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Introduction to Sociology

by: Angela MacGyver II

Introduction to Sociology SOC 1305

Marketplace > Baylor University > Sociology > SOC 1305 > Introduction to Sociology
Angela MacGyver II
Baylor University
GPA 3.76

Kyle Irwin

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Kyle Irwin
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela MacGyver II on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1305 at Baylor University taught by Kyle Irwin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/217908/soc-1305-baylor-university in Sociology at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
SOC 1305 Introduction to Sociology Exam One Review September 25 2009 The Classics 1 What is sociology a Sociology The scientific study of the patterns and processes of human social relations Composed of two components Theory abstract statements that explain why and how certain things happen and Empirical Research test theory to determine if it is accurate 2 Where did sociology come from a Sociology is the product of social upheaval Industrial Revolution technological advances made life easy for some while poor work conditions made life desperate for many This lead to riots even revolutions 3 List the basics of each theorist we covered Be able to critically compare the theorists ideas a Coite There are problems in modern society because we are stuck in old ways of thinking Law of Three Stages Theological Stage authority by religious leaders Metaphysical Stage guidance by philosophers Scientific Stage guided by scientific principles Social harmony will exist when we move from the second to the third stage b Durkheim What holds society together is division oflabor Premodern societies mechanical solidarity most people did similar work created a sense of unity ideas values goals Modern societies organic solidarity highly specialized work different ideas values goals Specialization creates interdependence People need one another Main contribution The way to understand society is to focus on society itself not on individuals c Weber People act with rationality acting in a calculating or strategic fashion to reach desired goals because of bureaucracy Modern society we choose to act in ways that allow us to most efficiently reach our goals Premodern society not interested in achieving larger ends work was for survival not for achieving larger goals d m Focused exclusively on the economy society is divided into two groups Bourgeoisie owned means of production amp Proletariat working class Problem The rich get richer and the poor get poorer Those who own the means of production have all the power in society These problems are solved when llworkers of the world unite with revolution workers reach llclass consciousness and overthrow the owners and with communism no one owns the means of production Under a communist regime people can pursue work that is enjoyable 4 Describe the difference between descriptive and prescriptive sociology a Descriptive Sociology Describes the social world explains what is going on b Prescriptive Sociology Suggests ways to make the social world better offers advice Perspectives 5 Exchange Theory Power is central People are rational or selfinterested not selfish Acquiring valued things drives behavior Maximize gains minimize losses Behavior is governed by rewards and punishments Most often people want to get rewards and avoid punishments Social structure a person s position in relation to others not individual attributes determines a person s power a Key Figure 6 Functionalism Society is like an organism the parts work to benefit the Whole Each part contributes to the proper functioning of the system They are dependent on one another Mechanisms that lead to Page 1 of 4 SOC 1305 Introduction to Sociology Exam One Review September 25 2009 consensus of its members Members of society share the same fundamental values and goals the shared values and goals lead to social order norms rules for behavior and sanctioning fairness and equity Societies tend toward equilibrium they are stable order is the rule rather than the exception Criticisms Focuses too heavily on stability not enough emphasis on power and conflict a Key Figure Emile Durkheim 7 Conflict Theory Society is characterized by conflict the powerful determine the fates of the powerless Social life is characterized by struggles between opposing groups over money power status etc which result in the division of societies dominant and subordinate groups those who have resources and those who do not Basic factors in social life are determined by dominant group those with resources determine the fates of those without dominant group has political and economic power Struggles for power and resources are the primary determinants of social change which benefits the dominant group a Key Figure Karl Marx 8 Symbolic Interaction Focuses on subjective meanings people have for objects events and behavior because people behave based on what they believe not just according to what is objectively true Not concerned with abstract institutions family economy education but instead concerned with interaction between individuals Interpretations ofsituations roles and meanings associated with behavior Meaning is negotiated we came to share meaning through interaction people interpret one another s behavior interpretations form a social bond social reality is constructed through interaction a Key Figure George H Mead Research Methods 9 What 3 things must a hypothesis statement of the relationship between variables consist of a Independent Variable cause exists independent of the other variables b Dependent Variable effect existence depends on other variables c Relationship I Possitive increase in IV leads to increase in DV or vice versa I Negative increase in IV leads to decrease in DV or vice versa 10 Two hallmarks of experiments random assignment direct test of causeeffect a Random Assignment to one of two or more conditions Importance equates conditions b Only difference between conditions is the factor researcher is interested in studying Importance difference leads to observed effect 11 Problems with experiments a Internal Validity Relationship between IV and DV is not being affected by extraneous variables b Experimenter effects Any number of subtle cues from experimenter that change the subjects behavior Expectations and bases of an experimenter can be communicated to experimental subjects in subtle unintentional ways double blind experiment c Demand characteristics Subjects form impression about the purpose of the study and change their behavior Can try to do what researcher expects or opposite of what researcher expects Detrimental even if subject is incorrect about purpose cover story Page 2 of 4 SOC 1305 Introduction to Sociology Exam One Review September 25 2009 d External Validity How well do the conclusions generalize to other people places and times Mundane Realism study focuses on monetary exchange subjects actually exchange money v Experimental Realism if told that decisions effect pay need to believe this is actually occurring 12 Pros and Cons of Surveys a m Addresses issues difficult to address through experiments focus on larger questions relatively cheap most often don t have to pay respondents often based on representative samples responses represent the population b m Not always truthful responses some might respond as they think they ought to political correctness may not capture actual opinions or nuances in attitudes survey measures are often crude and imprecise Social Order 13 Describe the two views of social order a m Pursuit of individual selfinterest can work to the advantage of society Through pursuing selfgain I produce things that others need If I want to be successful I must treat others fairly otherwise no one will interact with me b Hobbes Pursuit of selfinterest leads to chaos Order must be imposed from above through a strong government 14 What is social order a Social Order Successful human organization into groups and collectives 15 When is social order threatened a When individual and collective interests conflict When doing what s best for self is at odds with doing what s best for the group Selfish behavior is tempting Widespread selfishness is detrimental to the group 16 What is necessary for social order a Cooperation making unselfish rather than selfish choices Doing what s best for the greater good at the expense of individual selfinterest 17 What are social dilemmas a Social Dilemmas Problems of social order situations where individual and collective interests conflict 00 Prisoner s Dilemma Two choices quotcooperatequot or quotdefectquot DC Temptation gt CC Reward gt DD Punishment gt CD Sucker s Payoff T gt R gt P gt S Public Goods Dilemma Decide how much to contribute to public good Once produced none can be to excluded Example Public Park Free riding do not contribute to building it but use it frequently More Order 20 What are social values a Social Values Preferences for how resources are distributed between oneself and others I Prosocials Maximize joint outcomes help others and themselves I lndividualists Maximize own outcomes regardless of others want what s best for self and are not concerned with what others get Page 3 of4 SOC 1305 Introduction to Sociology Exam One Review September 25 2009 I Competitors Maximize relative outcome over others not concerned with absolute amount just want to get significantly more than others 21 What are social values relationships with cooperation a Prosocials are the most cooperative 22 What is social identity a Social Identity Occurs when people recognize that they share a common group membership this membership is important Reduces distinctions between self and others not quotmequot and quotyouquot but quotus 23 Why does social identity produce cooperation a When self and others are unified cooperation is more likely N Jgt Why is repeated interaction important for cooperation a The quotshadow of the future makes cooperation attractive even for egoists What is TFT a E Cooperate on first move then mimic what the other does N U 26 Why does TFT generate cooperation Nice never 1st to defect avoids unnecessary conflict a b Retaliatory gets back at other immediately c Forgiving doesn t hold a grudge d Clear makes it easy for others to discern and adapt to your strategy Norms 27 What are norms a m Behavioral rules that define what is expected selfand others accepted prohibited define what is quotnormalquot I Descriptive Norms Norms deriving from average or typical behavior what most others are doing Example Looking up at sky turning around in the elevator Not enforced by sanctions no threat of punishment I In39unctive Norms o Prescriptive Norms Rules specifying what people ought to do 0 Proscriptive Norms Rules specifying what people ought not do 28 Where do norms come from a Intentional Design Implemented to solve cooperation and coordination problems Paying Taxes b Unintentional Conseguences Result from people desiring to solve individual problems Behavior that causes externalities Smoking in Public Places Page 4 of 4 SOC 1305 lnto to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 Norm Enforcement 1 Gurerk et al Study a Participants could choose to interact in groups with or without sanctions b Face a Public Goods Dilemma i Each person can contribute between O2O to the group Multiplied by two Distributed equally among everyone in the group ii In sanctioning condition Group members could send O10 llPunishment Dollars each costs sender 1 and the other 3 c Results i People will sanction others when given the chance ii Sanctioning leads to higher levels of cooperation iii People eventually choose groups that use sanctioning 2 Fehr and Gachter Study a Theory Social order exists because there is a sizeable proportion of llaltruistic punishers Make group oriented choices Punish those who do not i Why altruistic Will punish others even if it is costly and provides no direct benefit b Hypothesis i The lower an individual s contribution the more likely they are to be punished ii Those receiving punishment are likely to increase contributions compared to those not receiving punishments c Experiment i Two Conditions 1 Punishment 2 No Punishment Series of oneshot four person public goods dilemmas Each person can contribute between 0 20 to the group Multiplied by two Distributed equally among everyone in the group In punishment condition Group members could send O10 llPunishment Dollars each cost the sender 1 and the other 3 Interactions are oneshot so punishing another cannot directly benefit the punisher iv ln nonpunishment condition Group members cannot send punishment dollars to others No opportunity to punish freeriders d What happened i People are willing to punish freeriders ii Lower contributions generate stronger punishments iii Cooperation flourishes in systems with punishment iv Freeriding runs rampant in groups without punishment Impression Management 1 Impression Management process through which people try to control the impressions that other people form of them Goal For one to present themselves the way in which they would like to be thought of by the individual or the group they are interacting with 2 Why do we care Page 1 of 7 SOC 1305 Into to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 a Perception is reality We act toward others based on our perceptions of them Others form impressions of us whether we manage impressions of not 3 Goffman s Ideas a Dramaturgy Social life is a theatrical performance We are each actors performing for an audience quotOnstagequot when we are around others Rehearse our performances to better manage out impressions b M Used in our performances Physical artifacts to convey particular impressions on audience c Front Stage vs Back Stage i Front Stage Actors on show try to give convincing performances Attempt to maintain appropriate impressions Primary place for strategic selfpresentations Back Stage Rehearse performances Take off masks are frantic complain about the audience etc lnaccessible to the quotaudiencequot we knowingly violate impressions we attempt to make in front region 4 Types of Selfpresentations a Selfpromotion Make others think we re better than we are b Exemplification Convey an impression of virtue c ModestyZSelfdeprecation Make others think we re worse than we are d Intimidation Make others fear us e Supplication Showing humility begging f Sandbagging Downplay or misrepresent one s ability in order to deceive g lngratiation Bring oneself into the favor or good graces of others Opinion conformity Playing dumb 5 What happens when impression management fails a Most common result is the actor and audience becoming embarrassed Actor others don t see person as heshe wishes to be seen Seen as unintelligent Audience feel bad for the person b Good audiences allow actors to make good performances help in the performances and provide excuses for poor performances c Poor performances i Actionsexplanations that diminish our personal responsibility for failed performance 1 Excuses cite uncontrollable events 2 Justifications define behavior as appropriate under the circumstances ii Anticipating poor performances 1 Disclaimers essen negative implications of poor performance 2 Selfhandicapping create quotobviousquot handicaps to performance d Are we ever not acting i Do we ever let others backstage 1 Yes but we always retain some portion of backstage only for ourselves ii Who do we let backstage 1 Those to whom we don t need to manage our impression 6 Social Values and Impression Management a Prosocials are equally generous in public and private Prefer to maximize payoffs to self and others b Proselfs are more generous in public vs private Prefer to maximize payoffs to self over others 7 Can people spot mimics or cheaters a Frank Study Page 2 of 7 SOC 1305 lnto to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 Subjects were given instructions about PD Subjects were allowed to talk for 30 minutes quotGet to know you session Could discuss the dilemma and make promises or empty promises deceive one another Not held to promises made Would not know each others choices After discussion period each person paired with another and played PD They could either cooperate or defect lndicated whether they thought the other would cooperate or defect Results People s estimates were 12 better than chance iquot How 1 Through subtle clues facial expressions rate of respiration pitch and timber of the voice movement of the eyes we form judgments about the emotional makeup of others 8 Does it pay to be a mimic or cheater a Maybe i Being a shameless liar is beneficial in the short run ii In terms of PD get the highest payoff b ReputationalConcerns i Most have special contempt for liars and cheaters Will go to great lengths to inform others about these folks They will have fewer interaction opportunities won t fare well in the long run Group Solidarity 1 Group Solidarity How strongly group members are attached to one another and the group itself Related to groups ability to ward off disintegrative forces lndicators include the amount of resources people invest in the group 2 According to the rationalegoist perspective what is solidarity based upon a Extensiveness of group obligations Obligations are what members must offer the group in exchange for membership time money recruiting others etc Extensiveness of Obligations is related to how dependent members are on what the group offers The costs associated with producing a good b Probability that group members comply with these obligations Most important The likelihood that people will conform to group expectations Group s ability to monitor and sanction members Why Punishment makes compliance more attractive i Compliance is more likely if the group provides goods that are unavailable elsewhere 1 People are more likely to comply with group obligations 2 Risk expulsion from the group ii Compliance more likely if there exists a strong monitoring and sanctioning system 1 People are more likely to comply if they are punished for nonconforming behavior 3 Social Network Perspective a Social Networks Made up of individuals and tied to one another through friendship values ideas etc b Solidarity based on network position i Centrality Central members are close to many others in the group ii Liaisons Bridge subgroups iii Subgroup people who have more ties in subgroup than outside of subgroup membership lncrease attachment to overall group IF Densely connected and have crosscutting ties c Paxton and Moody Study Page 3 of7 SOC 1305 Into to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 Does network position and subgroup membership affect solidarity Focused on a sorority at a southern University iquot Asked members questions about who they were friends with and measured level of emotional attachment to the group sense of belonging and feelings of morale 2 Found 3 distinct subgroups 1 Separatists 2 Middles most connected outside the subgroup reported highest levels of attachment to the group 3 Random Chapter Members lt Individuals mostly interacted with other subgroup members v Centrality produces attachment overall 5 Central members of subgroup had lower levels of attachment 1 Fewer crosscutting ties viii Liaisons had higher levels of attachment 1 Connected to subgroup and group as a whole 4 Differences Between Two Models a RationalEgoist Solidarity based on compliance ii Effective monitoring and sanctioning iii Group members getting goods from group they can t get elsewhere b Network Account Solidarity based on network position centrality ii Density and crosscutting ties in subgroups Social Networks 1 Social Network Patterning of relationsties among actors or groups of actors 2 Social Network Research a Ignores individual attributes like personality b Focuses on how social relations influence Opportunities Behaviors and Diffusion of Information 3 Three Levels a Nodes position Can represent individuals groups or nations Called quotactorsquot b Relations ties or connections between nodes 1 SentimentFriendshipEnemyship Affection Admiration Deference Hostility 2 Transactions or exchanges Gifts Money Advice etc 3 Communications Diffusion of Information 4 AuthorityPower Gives order toAccepts orders from ii Properties of Relations 1 Directionality what direction does the relation flow a Symmetrical both nodes are friends engage in business transactions and give information b Asymmetrical only one node is friends to other engages in business transactions and gives information 2 Intensity refers to the strength of the relation Page 4 of 7 SOC 1305 lnto to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 3 Sign the value associated with the relation a Positive friendship helpful information b Negative enemies negative information gossip rumors 4 Breadth the number of different types of relations between actors a Simplex based on one type of relation b Multiplex based on multiple relations c Network Properties i Sig the number of people that are within the network ii Breadth the number and types of relations that people have with one another iii Density the number of connections compared to the total number of possible connections 4 Strength of Weak Ties a Weak Ties Relationships with people that one is not strongly connected to Exists with people outside of close friends and relatives b Our acquaintances are less likely to know one another than our close friends c A good thing because they give us access to otherwise unavailable portions of the social structure 5 Structural Holes 6 Six Degrees of Separation a We are all six degrees of separation from anyone on earth b Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon 7 Networks a Collectivist Networks Consists of strong ties and densely connected Strong sources of support and influence b lndividualist Networks Consists of relatively weak ties and full of structural holes Strong sources of information outside of immediate network Trust and Social Capital 1 Social Capital feelings of solidarity and attachment among members of a collective based on a Trust b Membership in voluntary organizations c High levels of social capital lead to successful resolutions to social dilemmas High levels of cooperation and relatively little free riding 2 Why is trust important a Positively linked with economic and social development i Countries with higher levels of trust are richer and more developed b Leads to political participation and other forms of civic engagement i Membership in voluntary organizations c Associated with individuallevel health and happiness 3 Is trust declining in the US Why a Paxton Article b Robert Putnam Book c Lower because people are less likely to join voluntary organizations than in the past because of TV 4 Types of Trust a General Trust Default expectations of goodwill and benign intent trust in strangers Page 5 of7 SOC 1305 lnto to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 b Specific Trust Belief that specific others are trustworthy through multiple interactions c Assurance Belief that others will act trustworthin for reasons other than benign intent Contract reputation threat of punishment Can damage trust i A trusts B because A knows that B will be punished if he cheats in their relationship not because B has good intentions 5 Trust and Gullibility a Yamagishi 39 High trusters are more socially intelligent Greater ability to detect and process signs of risks in social interactions Can determine who is a liar and who is trustworthy High trusters respond more quickly to positive and negative information Education and trust are positively related Socialization 1 Socialization The process through which people learn the expectations of society Through socialization people absorb their culture customs habits laws values norms ideals etc a Purpose To develop an identity as a productive member of society b Occurs through interaction we cannot learn the rules of society in isolation c Consequences Learn the rules of society establishes selfconcept how our identity is formed creates the capacity for roletaking enables us to see ourselves as others see us is reflexive leads to conformity and makes people bearers of culture 2 Freud Psychoanalytic Theory a g Deep drives and impulses b Superego Represents demands of society rules expectations c Egg Reason and common sense d Tension occurs at subconscious level quotFreudian slip 3 The Looking Glass Self Cooley and Mead a Selfconcept arises through a process of learning to see ourselves as others do We imagine how we appear to others We imagine the judgment of that appearance Develop a self through the judgments of others 4 The quotIquot and the quotMequot Mead a Me How one believes that others see himher Reflected selfappraisal b l lmpulses responses to situations c The Me expectations from others tempers the impulses felt by the l 5 Learning Theory a Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget i Sensorimotor Children experience the world through their senses touch taste sight sound ii Preoperational Children begin to use words as symbols and form mental images iii Concrete Operational Children think in terms of cause and effect iv Formal Operational Adolescents begin to think abstractly and critically concern for the future 6 Who socializes a Family parents provide expectations about what is right and proper b Media TV film music internet video games Page 6 of 7 SOC 1305 lnto to Sociology Exam Two Review November 2 2009 c Schools Introduced to expectations for race class gender Boys receive more attention from teachers Working class lower class students seen as less bright as troublemakers Hidden Curriculum accept places in social structure Teach children to be good citizens d Peers Friends fellow students coworkers i Males hierarchical with status distinctions Share activities play gold cards go to sporting events ii Females closely knit and egalitarian Share problems feelings fears and doubts 7 Total Institutions Exist when people are cut off from society and live work recreate together In these situations people are not individuals but objects prisoners mentally ill military Goal of the total institution is to resocialize individual Resocialization is only successful if it provides a new selfconcept 8 Rites of Passage Ceremony or ritual that marks the passage of an individual from one role to another Occur at beginning or end of life stages childhood adolescence adulthood Examples Graduation Wedding Baptism Page 7 of 7


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