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Extreme Deviance

by: Angela MacGyver II

Extreme Deviance SOC 3361

Marketplace > Baylor University > Sociology > SOC 3361 > Extreme Deviance
Angela MacGyver II
Baylor University
GPA 3.76

Christopher Bader

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Christopher Bader
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela MacGyver II on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 3361 at Baylor University taught by Christopher Bader in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/217910/soc-3361-baylor-university in Sociology at Baylor University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam One Review September 29 2009 What to Study Power Points and notes Deviance in Everyday Life chapters 1 amp 2 electronic readings Adler amp Adler General Introduction Chapters 1 amp 2 Humphries The Tearoom Trade Adler amp Adler Part 3 esp Adler and Adler piece Goode Pleasures and Perils of Deviance Research electronic reading Test Topics Definitions of deviance Absolutist Deviance There are certain behaviors that are simply wrong or unhealthy regardless of context The list of deviant acts might come from a holy book such as the Bible of Koran Psychiatrists and psychologists often consider certain forms of deviance to be a sickness Statistical Deviance Whatever is in the statistical minority is deviant Reactivist Deviance An act is only deviant if society is aware of the act and labels it as deviant Assumes that deviance is a social phenomenon lf one s actions are not discovered then one is not a deviant Assumes that there are no factors predicting particular types of behavior We should be sensitive to the role of society in defining deviance but we shouldn t entirely neglect personal factors Normative Deviance An act is deviant if it violates the prevailing norms in a given setting Assumes that norms can change over time Allows us to be sensitive to these changes Which do we use Under the last two definitions why is deviance relative How are deviance and crime related to each other Deviance refers to any act that breaks a norm Crime is an act of deviance that carries an official penalty At any time an act of deviance might become criminal but many deviant acts are not criminalized Typology of Deviance Based on Middle Class Norms by Tittle amp Paternoster Be able to recognize an example or definition of each norm Be able to recognize an example or definition of each form of deviance Norms I Loyalty people are expected to be loyal to the group or collectivity I Privacy a person has a right to exclusive control over certain property I Prudence people are expected to be reasonable in their pursuit of pleasure Only acceptable within specified limits and boundaries I Conventionality one is expected to carry oneself and act in a way similar to average Americans I Responsibility taking care of being responsible for those who depend on you I Participation one is expected to take part in proscribed activities such as working community life and church I Moderation the avoidance of extremes All things should be done in moderation I Honesty be truthful and forthright on important matters I Peacefulness one should encourage tranquility order and peace in daily life I Courtesy one should act in a civilized manner when in the presence of others Private is private Deviances I Apostasy betraying or leaving the group I Intrusion denying an owner s claim of exclusivity over some property I lndiscretion engaging in pleasure not seen to have a purpose or to an extreme I Bizarreness carrying oneself in a way that is strange or incomprehensible to an average person Page 1 of 3 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam One Review September 29 2009 I lrresponsibility failing to meet one s obligations to others I Alienation failing to take part in expected roles and activities without a reasonable excuse HedonismAscetism acting in an extreme manner by doing something too much or too little Hedonism too much overindulgence Asceticism too little being a killjoy Deceitfulness liesdeceitsfraud for one s own good or protection selfish lying plagiarism bigamy and pricefixing Disruption engaging in activities that disturb the peace and quiet of a situation Noisy or disruptive behavior Fightsbrawls having sex Subcultures Uncouthness engaging in public in behaviors best left in private farting sleeping vomiting burping 7 What is a subculture A subdivision within the dominant culture Shares some norms beliefs amp values with the dominant culture Enough unique norms beliefs amp values to quality as distinct 7 How do we identify a subculture Bikers Satanists White Supremacists Role Players 7 What is an argot Words or terms developed by a subculture 7 Whv is it imnnrfanf to 39 39aperson s 39 39 to 39 39deviance 7 What are Miller39s Focal Concerns and how do they relate to deviant behavior Tearoom Trade 7 Argot 7 Stages of the game Studying Deviance Miller argued that lowerclass males have six main norms or llconcerns 1 U1 Trouble staying out of and getting into quottroublequot are important focuses of life People gain respect for both avoiding and getting into trouble Toughness gain respect for acting in a quottoughquot masculine manner Winning fights showing strength and bearing injuries are all signs of toughness Smartness llstreet smarts conning other people outsmarting others winning insult battles Conventional smarts not respected Excitement focus on hunting for thrills Fights risk behavior etc break up monotony Luck believe that they have little control over their destiny Look for signs or a lllucky break that will change their fortunes Autonomy resent any controls over their life Bosses parents spouses authorities etc Trade Type of playerparticipant that works under someone and is more conservative They usually play the inserter roles Usually putting on the breastplate of righteousness Trick Sexual partner Whoever you are with Chicken Teenagers Watch queen People who watch out for policemen and law enforcement agents Toughs Mean teenagers Chicken that attacks you physically Hunting Season April to October busy season Tearoom The bathroom where the things take place Positioning gt Signaling gt Contracting gt Payoff 7 Breastplate of Righteousness The man who is putting on the breastplate of righteousness is respectable to a fault very conservative on moral and political issues and perform duties required of him exceptionally well 7 Methodology of Humphreys study 7 Official statistics Uniform Crime Report Page 2 of 3 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam One Review September 29 2009 0 Who collects these data Crime data collected every year by police agencies across the country and submitted to the FBI 0 What are its strengths and weaknesses o Weaknesses most public data by county large units only includes reported crimes does not take into account differences in policing Crackdowns etc aggregated data no incidentlevel data no data on noncriminal deviance o What are the index crimes Crimes against the person criminal homicide forcible rape robbery aggravated assault and crimes against property burglary larcenytheft motor vehicle theft arson Part offenses 7 Survey Research I What is the population of a survey The group that is being interviewed I What is the sample Representative subset of the population 0 Random vs nonrandom samples 0 Random sample drawn using random means everyone has an equal chance Results can be considered representative 0 What are some ways to do nonrandom samples Snowball sample organizational surveys 7 Field Research I Participant observation Gain subject s trust they reveal more After a while they stop acting like they are being watched Learn how they talk about issues More likely to see a broad range of behaviors over the long term I Nonparticipantobservation 7 Problems I Finding subjects People who are involved in deviance may not want to talk about it I Physical danger and threats I quotGoing nativequot becoming entranced by the subjects of one s studies and joining the group I Assumptions about the researcher Researchers may be assumed to be sympathetic or sharing the beliefs of their subjects 7 Ethical concerns I The overt vs the covert role 0 Overt the subjects know that you are a researcher there to research them 0 Covert the researcher does not reveal hisher role and pretends to be x Page 3 of3 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam Two Review November 10 2009 What to Study 0 Power Points 5 and notes 0 Readings o Adler amp Adler Chapters 3 5 6 7 s 910111516 17 I 26 amp I 27 El Bromley Best and Richardson The Satanism Scare Chapters 411 0 0 El Goode Moral Panics electronic reading 0 El Online Accounts of Unrepentant Pedophiles electronic reading 0 El Stark and Bainbridge of Churches Sects and Cults electronic reading Note there will be nothing covered from the readings that was not also discussed in class Test Topics Social Control Theory 7 Hirschi s Social Control Theory 0 Causes ofDeinquency 1969 o A theory of conformity 0 People are naturally and inherently deviant 0 We are animals kept in check by society and social norms 7 The Social Bond 0 Source of conformity o A cage 0 Consists of four elements I Attachment 0 The extent to which an individual has strong bonds to others 0 The stronger these bonds the less likely someone is to deviate I Commitment 0 Investment in conventional lines of action 0 High aspirations low deviance I Involvement 0 Time spent in conforming to conventional activities quotIdle hands are the devil s workshop 0 The most critiqued element of the social bond I Belief o Beliefagreement with societal norms People are not necessarily weak on all elements or strong on all People may differ in the relative strength of the elements The greater the sum of these elements the social bond the lesser the likelihood of deviance 0000 If you look at a deviant whether a cannibal or horselover or whitecollar criminal or Satanist they tend to have some combination of I Few attachments to conventional people I Few mainstream goals I A lot of time on their hands I Unconventional beliefs 7 Tests of Hirschi s Theory Page 1 of 7 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam Two Review November 10 2009 o Hirschi s book includes a test of his theory 0 Administered a questionnaire to 4077 high school students in California 0 Found that the weaker the bond the greater the likelihood of deviantdelinquent behavior 0 Study focused however on minor forms of delinquency 0 Studies have found that character attachments do matter Attachment to delinquent peers increases delinquency 0 Some have found commitment to be the strongest predictor but others attachment 0 Theory seems to be a better predictor of less serious forms of deviance 0 Le better at predicting delinquency than murder or rape The General Theory of Crime 0 Gottfredson amp Hirschi 1989 0 Claim that their theory explains all crimes at all times and in all places 0 The cause of crime is low selfcontrol or the inability to defer gratification 0 Low SelfControl I Inability to defer gratification you want thrills or what you want now regardless of consequences Low selfcontrol is the cause of crime according to G amp H I But it also is the cause of many noncriminal but risky or deviant behaviors such as 0 Smoking 0 Unwanted Pregnancies 0 Excessive Drinking 0 Auto Accidents 0 Skiing amp Snowboarding 0 Fighting I G amp H argue that low selfcontrol is related to poor childrearing practices I When parents do not teach their children the importance of delaying gratification they will grow up with low levels of selfcontrol Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherland 18831950 Argues that people learn to be deviant In other words people learn to be deviant through social interactions The more one interacts with quotdeviantsquot the more likely one is to pick up their beliefs values and behaviors lntimate Personal Groups 0 Sutherland theorized that deviance is learned from the people closest to a person 0 Not from frightening or suspicious outsiders 0 Media such as newspapers movies and TV play llrelatively unimportant role What is learned 0 Sutherland argued that people learn many different pieces of information regarding deviant behavior from others including I Why you should deviate social norms I Skills necessary for deviating I Specific direction of motive drives rationalizations and attitudes Direction of Motives and Drives Page 2 of 7 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam Two Review November 10 2009 0 People to a greater or lesser extent are exposed to I Definitions favorable to violation of social norms I Definitions unfavorable to violation of social norms 7 Excess of Definitions 0 Person becomes deviant when I Excess of definitions favorable toward deviant behavior I Definitions unfavorable toward deviant behavior I This is the principle of differential association 7 Differential Associations Vary 0 Frequency How often 0 Duration For how long 0 Priority How young were you when exposed o lntensity How important are these relationships to you 7 Learning Deviance o Sutherland believed that the mechanisms used in any other type of learning are present in learning deviance o Deviance may be outlandish but the means through which individuals come to exhibit those behaviors are not 0 Sutherland argued that people become deviant not by simply associating with deviants but by learning definitions 0 Someone can learn definitions that promote deviance from anyone including a conformist 7 Criticisms of Differential Association 0 Why do some people ignore definitions while others act upon them 0 Where does the original deviance begin 0 Do people learn deviance from the people they associate with or do birds of a feather flock together 0 Very difficult to measurequantify o Sutherland never defines quotdefinitionsquot What are they Moral Panics The Ritual Abuse Moral Panic 7 People lnvolved o llCult Cops 0 Social Workers 0 Therapists 0 Religious Groups 0 Some Feminist Organizations 7 What they believe 7 The Cult Crime Model Cont o Dabblers I Ouija boards I Dungeons amp Dragons Page 3 of7 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam Two Review November 10 2009 I Heavy Metal Music I Witchcraft o SelfStyled Satanist I Killing in the name of Satan 0 Organized Satanists I Aboveground public Satanic religious groupsorganization I Church of Satan 0 Publicity Hounds 0 Group loves publicity 0 Will stage and take pictures for anything and anyone I Temple of Set 0 Also exaggerates membership 0 Approximately 600 members worldwide 0 Traditional Satanists I The highest level of the Satanic conspiracy I Secretive underground Satanic groups I This is the group that supposedly engages in ritual abuse I Is also supposedly involved in drug running snuff films child molestation mass killings etc I Many cult cops claim that traditional Satanists are trying to take over the world I They use daycare centers as fronts from sexual child abuse I They use mind control to bend people to their will 0 A llProgressive Model I Cult cops argue that the cult crime model is progressive I In other words people start at the bottom and naturally move through the remaining steps unless they are stopped I Proof of the bottom therefore is proof of the top 7 Ritual Abuse Claims 0 Stories of ritual abuse generally come from two sources I Adults who claim to have recovered memories of ritual abuse in therapy I Children involved in alleged ritual abuse while in daycare centers 7 Adult Ritual Abuse Survivors o Ritual Abuse survivors fit a general demographic profile I The vast majority are female best estimate 98 I Most are white 98 I 74 have had at least some college well above the national average I The majority of RA survivors had no memory of the abuse until undergoing therapy 88 I Most of into therapy for family issues divorce spouse cheating etc I The average survivor attends at least 3 therapy sessions a week 7 Child Ritual Abuse Survivors 0 Most cases involving child victims have started as the result of an adult s accusation not because of a child s claim 0 Most ritual abuse therapists argue that Satanist frighten the children 0 Therefore denial of the abuse is strong evidence that it took place Page 4 of 7 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam Two Review November 10 2009 Vocabularies of Motive 7 Excusing Deviance o Nobody considers themselves deviant o Excuses I Claiming that one did not engage in the accused behavior I Examples l was holding crack for a friend 0 Rationalization and Justifications I Rationalization o Justification for one s deviantcriminal behavior 0 lengaged in the behavior but am justified I Personal Rationalizations 0 Almost everyone has engaged in deviance 0 Most of us rationalize this behavior I Research on Rationalizations o Sykes and Matza Techniques of Neutralization 1957 o Delinquency and Drift I Most people even deviants consider themselves normal I and act normal most of the time I They use excuses to temporarily quotfreequot themselves to deviate 0 Techniques of Neutralization I Five rationalizations used by youth I What are some ways youth might justify deviant behavior I Denial of Responsibility I Denial of Injury Denial of Victim I Condemnation of Condemners I Appeal to Higher Loyalties I Defense of Necessity I Metaphor of the Ledger I The Denial of the Necessity of the Law I Everybody Else is Doing It 0 Scully and Marolla Vocabulary of Motive o How rapists justify their behaviors Interviews with 114 convicted rapists 83 do not see themselves as rapists use excuses and rationalization A vocabulary ofmotive OOO Admitters and Deniers I Admitters Use a justification for their behavior I Deniers Claim complete innocence I didn t know her or admit to sex but deny it was wrong for several reasons 0 Rationalizations Used by Rapists I Women as seductresses Page 5 of7 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance Exam Two Review November 10 2009 I Women mean yes when they say llno I Most women eventually relax and enjoy it I Nice girls don t get raped I Only a minor wrongdoing o Excuses Used by Rapists I Use of Alcohol and Drugs I Emotional Problems I Nice Guy Image 0 Interviewed a man who raped and killed 5 women 0 He used the llnice guy excuse o llPhysically they enjoyed the sex Once they got involved it would be difficult to resist I was always gentle and kind until I started to kill them And the killing was always sudden so they wouldn t know it was coming 0 Thomson Marolla and Bromly Clergy Sex Abuse 0 Priests who engaged in sex abuse 0 Used many of the same rationalizes and excuses talked about already 0 Rationalizations Used by Abusive Priests Denial of Injury This was llmisguided affection not abuse Persuasion rather than coercion was involved The priest was always very gentle and loving Importance of work The work of priests is of such llextraordinary importance that it should not be destroyed by a few bad behaviors Wasn t real sex Since the abuse often does not involve copulation it is not as bad as sexual intercourse Religious Deviance and Strictness 7 Cults Sects and Churches 0 Terms that are used in popular culture but which have a specific meaning to sociologists 7 Religious Deviance o Religions vary in their level of deviance o The extent to which members are asked to act in a way contrary to societal norms o Joining the Catholics v joining the Hare Krishna o What are some examples of religious deviance I Things that you are required to do that set you apart from society I Things that you are told not to do that make you different 7 Types of Deviance 0 Some groups will be deviant simply due to who they worship 0 Other groups may worship the llnormative God for a society but engage in deviant behavior take the belief to an extreme 7 Definitions Page 6 of 7 SOC 3361 Extreme Deviance O O O O Tension O O O O O Exam Two Review November 10 2009 Church A church is a conventional religious organization In other words belonging to the church does not set you apart from society 0 Examples Episcopalians Lutherans Catholics There is no perfect quotChurchquot Sect I A sect is a deviant religious organization with traditional beliefs and practices I In other words they have normative beliefs but push those beliefs to an extreme that makes others uncomfortable 0 Examples Jehovah s Witnesses Branch Davidians Amish Cult I A cult is a deviant religious organization with novel beliefs and practices I A cult believes in a God or Gods that are different from the quotmainstreamquot God 0 Examples Unarius Church of Satan The Ashtar Command Temple of Set Scientology Order of the Vampyre Wicca I Cult is Not a Value Judgment o In the Sociology of Religion quotcultquot is not a value judgment 0 What is a cult depends on context 0 In the US where Christianity is the norm Hinduism Buddhism and Islam are all cults o This is NOT a statement that groups are llbad I Cult is a Relative Term 0 What is a church sect or cult differs depending on the society 0 What would be an example of a cult sect and church in an Islamic society NRMs NRMS Novel Religious Movements Proposed as an alternative term for quotcultquot since nonsociologists attach so much baggage to the term Amount of antagonism with surrounding sociocultural environment What are some aspects of tension I Behavioral restrictions I Exclusive doctrine I Time money effort What does tension do to a religious organization Why isn t everyone a Unitarian A sociological and economic principle I Sacrifice translates to commitment Page 7 of 7


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