102: Social Psych - Study Guide
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Lecture1 Social psychology of totally and completely offending your professor shared social knowledge lowering voice when lights are dimmed conforming to authority Looking to others for cues Diffusion of responsibility difference between being in a big group of people doing the same thing than doing it on your own Can social psychology answer questions about anything important in the real world at 4am on July 2 1981 4 people in a residential neighborhood were brutally killed Most of their neighbors heard yelling screams and moans No one called the police The next afternoon a neighbor investigated and found the 5th victim who had been lying on the floor for 12 hours critically stabbed Why did the neighbors fail to do anything including dialing 911 What would you have done in this situation Is this a common occurrence The search for weapons of mass destruction An Oct 2002 National intelligence report warned that Iraq had WMD Several insiders failed to raise their concerns about the validity of that info The Bush admin used this info as a basis for the March 2003 war on Iraq In April 2005 a committee found this information dead wrong What went wrong How did our previous assumptions about Saddam Hussein influence interpretation of new info If you were in the Intelligence Community but disagreed with the Oct 2002 warning would you have spoken up How did so many seemingly competent analysts reach such an erroneous conclusion Jonestown Massacre In the mid 1970 s several hundred members of the Peoples Temple emigrated to Guyana with their leader Jim Jones Members often underwent brutal initiations Late in 1978 Congressman Leo Ryan and a delegation of media and families visited the compound They were shot as they were leaving Hours later on Jones order 913 of the 1100 people committed suicide via tainted FlavorAid What happened at Jonestown Why did the people join this group Why did they go through the brutal initiation How is it that people can agree to kill themselves And their children Were they all crazy Hard to say that 913 people were all suffering from a diagnostic issue Did Jim Jones hypnotize them Social Psychology and Everyday Events Will buying a new iPad make me happier Everyone will notice my bad hair day How can I still have stereotypes even though I believe in equality Why on earth am I attracted to himher It s OK that I cheated on the exam everyone else does What is Social Psychology Social psychology is the study of how peope s thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by the situation mainly the social situation Lewin s Magic Formula B f P E Behavior or affect or cognition is a function of the person and the environment objective properties Two ways the P is important 1of 22 Individual differences characteristics of the person may moderate their feelings thoughts and behaviors Example rejection sensitivity Geraldine Downey identified a trait called rejection sensitivity One feature is over perception of rejection Some people are high and others are low on this trait Construal What is more important than the objective properties of the situation is how the subject construes the situation Individual differences play a role in construal too Why is there a difference between the objective saturation and our construal of it Unconscious and conscious processes Proximal some examples motivational factors cognitive eg schemas stereotypes Emotional Distal Culture Evolution Construal Someone asks you How are you today Is the interest this person is showing in your wellbeing a good thing or a bad thing Your answer depends on who asked the question under what circumstances Your close friend who knows you were up all night studying for an exam A stranger you were standing behind in line at the bookstore Your close friend who knows you were up all night partying Personality and Behavior There is a board game To play this game you can adopt either a competitive or a cooperative strategy Think about some of your friends Board game study Resident assistants in dorms nominated highly cooperative and highly competitive residents Invited to do a study on playing group games All played the same game Only name was different wall street or community When told the name of the game was community name people were much more cooperative and when told the name was wall street the players were much less likely to be cooperative Social psychology focuses mainly on the environment and the subject s construal of the environment Fundamental mistake we all make is that we underestimate the power of the social situation Hindsight bias people exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after it happened You are particularly vulnerable in social psychology because these are topics with which you are intimately familiar Lecture 2 Brief Review of Social Psychology Methods Two major types of studies in social psychology Correlational method Strength of relationship between variables Correlations range from 10 to 10 Positive correlations x increases Y increases ex height and weight negative correlations X increases Y decreases Stress and health Experimental design 20f 22 There is a positive correlation between sociability and health being more sociable leads to better health being in better health leads people to feel more sociable something else causes people both to the more sociable and to be in better health the third variable problem A correlational study cannot discern which of these three causations causes the correlation Take home message Correlation does not equal causation correlation can tell you a lot though rule out some other explanations if measured tell you how things are outside the lab complex longitudinal designs can provide evidence for cause and effect directions True experiments Examine cause and effect relationships two essential characteristics control over the experimental procedures ex manipulate Independent Variable participants randomly assigned to different treatment conditions Types of Variables Independent variables IV you can manipulate Dependent variables DV you measure Subject Variables SV Variables that characterize preexisting differences among participants Note can not randomly assign SV s Random Assignment Assigning participants to conditions so that every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each group Internal Validity How confident are you that the IV caused the change in the DV random assignment is crucial for internal validity Mundane Realism and Psychological Realism Mundane Realism the experimental procedure resembles anything close to something you can experience in the real world is it going to tell us anything about how people actually act and go about their daily lives Psychological Realism how much the participant is reacting as if it is a real situation External Validity Can findings be generalized to other people and to other situations sampling is crucial for external validity Measuring Your Variables Types of measures archival data experimenter takes advantage of a data point after the experiment trace data life outcomes ex medicalcriminal records Behavioral 3of 22 selfreport physiological Basic and applied research There is nothing so practical as a good theory Kurt Lewin 102 s Violence and TV study Correlational research shows a positive relationship between exposure to TV violence and aggression among children We re going to design a true experiment to test this relationship Randomly Assign who and how Elementary school kids school that has different levels of wealth and socioeconomic status Santa Barbara choose a single grade level 5th grade already had some exposure to tv Need consent assent from parents for the children to participate two groups aggressive tv shows and nonaggressive show power ranger aggressive vs dora nonaggressive Ethics Ethical research risk assessment informed consent decep on debne ng Lecture 3 elf William James distinguished between the known the knower We are both the book and the reader of the book The book self concept The reader selfawareness lAm Individual self Traits and attributes specific things that you do that make up the unique self and define you independently of everyone else Relational self Aspects of the self defined by other people Collective self defined by group membership ex UCSB student woman democratrepublicanindependent frat member etc Schemas Mental structures that organize information networks of associations Functions of the Self Organizational function Selfschemas organize all the information about the self and direct us to information about the social world Influence what we notice think about remember etc An Executive Function 4of 22 SelfRegulation Self Schemas Generalizations ex I am a mother I am female I am a fairly good cook I am a lifelong chargers fan Specific Facts ex I go to UCSB I do yoga I have a cat Specific Events ex I played with my kids last week I baked a cake for a school fundraiser last week I went to Australia last year I ran my usual route this morning with my dog Self schemas are cognitive representations about the self derived from past experience organize and guide the processing of selfrelated information Self Concept is the sum total of the self schemas SelfComplexity Theory Linville The tendency to define the self in terms of multiple domains that are relatively distinct from one another Implications for selfesteem failing a test can lower your overall level of selfesteem if your self schema is very specific to school than if it was more rounded and general Self We pay attention more to selfrelevant information Cocktail party effect Information relevant to the self is processed quicker and remembered better Self reference effect SelfReference Effect Rogers Juiper amp Kirker 1977 One of the first studies Answer a question about list of 40 trait adjectives 4 types of questions 10 each structure of word look at the font of the word sound of word rhyming Semantic what does the word mean Self say how they were related to you specifically Accuracy of recall structure lowest score sound lower score semantic higher score self very high score Autobiographical Memories Essential for a coherent selfconcept Flashbulb memories serve as prominent landmarks in our autobiographies May distort the past in ways that are selfinflating or consistent with selfschema Distortion in memory of high school grades college students asked to recall how many of each grade they got each year of high school researchers compared their answers to their high school transcripts more accurately remembered A s and B s than C s and D s Cultural Differences in SelfConcept Independent View of self Emphasis on own internal thoughts feelings actions etc 50f 22 Western Culture more likely to see the individual agents interdependent view of self emphasis on one s relationships with other people recognition that thoughts actions feelings are often dependent on other people Asia parts of Mediterranean Africa Central and South America Which pen would you choose Higher percentage of people who would choose the unique colored pen in American students than in Asian students individual efforts can be recognized by choosing the unique pen independent Self Consturai Definition of self Free from social context structure of self stable bounded unitary Primary tasks uniqueness selfexpression realization of internal attributes promotion of personal goals Role of others Self evaluation Basis of selfesteem Ability to express oneself and one s internal attributes interdependent selfconstruai Definition of self Tied to social context Structure of self variable flexible fluid Primary tasks fitting in selfrestraint assuming one s proper place proton of others goals Role of others self definition Basis of selfesteem ability to restrain oneself and maintain harmony with others Types of Interdependence Relational interdependence Focus on close relationships most people think about more relational events Collective interdependence Focus on membership in larger groups gender differences Men and women were asked to describe an important emotional event in their lives Women more often mentioned relational events men more often reported collective events Lecture 4 Gender Differences in Interdependence Women are more interdependent than men Self descriptions Maccoby and Jackiin 1974 women were more likely to describe social traits and traits that have a direct impact on other people when spontaneously asked to describe themselves Representative photos Clancy and Doiiinger 1993 Women were more likely to bring in photographs that had other people in them than men when asked to bring in a photo that describes themselves Attention focus inner VS situational Pennebaker and Roberts 1995 Research looking at selfdisclosure paradigm have participants come in and do expressive writing not supposed to worry about grammar or spelling Come up with a computer program that goes through any writing LOWP gives you a count for positive emotion words negative emotion words function words etc 6of 22 Found that men write about their emotional experience they are more intoned to their physical experience heart rate etc while women are much more focused on the situation reporting different aspects of the situation How do we come to know ourselves lntrospection Simply looking inward at who we are People do no think about themselves as often as you might think Studies show that when randomly asked what we are thinking of in studies work and nothing were the top answers research found that people are thinking about themselves almost the same amount of time as they are thinking about other people The self is not predominant Can become more aware at times situation or person factors SelfAwareness Theory We become selfconscious objective judgmental observers of ourselves some people are more aware than others standing in front of a crowd looking in a mirror hearing one s voice on tape Comparison of behavior to internal standard Cues in the environment and personality disposition leads to state of self awareness which leads to focus on self discrepancies this can lead to 3 different outcomes no self discrepancies noted so no change Match behavior in selfstandards change behavior Reduce selfawareness no behavior change It is difficult to introspect why we feel a certain way We are often unaware of the thought processes going on n our head automatically But We are able to come up with an explanation This explanation is usually based on our own causal theories Telling more than we know People sometimes think something affects their behavior when it does not People sometimes overlook something that does affect their behavior Schkade and Kahneman 1998 Asked people how happy they would be if they lived in California vs Iowa People on average said they would be happier living in California When looking at wellbeing across the country there is no difference on average in wellbeing Minnesota is known to have the happiest people Thinking things are gonna effect our behaviorfeelings when they are not Nisbett and Wilson 1977 Asked women in a shopping mall on the east coast to feel from right to left an array of 5 panty hose women would feel them all and pick one that they like and write down why they chose that one All the panty hose were exactly the same they all came out of the same batchbrand Biggest effect on what women chose was the position on the table Most often chosen was the last one they saw and the second most chosen was the first one that the saw Asked women if the position influenced their decision and none of the women said that it would affect their decision 7of 22 Not always badwe are better at understanding our wellreasoned behavior and identifying conspicuous influence Problem is we do not know when we do not know Predicting our future behavior Swim and Hyer 1997 found that when predicting their behavior women chose they would say something to the obnoxious sexist comment man 95 ignore it or wait to see how others react 5 In actual situation Only 44 said something lntrospection The fate of our own relationships MacDonald And Ross 1999 People in new relationships 1 11months Will you be in this relationship in 1 year Parent and roommate also asked Recontacted participantsf year later prediction of actual outcome Participants themselves not significant no better than chance Roommate and parents significant correlation bw their predictions and actual outcomes parents were slightly better than the roommates Why Asked about any challenges they might see in the relationships what are the strengths is there harmony would they lack alternatives other options for dating other people Parents and roommates scored higher on challenges and strengths parents and roommates scored lower on the couple having harmony parents and roommates claim that the friend has a lower lack of alternative than the person in the relationship believes they have Predicting our future feelings Affective forecasting people have difficulty predicting the duration and intensity of their future emotions How happy would you be after winning the lottery Got a new car Breast implants How sad would you be if you did not get tenure Very small difference between how happy people were a year after either getting tenure or not the people that were predicting how happy they would be if they did get tenure over estimated their happiness and underestimated how happy they would be if they did not get tenure Miswanting Wanting is based on what we think we will like x will make me happy and cool I want x Miswanting occurs when we misjudge the intensity or duration of our liking Why do we affectively misforecast Immune neglect We are very good at adapting psychologically to negative events this immune system often works automatically If we are not aware that it is happening we cant take it into account in our forecasts we neglect to factor it in Focus Problem When imagining the effect of a future event we tend to focus only on that event 8of 22 dont realize that other events will also affect our well being later confuse overall feelings for feelings about when forecasting AdaptationHedonic treadmill Lecture 5 How do we come to know ourselves lntrospection Predicting our future feelings Affective Forecasting AdaptationHedonic Treadmill We become accustomed to good and bad events in our lives Novelty adjustment period wears off For positive events the threshold is raised and we want more better different For negative events we cope and change Wellbeinghappiness Return to baseline lottery winners paralyzed accident survivors imprisonment Exceptions to adaptation process Adaptation may not be the same for all people Differences in coping abilities Differences in savoring and gratitude some life events leave long term changes to one s setpoint How to make better forecasts of feelings and behaviors Predict how someone else would feelwould do rather than trying to predict how you would feel or what you would do Put feeling or behavior in perspective the context of the environment Look to past behaviorfeelings for clues When causes are prominent andor it fits our reasoning we are more accurate How do we come to know ourselves Observing our own behavior Selfperception theory when a feeling or thought ex attitude is ambiguous we infer it by observing our behavior in the situation in which it occurs Inferring our motivation for behavior Intrinsic motivation desire to engage in activity because it is enjoyed Activity and its end are the same Extrinsic motivation desire to engage in activity for rewards or pressures activity is a means to an end Overjustification Effect when there are compelling extrinsic reasons for a behavior people underestimate intrinsic reasons Contingent vs Noncontingent Rewards Only in the expected reward vs unexpected reward or no reward is there a decrease in the happiness and choosing to do the activity in their free time How do we come tom know ourselves Using other people Social comparison theory we learn about our abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to others When do we compare When no objective standard When experience some uncertainty about ourselves To whom do we compare To anyone who is around automatic If we want accuracy we choose a similar other Social Comparison 9of 22 Upward social comparison Compare ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait and ability if we want to be better Downward social comparison Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait and ability if we want to feel better can be past self SelfDiscrepancy theory sefOconcept who you are right now Selfguides ownideal ownought otherideal otherought source vs domain where is it originating from and then either hopes or needs Discrepancies Actual selfconcept and ideal Dejection related emotions Actual selfconcept and ought Anxiety related emotions Examples depending on positive or negative feelings Selfconcept and oughtown guilt selfconcept and idealother lack of pride or pride self concept and oughtother shame or contentment selfconcept and idealown disappointment or joy Maintaining a Positive SelfView Self Control SelfEfficacy The sense that one is competent confidence Locus of Control The sense that outcomes are controlled by your won actions vs by change or external forces outcomes you get are controlled by your own actions vs outside circumstance Learned helplessness repeated uncontrollable negative events leads to resignation and hopelessness Self Esteem Sum of our positive and negative evaluations of ourselves Our overall feeling of selfworth Self esteem is a state of mind that can fluctuate with life experiences Those with high selfesteem tend to be happy healthy successful sleep better and are less susceptible to peer pressure Those with low selfesteem tend to be more depressed pessimistic prone to failure and less able to ward off disease Basking in Reflected Glory To raise our selfesteem we often bask in reflected glory BIRG by associating with others who are successful To protect our selfesteem we will cut off reflected failure CORF by distancing ourselves from others who fail or are of low status Lecture 6 Maintaining a Positive SelfView SelfServing Bias 10of22 Attribute success to our good fortune failure to circumstance We see ourselves more favorably than we see others Unreaistic optimism associated with higher health and longer longevity False consensus and uniqueness Do we have self serving bias In this class If the average instructor rating on course evaluations was 2 out of 5 what would I predict that I would get Predict a 1 lower grade is better than higher If the average grade in this class was a B what would you predict you would earn Predicted A or A 372 A or higher 679 B or higher above average 962 B the average 26 B or higher 987 C or owerbeow average 12 2 people out of 156 Maintaining An Accurate Self View SelfVerification Self Verification theory Swann 1996 People have a need to confirm their selfconcept positive or negative Might conflict with the need to maintain a positive selfview Research Study Choose who to have an interaction with Those with negative selfconcept were more likely to choose the unfavorable person Those with positive selfconcept chose favorable person No conflict between two motives Marvels of the Human Mind Average that the human brain holds about 50000 facts that we are knowledgeable about word and grammar rules facts about our environments facts about society social interactions yourself etc The mind is incredibly efficient most of the time I love Paris in the the springtime mind skips over the second the so many people won t even notice it use context to infer ambiguous stimuli Automatic Thinking Automatic thinking thinking that is nonconscious unintentional involuntary and effortless Can be very beneficial sometimes leads to problems Perceiving and processing social information Prejudgments can bias our perceptions interpretations and later recall Many times this is quite helpful other times not so much prejudgments can be conscious prejudgments can be unconscious ex schemas People as everyday theorists Schema Mentally structure people use to organize their knowledge of the social world around themes or subjects influences information noticed thought about and remembered We have schemas about many things Help us make sense of the world What if no schemas Korsakov s syndrome When schemas can be problematic 11of22 stereotypes schemas applied to social groups such as frats gender or race most often studied stereotypes are for African Americans and women Schemas can be activated for reasons that are arbitrary Which schemas are applied Accessibility Extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of the mind and thus likely to be used in making judgments chronic accessibility temporary accessibility priming The Donald Studies Higgins Rholes amp Jones 1977 Participants told doing two unrelated experiments First was a perception test identify colors while memorizing a list of words Half participants had positive words in first study adventerous selfconfident independent persistent half had negative words in first study reckless conceited aloof stubborn Second was a reading comprehension study read a paragraph and give impressions of the target Donald 70 of participants have a positive opinion of Donald if given positive words in first study 10 of participants had a positive opinion of Donald if given negative words in the first study Access and Applicable had they used negative words that would not be associated at all with Donald then the negative schema would have been activated but it would not have been applicable and would not have resulted the same Excuse me but what about actual behavior Bargh Chen amp Burrows 1996 Subjects unscrambled either neutral polite or rude words Told to find the experimenter when finished Experimental in hall immersed in conversation for 10 minutes Would they interrupt the experimenter or not 15 of people interrupted if they were in the polite unscrambled words 40 if they were in the neutral word unscrambling group 60 if they were in the rude word unscrambling group Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing Do we seek information objectively or are we inclined to confirm the suspicions we already have Snyder and Swann 1978 Had participant interview this person also participant he us somewhat of an extrovert introvert random assignment Subjects made up different questions that lead to confirmation of original ideas Most powerful Observers of the interview blind to condition saw the extroverts as more extroverted and the introverts as more introverted Do we always do this Less likely if We are uncertain of our impression Concerned with the accuracy of the impression Belief Perseverance The tendency to maintain a belief even after it has been discredited the explanation or theory about why the initial belief was true often survives ex link between discredited paper concerning vaccinations and autism 12 of 22 one way to reverse explain the opposite ex imagine we had told you you had failed explain why we would say that canceled out the effect Ross et al 1975 gave people bogus feedback succeeded or failed a social sensitivity test were then told that the feedback was false They then estimated the number of items 1 actually did get right and 2 would get right on a similar test Those who were given successful feedback you estimated you got more correct on both current task and future task those give failure feedback estimated fewer correct on current task and fewer on future task Confirmation Bias Tendency to search for and interpret information that verifies existing beliefs Hannah Study Participants saw one of two videos of Hannah little girl High expectations condition saw her as affluent nicely dressed nice house etc Low expectations condition saw her as poor a bit dirty work out clothes government housing Asked to predict her math and verbal skills after New information condition Saw video of her performance on math and word problems answering some right and some wrong No information condition without viewing performance video either see one video or two videos 2x2 design Results When not given anymore information just asked to predict grade level performance using just her age don t let either expectation video to influence you both conditions predicted her being at the same level 4th grade When performance is viewed high expectation conditions predicted 4th grade level said she answered really hard questions correctly but low expectation condition predicted a lower grade level between 2nd and 3rd grade said she missed some really easy questions both watched the same video but the groups are remembering it differently Attribution theory The way in which people explain the causes of their own and others behavior Internal attribution inference that behavior is the because of something about the person such as his attitude character or personality something about the person that caused that behavior doesn t change from situation to situation External attribution inference that the behavior is because of something about the situation influenced by the environmentsituation Covariation Model kelley Consensus Information the extent that other people behave the same way in the same situation Distinctiveness information the extent to which one particular person behaves differently in various situations highly distinctive means it is unusual for person to behave like this ex video of man destroying his computer consensus and distinctiveness is low internal 13 of22 something about this individual person consensus and distinctiveness is high external situation that caused this behavior not the person Lecture 7 Fundemental Attribution ErrorCorrespondence Bias Tendency to infer that peoples behavior matches their internal disposition personality attitude called the fundamental attribution error because we overestimate internal and underestimate external Not always an error though sometimes behavior is dispositioncaused so some prefer the term correspondence bias ActorObserver Difference The tendency to see other people s behavior as internally caused but focusing more on the situation to explain our own behavior ex writers to advice columns attribute their troubles overwhelmingly to the situation but the advice giber attributes the problem to the person Role of Perceptual Salience People are often the focus not the situation We pay attention to them more than the situation Taylor and Fiske 1975 showed the importance of perceptual salience 2 students had get acquainted conversation 4 observers sat in different positions Asked who lead the conversation Observers rated the actor they were facing higher in influence than the actor they were not facing and equally when facing both actors Attributions in close relationships Do we see our close relationship partners as others or do we treat them more like ourselves when making attributions ltdepends Mental strategies and shortcuts judgmental heuristics mental shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently they usually lead to good decisions in a reasonable amount of time Availability heuristic mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind often this leads to a reasonable judgment problematic when what is easiest to remember is not necessarily typical of the overall picture more vivid and memorable events are more available sometimes the difficulty in recall stems from other causes Base rate information information about the relative frequency of different events or group members in the population we often ignore base rate info when we use availability and representativeness Attitude favorableunfavorable evaluation reaction toward something How do we measure attitudes 14 of22 attitude scale what if attitude is controversial embarrassing or socially normed bogus pipeline covert or implicit measures Do attitudes determine behavior not so much it is more likely whe we feel free or forced to express true attitude when we look at aggregated behavior when we examine attitudes for specific behaviors when we are made selfconscious individual differences in attitudebehavior consistency Self Monitoring being attuned to the way one presents oneself and adjusting one s behavior to creat the desired impression an individual difference characteristic even if im not enjoying myself I often pretend to be having a good time I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people High selfmonitors show LESS attitude behavior consistency than low self monitors Does Behavior determine attitudes doing or saying can become believing role playing footinthedoor phenomenon Why does behavior influence attitudes cognitive dissonance theory when we are aware of two inconsistent conditions we experience arousal we are motivated to reduce this tension when people experience dissonance they have some options change behavior justify the behavior by adding new cognitions justify behavior through changing the dissonant cognition Insufficientjustification effect reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one s behavior when external justification is insufficient Post decision dissonance dissonance aroused after making a decision exaggerate positive features of the choses alternative and the negative features of the alternatives Justification of effort tendency to increase liking for something once you have worked hard for it initiation into a group Self perception theory when we are unsure of our attitudes we infer them by looking at our own behaviors when an attitude or feeling is ambiguous we infer it by observing our behavior in the situation in which it occurs overjustification effect facial and motor expressions and mood Cognitive Dissonance vs SelfPerception Cognitive dissonance applies to many more situations and explains attitude change heart of this is two conflicting cognitions reducing that tension 15 of 22 Selfperception theory applies to more limited situations and mainly explains attitude formation Module 1 Doing Social Psychology We are all amateur social psychologists As we observe people we form ideas about how human beings think about influence and relate to one another Forming and Testing Theories Theory An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events Facts are agreedupon statements about what we observe theories are ideas hat summarize and explain facts imply testable predictions hypotheses Hypotheses allow us to test a theory by suggesting how we might try to falsify it give direction to research practical because of their predictiveness A good theory summarizes many observations and makes clear predictions that we can use to confirm or modify the theory generate new exploration and suggest practical applications Correlational Research Detecting Natural Associations Asking whether two or more variables are naturally associated Causes an ambiguous interpretation of cause and effect For example across time and places the statushealth correlation seems reliable poor and low status people are more at risk for premature death regions with the least amount of unemployment and overcrowding have the greatest longevity Correlation and Causation Correlation indicates a relationship but that relationship is not necessarily one of cause and effect allows us to predict but cannot tell us whether changing one variable will cause changes in another Control Manipulating Variables independent variables the variable that can be manipulated dependent variables observed act that occurs from the independent variable Random Assignment The Great Equalizer eliminates all extraneous factors each person has an equal chance of having or not having the manipulation creates equivalent groups The Ethics of Experimentation mundane realism laboratory behavior need not be literally the same as everyday behavior experimental realism experiment should engage the participant sometimes requires deceiving participants about what the experiment is really studying Module 2 Did You Know It All Along One problem with common sense is that we invoke it after we know the facts 16of22 events are far more obvious and predictable in hindsight Hindsight bias Combination of Errors in judging the future s forgeability and in remembering our past conducive to arrogance common sense is usually right after the fact Module 3 Self Concept Who Am I At the Center of Our Worlds Our Sense of Self Self Concept a person s answers to the question Who am I Self Schemas the elements of your selfconcept specific believes by which you define yourself powerfully affect how we perceive remember and evaluate other people and ourselves You will welcome information that is consistent with your selfschema helps us to organize and retrieve our experiences We overestimate our conspicuousness spotlight effect we tend to see ourselves at center stage so we intuitively overestimate the extent to which other s attention is aimed at us often have the illusion that our emotions and embarrassments are transparent to others when they are not the more selfconscious we are the more we believe the illusion of transparency Self and Culture Identity is selfcontained identity as a unique individual with particular abilities traits values and dreams identity is constant Individualism flourishes when people experience affluence mobility urbanism and mass media Collectivism Giving priority to the goals of one s group and defining one s identity accordingly seen mostly in Asia Africa and Central and South America interdependent self people are more selfcritical and have less need for positive selfregard embedded in social memberships it cut off from family they would loose the social connections that define who they are Culture and Self Esteem Selfconcept is malleable contextspecific rather than stable Predicting Our Behavior One of the most common errors in behavior prediction is underestimating how long it will take to complete a task Planning fallacy Module 4 SelfServing Bias Explaining positive and negative events We help maintain our positive selfimages by associating ourselves with success and distancing ourselves from failure Blaming failurerejection on something external is less depressing than seeing oneself as undeserving We are even biased against seeing our own bias 17of22 tend to see ourselves as objective and everyone else as bias Can we all be better than average On subjective socially desirable and common dimensions most people see themselves as better than the average person Subjective qualities give us leeway in constructing our own definitions of success Unrealistic Optimism Most humans are more disposed to optimism than pessimism Illusory optimism increases our vulnerability when we believe we are immune to misfortune we fail to take sensible precautions Unrealistic optimism seems to be on the rise Optimism is beneficial in promoting selfefficacy health and well being Defensive pessimism anticipates problems and motivates effective coping False Consensus and Uniqueness False consensus effect on matters of opinion we find support for our positions by overestimating the extent to which others agree May occur because we generalize from a limited sample which predominantly includes ourselves Self Esteem Motivation Especially motivated to enhance our self image Self esteem motivation helps provide our selfserving bias Reflections on Self Esteem and SelfServing Bias The selfserving bias as adaptive help protect against depression nondepressed people usually exhibit selfserving bias helps buffer stress buffers anxiety The selfserving bias as maladaptive often unhappier than those who can acknowledge their mistakes possibility of poisoningending a group ex bands lnflates peope s judgements of their groups Module 5 The Power of Positive Thinking Selfefficacy an optimistic belief in our own competence and effectiveness pays dividends those with higher selfefficacy are more persistent less anxious and less depressed also live healthier lives and more successful academically how competent you feel to do something Locus of Control Idea of you being a victim of circumstance or in control of your own life Those who see themselves as internally controlled are more likely to do better in school wear seat belts earn more and achieve long term goals Learned helplessness vs selfdetermination 18of22 Learned helplessness depressed or oppressed people become passive because they believe their efforts have no effect The Costs of Excess Choice p 52 lndividualistic modern cultures have this excess of freedom which causes decreased life satisfaction and increased rates of clinical depression Choice may enhance regret people like and will pay for the freedom to reverse their choices National surveys show that people expressed more satisfaction with their marriages several decades ago when marriage was more irrevocable Today people tend to express somewhat less satisfaction with the marriage they have in a time where they have greater freedom to escape it Reflections of SelfEfficacy The Power of Positive Thinking Selfefficacy is fed by social persuasion you have what it takes to succeed and by self persuasion I think i can Mastery experiences if your first attempts to do something succeed your selfefficacy increases The Dark Side of SelfEsteem People with lower selfesteem often have problems in life lower salaries drug abusers depressed High self esteem fosters initiative resilience and pleasant feelings Narcissism SelfEsteem s conceited sister having an inflated sense of self Today s young generation express more narcissism agreement with narcissistic items correlates with materialism desire to be famous inflated expectations fewer committed relationships and more hooking up more cheating Low Vs Secure SelfEsteem Secure selfesteem is conductive to longterm well being Module 6 The Fundamental Attribution Error When explaining someone s behavior we often underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the extent to which it reflects the individual s traits and attributes Fundamental attribution error commit this error when we explain other people s behavior Describe what the person is ex He is nastyangrymean we explain our own behavior in terms of the situation when referring to ourselves we typically use verbs that describe our actions and reactions ex I get annoyed when The Fundamental Attribution Error in Everyday Life In real life those with social power usually initiate and control conversations often leads underlings to overestimate their knowledge and intelligence Why Do We Make the Attribution Error Perspective and Situational Awareness Differing Perspectives we observe others from a different perspective than we see ourselves 19 of22 When we act the environment is the center of our attention and when others act the person is the center of our attention Perspectives change with time We regard our distant past selves and future selves almost as if they were other people occupying our body Cultural Differences Western world view is that people not situations cause events internal explanations are more socially approved Some languages promote external attributions How Fundamental is the Fundamental Attribution Error Peope s attributions predict their attitudes toward the poor and the unemployed dispositional attribution ascribes behavior to the person s disposition and traits Module 7 The Powers and Perils of Intuition Priming research suggests that the unconscious controls much of our behavior The Powers of Intuition our thinking is partly controlled and partly automatic ex of automatic thinking schemas emotional reactions expertiseunconscious thinking choices etc Explicitly remembered consciously facts names past experiences implicitly remembered unconsciously skills and conditional dispositions The Limits of Intuition Demonstrations on how people create counterfeit beliefs do not prove that all beliefs are counterfeit We Overestimate The Accuracy of Our Judgments the intellectual conceit evident in judgments of past knowledge extends to estimates of current knowledge and predictions of future behavior People are markedly overconfident when judging whether someone is telling the truth or when estimating the sexual history of their dating partner or activity preferences of their roommates incompetence feeds overconfidence People tend to recall their mistaken judgements at times when they were almost right People tend not to seek information that might disprove what they believe confirmation bias we are eager to verify ones beliefs but less included to seek info that might disprove them Remedies for Overconfidence Prompt feedback Clear and timely feedback unpack a task break it down into its components and estimate the time required for each used to reduce planning fallacy overconfidence Constructing Memories We construct memories at the time of withdrawal reconstruct our distant past by using our current feelings and expectations to combine information fragments revise or memories to suit our current knowledge Reconstructing our Past Attitudes 20 of 22 Peoples whose attitudes have changed over issues often insist that they have always felt much as they feel now the construction of positive memories brightens our recollections rosy retrospection remembering mildly pleasant events more favorably than they experienced them Module 8 Reasons for Unreason Four common ways people formsustain false beliefs our preconceptions control our interpretations we often are swayed more by anecdotes than by statistical facts we misperceive correlation and control our beliefs can generate their own conclusions Our Preconceptions Control Our Interpretations our preconceptions guide how we perceive and interpret info People everywhere perceive mediators and media as biased against their position We Are More Swayed By Memorable Events than by Facts availability heuristic if examples are readily available in our memory then we presume that other such examples are commonplace the more easily we recall something the more likely it seems people are slow to deduce particular instances from a general truth but they are remarkably quick to infer general truth from a vivid instance we worry about remote possibilities while ignoring higher probabilities probability neglect We Misperceive Correlation and Control Illusory Correlation when we expect to find significant relationships we easily associate random events if we believe a correlation exists we are more likely to notice and recall confirming instances Illusion of control the idea that chance events are subject to our influence gambling Our Beliefs Can Generate Their Own Confirmation our intuitive beliefs sometimes lead us to act in ways that produce their apparent confirmation therefore our beliefs about other people can become selffulfilling prophecies Do We Get What We Expect From others Studies show that selffulfilling prophecies also operate in work setting in courtrooms and in simulated police contexts ldealizations of partners helped buffer conflict bolster satisfaction and turn selfperceived frogs into princes and princesses behavioral confirmation erroneous beliefs about the social world can induce others to confirm those beliefs Expectations can predict behavior simply because they are sometimes accurate Module 9 Behavior and Belief Do Attitudes Influence Behavior 21 of 22 When people say what they feel and think it often has little to do with how they act Attitudes do influence our behaviors when external influences on our actions are minimal when the attitude is specific to the behavior when we are conscious of out attitudes Does Behavior Influence Attitudes Attitudes follow behavior Role Playing Behavior is a product of both the individual person and the situation and the prison study appears to have attracted volunteers who were prone to aggressiveness Role playing has shows that what is unreal can subtly evolve into what is real Saying Becomes Believing people often adapt what they say to please their listeners When there is no compelling external explanations for one s words saying becomes believing The Foot in the Door Phenomenon The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Lowball technique People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it after the customerperson agrees to by a new car because of its bargain price and begins completing the sales forms the salesperson removes the price advantage by charging for options or by checking with a boss who disallows the deal because we d be losing money marketing researchers have found that the principle works even when we are aware of a profit motive Evil Acts and Attitudes We tend not only to hurt those we dislike but also to dislike those we hurt especially when we are coaxed into the act not coerced see especially in wartimes Positive behavior fosters liking for the person Why Does Behavior Affect Our Attitudes People may express attitudes that appear consistent with their actions because they want to make a good impression Cognitive dissonance we feel tensionlack of harmony when two simultaneously accessible thoughts or beliefs are psychologically inconsistent to adjust this unpleasant arousal we must adjust our thinking pertains mostly to discrepancies between behavior and attitudes assumes our need to maintain a consistent and positive selfimage motivates us to adopt attitudes that justify our actions self perception theory when our attitudes are unclear to us we observe or behaviors and then infer our attitudes from them 22 of 22
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