 Wrote The Social Contract 0 Critical of hereditary monarchy 0 Published Spirit of the Laws 0 Republican simplicity 0 First political scientist 0 Use of natural laws to reform politics 0 Discovered Separation of Political Powers 0 Wants to protect liberty and prevent despotism 0 Very critical of the systems of justice 0 The rack o The thumb screw 0 Drawing and quartering o Believed that torture was not the ideal way of extracting information because he believed that people would confess anything under duress as a way to stop the pa1n 0 Thought that even innocent people would confess or give false witness thus leading to faulty information Textbook Questions Western Civilizations Muslim Philosophy Science and Medicine pp 201 206 Many Arabic scholars began to translate many of the works written by Greek philosophers Plato Aristotle ect thus making them available all over Western Europe Aristotle and NeoPlatonists shared common assumptions 0 Eternity of the world 0 Capacity of humans to understand the principles of the working world 0 The freedom of individuals to choose between good and evil Islam belief that one God created earth out of will and the world exists as God wills it o Immortality of the human soul Averroes aka Ibn Rushd 11261198 The Commentator o Scholar judge and physician 0 Advance the study of Aristotelian logic of the famous Greek philosophers by taking out the Neoplatonic views to allow for a more subjective analysis Muslim Philosophers were also distinguished scientists and doctors 0 Philosophy doesn t pay well Muslim observations of astronomy were very accurate 0 Nicolaus Copernicus I Inspired by the Muslim discoveries of astronomy I Accredited with the rst discovery that the earth orbits around the sun Accomplishments in medicine were also extraordinary o Cauterization o Contagiousness of tuberculosis 0 Diagnosis ofStomach cancer 0 Antidotes of poison 0 Progress in the treatment of eye diseases First to begin licensing medical practitioners Advances in o Optics 0 Chemistry 0 Mathematics 0 Geometry 0 Arabic Numeral System easier to do mathematical computations and introduced the concept of zero Algebra amp Algorithms Spherical Trigonometry OO Atlantic Colonization and Slave Networks p 279 0 12th Century around 1100 Slavery took place on a small scale 0 However slavery based on race was not prevalent o It was not until around 15th Century 1400 s that slavery included radicalization 0 Because they looked drastically different from the previous European slaves European dealers could justify the deportation of Africans by saying that they had a natural tness that made them more adept to slavery 0 One of the main needs for slave labor was in the sugar industry 0 Owning slaves become a status symbol of both fashion and wealth The Rebirth of the Catholic Church pp 325 28 0 Church undergoes a sort of Rebirth and Reformation 16th Century around 1500 s 0 Many believed that this was simply a way to strengthen the Catholic church in efforts to resist Protestantism o Criticizing abuses editing sacred texts and encouraging the laity to lead pious lives were among the different types of reform 0 These however proved to be inadequate in sparking much change 0 The idea of good works the sacraments power of the popes and celibacy of the clergyman were all things that the Catholic church believed was absolutely necessary for salvation 0 They even brought back the selling of indulgences but condemned the abuses of their sale 0 Reformations led to the development of the Roman Catholic Church 0 Protestantism and its various forms of teaching also grew widely John Locke and the Contract Theory of Government p 364 o Believed that humans originally lived in a state of nature 0 Absolute freedom and equality o No government of any kind 0 People enforced their own rights to life liberty and property 0 People agreed to establish their own society and government as a way to settle disputes that may arise within their societies 0 All powers not given to the government were given to the people 0 If a government exceeded its powers or abused them then it was the power of the people to overthrow the government 0 Government was made to protect life liberty and property I No government had the authority to infringe on these natural rights Adam Smith and Wealth 0 f Nations p 409 0 Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 0 18th century Scottish economist who developed the concept of Lais sez faire the idea that commerce and trade should happened without government interference o Believed that high taxes placed on goods by the government hindered trade 0 General prosperity would occur when people were left to pursue their own interests without interference from monopolies and other restraints posed by the government 0 People would be led by the Invisible Hand and thus without knowing it advance society for the better Slavery and the Atlantic World p 410 0 1000000 slaves in the 17th century amp 6000000 slaves by the 18th century 0 Individual moral freedom was at the center of the Enlightenment 0 Many Enlightenment thinkers condemned slavery in the metaphorical sense but few dared to publicly renounce slavery altogether 0 Some thinkers however chose to exploit the concept of slavery I Adam Smith said slavery was uneconomical I Voltaire called his contemporaries hypocrites I Montesquieu Thought that both master and slave were debased by slavery However he also believed that slavery was a part of a natural system in which some men were meant to be master and others were meant to be enslaved o Defended even the property rights of slave owners 0 Humanitarian antislavery movements in the 1760 have condemned slavery in all senses 0 Many people believed that slavery corrupted its dictums saying that it destroyed their natural virtue and crushed their natural love for liberty 0 Few people wished however for slavery to be fully abolished but did agree with a gradual emancipation Galileo on Nature Scripture and Truth p 391 0 Galileo wrote a letter to the Duchess Christina of the Medici family in hopes of gaining support for his work 0 He describes the parallels between philosophy and the teachings of the church 0 Argues that the church is unwilling to accept his work because they are hiding behind their own fallacies o Explains that his works are not picking apart the teachings of the Bible but is in many ways helping them Says that in many ways the Bible itself is so ambiguous that man may never come close to fully understanding all of its underlying meanings just like man may never understand everything about the world around him The State Scienti c Academies and Women Scientists pp 395 97 0 17th century Science is on the rise 0 King Charles II granted a charter to a group of natural philosophers and mathematicians to establish the Royal Society of London 0 Wanted to improve the natural knowledge and encourage the work and experiments among the natural philosophers o The Royal Society would help in restoring order and create and intellectual consensus throughout England 0 Other societies of Sciences begin to appear 0 The French Academy of Sciences 1666 0 Women started to be integrated in to the scienti c world 0 Francois Poullain a Cartesian philosopher asked Why should they not equally occupy the same roles in society 0 Poullain also used anatomy to conclude that The mind has no sex thus concurring that woman have the same capacity of thinking as men 0 Women start gaining degrees and education in scientific elds 0 Italy seems to be the largest place where women were integrated into the scientific elds and universities I Elena Cornaro Piscopia receives doctorate of philosophy in Padua I Laura Bassi becomes professor of physics at the University of Bologna Later she becomes a member ofthe Academy of Science in Bologna 0 Women also become educated in the sciences in their private residences I Maria Winkelrnann Helped her husband develop the German calendar and decovered comets in the observatory in their home I Maria Sibylla Merian served as an apprentice to her father as and engraver and illustrator Later she becomes famous for her work on illustrating insects and publishing her own book Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam which was highly regarded by Peter I of Russia Textbook Questions Technology A World History Medieval Technological Revolution in Agriculture pp 56 58 0 Invention of three innovations revolutionized agriculture 0 The moldboard plow I Made it easier and faster for farmers to till the land I Farmers only need to plow once I Could be used effectively in heavy and wet soil 0 Three eld rotation I Farmers could rotate crops between years I 2 were usually planted while 1 was left fallow to sort of recuperate for the next crop I Crop rotation led to fertile soil and better crops because is reduced the risk of crop failure 0 And a more effective use of the horse I Horses couldn t previously be used for farming because the harnesses available choked them when pulling heavy loads I A new collar was invented by the Chinese that allowed horses to pull 45 times as much as before with no discomfort to the horse I The invention of the horseshoe allowed horses feet to remain intact and undamaged in wetter climates I Larger and stronger horses were eventually bred for multiple purposes including both farming and warfare Paper and Printing pp 84 87 0 Around the 8th century the Chinese developed a way to make paper 0 Advances in paper making spread in the Middle East at a rapid pace 0 Many European countries were slow to adopt this new invention however because many people were not as literate in the arts of reading and writing By the 14th century paper mills began popping up all around Europe China rst developed woodblock printing and then their own version of movable type although it was much more expensive and cumbersome due to the expansive writing system used by the Chinese 0 China began to use paper to print money around the 11th century 1024 0 China did not have enough silver or copper and this allowed them to spend more than what they explicitly had available Unfortunately this also lead to massive in ation when China used it pay off its massive war debts o In 1493 Johannes Gutenberg invented movable metal type 0 More books could be printed much faster in a shorter amount of time 0 Famous for printing the Gutenberg Bible
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