Theories Of Personality
Theories Of Personality PSY 4327
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miss Eladio Hartmann on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 4327 at Baylor University taught by Tamara Rowatt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/217950/psy-4327-baylor-university in Psychlogy at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam Two Review October 23 2009 Chapter 6 39 39 39 evnllltinn and quot 1 What is behavioral genetics Describe the different methodologies used by behavioral genetics researchers 7 Behavioral Genetics Mix of psychology and genetics The study of genetic influences on behavioral qualities including personality qualities abnormalities and even cognitive and emotional processes 7 Methodologies Twin Study Adoption Research 2 How are heritability estimates calculated and what do they represent 7 Represents the amount of interpersonal variability in the trait under study that s accounted for by inheritance The higher the heritability the stronger the evidence that genes matter in some way 3 What is temperament Define and describe Buss and Plomin39s conceptualization of temperament 7 quotInherited personality traits present in early childhood 7 Argued that three normal personality qualities deserve to be called temperaments activity level sociability and emotionality Activity level is the person s overall output of energy or behavior tempo speed and vigor the intensity of behavior Sociability is the tendency to prefer being with other people rather than alone A desire for other people s attention sharing activities and the responsiveness and stimulation that are part of interaction Emotionality is the tendency to become physiologically aroused in upsetting situations 3 Choose four traits from the 5factor model of personality and describe how they relate to the different temperament categories 7 Extraversion has overtones of two temperaments Suggests a preference for being with others implying a possible link to sociability Blend sociability with activity level Also has come to be viewed partly in terms of social dominance or agency 7 Agreeableness has overtones of sociability Suggests liking to be with people and in having connotations of being easy to get along with 7 Conscientiousness is defined partly by the absence of impulsiveness It is a planful persistent focused orientation toward life s activities 7 Openness to experience or intellect culture or intelligence U39I List some abstract psychological variables that have been found to be affected by genetics largely through personality 7 Divorce Having lmpactful Life Events How Much Social Support People Have Attitudes on Various Topics Sexual Orientation 6 How would a sociobiologist account for the existence of altruism 7 Describe parental investment theory and what it says about gender differences in mate selection and competition 3 Describe genetic similarity theory 7 A gene survives represented by the next generation by any action that brings about reproduction of any organism in which copies of itself exist Has an influence on who attracts you You re more attracted to strangers who resemble you genetically than to those who don t ED v Explain the different circumstances for which men and women experience jealousy Why do these differences exist from an evolutionary psychology viewpoint 10 Briefly describe the quotyoung male syndromequot and its evolutionary pressuresroots Page 1 of S PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam Two Review October 23 2009 7 When males face hard competition for scarce resources females the result is confrontation and potentially serious violence of several sorts Partly an effect of evolutionary pressures from long ago and partly a response to situations that elicit the pattern Most likely to emerge when current situations predict reproductive failure 11 List four psychological disorders that have been studied by behavioral genetics 7 Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorder Substance Abuse Antisocial Behavior 12 What are the implications of mapping the human genome for dealing with disease Chapter 7 Biological processes and personality 13 How does Eysenck explain the difference between lntroverts and Extroverts from a biological perspective 14 According to Eysenck what happens when neuroticism combines with introversion 15 What is the BAS Briefly describe how this system functions 16 What is the BIS Briefly describe how this system functions 17 BAS and BAS activity are thought to be tied to differences in biological functioning What two neurotransmitters are thought to be closely linked with BIS and BAS functioning 18 How is the BAS related to extraversion 19 Describe three ways in which high and low sensation seekers have been found to differ 20 Identify what it means to be an augmenter as opposed to a reducer Describe why augmenters and reducers are thought to act as they do 21 Describe some of the findings that support the link between prenatal exposure to male hormones and aggression 22 What is the relationship between testosterone steroids and aggression 23 What types of activities have been found to correlate with increases and decreases of testosterone 24 What is oxytocin and how is it similar to and different from testosterone 25 Describe one of the assessment techniques theorists who research biological processes commonly use 7 Electroencephalograms EEG Records electrical activity from the skin over the skull Reasoning behind it is that neurons throughout the brain fire at vicarious intervals creating continuous fluctuations in voltage Electrodes on the scalp sense these changes This gives a view of aspects of the activity in the cerebral cortex Cortical activity is very complex but it forms patterns that relate to different subjective states Investigates normal personality 7 Neuroimaging p 150 Page 2 of S PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam Two Review October 23 2009 26 How have antidepressants such as Prozac changed the way some people view personality 7 People become more confident more resilient more decisive almost more dominant than they were before Chapter 8 Psychoanal ic structure and process 27 Briefly describe Freud39s comparison of the mind to an iceberg 28 Describe Freud s topographical model of the mind 7 P 162 29 Briefly define and describe the three components of Freud s structural model of personality 7 Id The original component of personality the only one present at birth It is all the inherited instinctive primitive aspects of personality Functions entirely in the unconscious Tied to basic biological processes from which it draws energy P 164 7 Ego 7 Super Ego 30 Briefly describe the difference between the pleasure principle and the reality principle 7 Pleasure Principle Needs should be satisfied immediately The id follows this 7 Reality Principle Taking into account of external reality along with internal needs and urges Brings a sense of rationality to behavior The ego follows this 31 What is the difference between llprimary process and llsecondary process 7 Primary Process Forming a mental image or an object or event that would satisfy the need and becoming involved with that image wish fulfillment Can t distinguish between image and reality May reduce tension briefly but can t do so by itself in the long run 7 Secondary Process Matches the image of a tensionreducing object to a real object Until such an object can be found the ego keeps the tension in check Goal is not to block the id s desires permanently Wants the id s urges to be satisfied but wants them satisfied at a time and in a way that s safe 32 Describe the superego including the three major goals of the superego 7 Superego Embodiment of parental and societal values Holds an image of what s right and wrong and it strives for perfection rather than pleasure 7 Three ma39or goals i Tries to prevent not just postpone any id impulse that would be frowned on by your parents ii Tries to force the ego to act morally rather than rationally iii Tries to guide the person toward perfection in thought word and deed 33 What did Freud mean by llego strength and balancing the forces of psychic energy 7 Ego strength refers to the ego s ability to be effective despite the conflicting forces of the desires of the id the moral dictates of the superego and the constraints of reality 7 Didn t think ant aspect of personality is better than the others but suggested there should be a balance among them The healthiest personality is one in which the influences of the three aspects are well balanced 34 Describe what is meant by cathexis ego cathexes and anticathexis 7 Cathexis p169 7 Ego Cathexis 7 Anticathexis Page 3 of5 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam Two Review October 23 2009 35 Does expressing aggression make a person less aggressive in the near future Explain 36 Explain sublimation and displacement 7 Displacement A change in how energy is used or the object toward which it s used Lets blocked energy be released in another way or toward another object 7 Sublimation A shift occurs from a socially unacceptable form of action to an acceptable or even praiseworthy form of action Permits humans to be civilized The oath by which humans can transcend their animal nature and form societies 37 Define quotfixationquot and identify two reasons for why it occurs 7 Fixation If the conflict isn t well resolved at any of the three stages too much energy gets permanently invested in that stage Less energy is available to handle conflicts in later stages It s harder to resolved later conflicts Each stage builds on previous ones 7 Two Reasons for Occurrence i A person who is overindulged in a stage may be reluctant to leave it and more on ii One who needs are deeply frustrated can t move on until the needs are met 38 List and briefly explain the major components of each of Freud s psychosexual stages 7 Oral Stage p 174 7 Anal Stage p 175 7 Phallic Stage p 176 7 Genital Stage p 179 39 What is the difference between the anal expulsive and the anal retentive personality Explain how these personalities emerge during the anal stage 7 P 176 40 Briefly describe how girls and boys resolve the conflict of the phallic stage ie the Oedipus and Electra complex respectively Then describe some of the implications of successfully resolving this conflict 41 How does the quality of sexual gratification differ in the genital stage from previous stages 7 P 179 Chapter 9 Anxiety defensel and selfprotection 42 Identify and describe the three types of anxiety identified by Freud 7 Reality Anxiety Arises from a threat or danger in the world Rooted in reality We deal with it by fixing avoiding or escaping from the situation producing the feeling 7 Neurotic Anxiety Unconscious fear that your id impulses will get out of control and have you do something that will get you punished Fear of the punishment that will result from expressing id impulses 7 Moral Anxiety Fear people have when they ve violated or are about to violate their moral codes Felt as guilt or shame Arises from the conscience that s part of your superego 43 What two characteristics do all defense mechanisms share 7 Increases rational problemoriented coping efforts Tries to deal consciously with the source of the threat 7 Engages in defense mechanisms tactics the ego develops to help it avoid the other kinds of anxiety Defense mechanisms all can operate unconsciously and they all distort or transform reality in one way or another 44 Be able to list and identify all of the defense mechanisms discussed in class and in the text P 186191 7 Repression Page 4 of S PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam Two Review October 23 2009 Dim 7 Proiectlon 7 Rationalization 7 lntellectualization 7 Reaction Formation 7 Regression 7 Identification 7 Displacement and Sublimation 45 What are the effects of thought suppression 7 Trying not to think of something can actually make that thought become more likely later on 46 What is the current psychological thinking about repressed memories oftraumatic childhood events 47 In accordance with quotpsychopathology of everyday lifequot what does Freud mean when he says quotthere are no such things as accidentsquot Give some examples 7 P 193 48 According to the psychoanalytic perspective what is the function of sleep and dreams According to psychoanalytic theory how do dreams and humor differ 7 P 195 49 What is the Rorschach lnkblot Test and what is its intended purpose What are its strengths and weaknesses 7 Assess unconscious processes Set of ten blots chosen for their ability to evoke different responses from different groups of psychiatric patients 7 Weaknesses Its internal consistency is low its testretest reliability and interrater reliability are low and its validity has been hard to establish 7 Strengths Does better at identifying depressed and psychotic persons than does the MMPIZ 50 When scoring the Rorschach lnkblot Test responses are placed in three categories Identify and define each of these categories 7 Location Where in the blot the response focuses the whole blot a commonly noted detail an unusual detail the space surrounding the blot 7 Determinants Include form color shading or perceived movement in the location that prompted the response 7 Content Its subject 51 Describe what is meant by resistance and transference 7 Resistance Conscious or unconscious provides an illustration of how emotionally wrenching psychoanalytic therapy can be When people actively fight against becoming aware of repressed conflicts and impulses 7 Transference Set of displacements Feelings toward other people in the patient s life are displaced transferred onto the therapist Can be love or hatred Serves as another defense in that the therapist provokes less anxiety than does the original object of the feelings Page 5 of5 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Chapter One 1 2 3 Exam One Review September 25 2009 Define personality and describe what is meant by quotindividual differences and quotintrapersonal functioning a b C Personality A dynamic organization inside the person of psychophysical systems that create the person s characteristic patterns of behavior thoughts and feelings Individual Differences Differences in personality from one person to another lntrapersonal Functioning Psychological processes that take place within the person Define the term quottheoryquot and identify the characteristics of a good theory a b Theory A summary statement a principle or set of principles about a class of events Characteristics of a good theory Explain Explains the phenomena it addresses always provides a way to explain some things that are known to be true Predict Should suggest possibilities you don t yet know for sure are true Should allow you to predict new information Should let you predict things you haven t thought to look for yet maybe things nobody has thought to look for yet The breadth of the information behind the theory iv The quality of parsimony should include as few assumptions or concepts as possible It should be as simple as possible v Be stimulating List and briefly describe the different perspectives in personality a 57 n Dispositional based on the idea that people have fairly stable qualities dispositions that are displayed across diverse settings but are deeply embedded in the person Biological emphasizes the fact that humans are biological creatures Psychoanalytic based on the idea that personality is a set of internal forces that compete and conflict with one another Neoanalytic all derive in one way or another from psychoanalytic theory The ideas that form the core of this perspective concern the development of the ego the person s executive functions and the importance of social relationships in personality Learning begins with a view of human nature in which change rather than constancy is paramount The key quality of human nature is that behavior changes systematically as a result of experience Phenonmenological The roots of this perspective trace to two ideas Everyone s subjective experience is important valuable meaningful and unique People tend naturally toward selfperfection and that all people can move themselves in that direction by exercising their free will to do so Cognitive selfregulation holds that cognitive processes underlie personality The nervous system is a huge matrix of neurons sending messages to one another Somehow the nervous system yields systematic sets of decisions It uses information in organized coherent patterned ways rather than randomly These patterns give rise to personality Page 1 of 7 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam One Review September 25 2009 4 What are the four goals of personality research a Describe human behavior b Explain human behavior c Predict human behavior d Optimize human behavior Chapter Two 5 If only college students are used as research participants what impact does this have on how results may be interpreted a College students differ from adults in several ways they have a less fully formulated sense of self 6 What is a case study and what are its advantages and disadvantages in studying personality a Case Study lnvolves indepth examination of one person Usually entails a long period of observation and typically includes unstructured interviews Rich in detail and can create vivid descriptions of the person under study Open ended observer can follow whatever lead seems interesting rather than asking only questions chosen ahead of time Many are also clinical studies b Advantages learn about one person or a few people Disadvantages can only learn about one or very few people 7 Identify and describe two pieces of information that are communicated by a correlation and know the difference between a positive and negative correlation Give an example of a positive and negative correlation using personality variables a Direction Positive low values with low values or high values with high values versus negative high values with low values or low values with high values b Strength Degree of accuracy with which you can predict values on one dimension from values on the other dimension 8 Explain what is meant by llstatistical significance How does statistical significance relate to the issue of importance What is the difference between statistical significance and practically significance a Statistical Significance the correlation would have been that large or larger only rarely if no true relation exists When it is small enough under 5 the correlation is said to be statistically significant real b ClinicallyZPractically Significant When the effect is both statistically significant believable and large enough to have some practical importance 9 Explain the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics Give examples of each a Descriptive Statistics Purpose is to give description Statistics that portray a set of events Example The average American earns 37000 a year or llShe averaged 216 points per game Page 2 of 7 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam One Review September 25 2009 b lnferential Statistics Let the researcher make inferences The information they provide guides the scientist in deciding whether to believe something is true Example Florida Voting H O Doug observes that people who exercise tend to have higher levels of selfesteem What are three ways Doug might interpret this correlational finding a List and describe the essential features characteristics of an experimental design a Experimental Control Making everything be exactly the same except for what you manipulate b Random Assignment Any variable that can t be controlled is treated this way N Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the correlational method versus the experimental method a Correlational Method Advantages Lets you examine events that take place over long periods even decades and events that are much more elaborate Let us get information about events in which experimental manipulation would be unethical Disadvantage Fails to show cause and effect b Experimental Method Advantages Ability to show cause and effect Disadvantages Sometimes uncertainty about which aspect of the manipulation was important Experiments on people usually involve events of relatively short duration in carefully controlled conditions 13 Define and distinguish between main effects and interactions Give an example a Main effects When a predictor variable is linked to the outcome variable in a systematic way completely separate from the other predictor b Interactions The effect of one variable differs across the two levels of the other variable Have to study more than one factor at a time Can take many forms Chapter Three 14 What is the difference between subjective and objective personality measures Examples a Sub39ective measure Interpretation is part of the measure Example observer s judgment that a person he or she is watching looks nervous b Ob39ective measures Focuses on a concrete physical reality that requires no interpretation Example could count the number of times a person stammers while talking 15 Identify and explain the different types of reliability consistent and repeated Examples a lnternal Consistency Reliability within a set of observations of a single aspect of personality Using many items should tend to balance out the random error Example Selfreport scales b Interrater reliability The person making the observation is a measuring device Dual observation is logically the same as using two items on a questionnaire Often receive Page 3 of7 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam One Review September 25 2009 considerable instruction and practice before turning to the quotreal thing Example Olympic Judge c Testretest reliability Stability across time Assessment at one time should agree fairly well with assessment done at a different time Determined by giving the test to the same people at two different times 16 Describe the different types of validity that are relevant to personality assessment and discuss the meaning of each a Construct Validity Allencompassing validity and is therefore the most important kind The measure assessment device reflects the construct conceptual quality concept any trait quality that the psychologist has in mind b Criterion Validity Predictive Validity Uses an external criterion Tests how well the measure predicts something else it s supposed to predict Most important way to support construct validity Shows that the assessment device relates to other manifestations of whatever quality it s supposed to measure c Convergent Validity Shows that the measure relates to characteristics that are similar to but not the same as what it s supposed to measure The findings converge on the construct you re interested in even though any single finding by itself won t clearly reflect the construct d Discriminant Validity Shows that an assessment device does not measure qualities that it s not intended to measure Major line of defense against the thirdvariable problem in correlational research e Face Validity The assessment device appears on its face to be measuring the construct it was intended to measure 17 Identify the different types of response sets a psychological orientation a readiness to answer in a particular way create distortions in the information assessed personality psychologists would like to avoid and give one way to combat each problem a Acguiescence The tendency to say yes Emerges most clearly when the assessment device is a selfreport instrument that in one fashion or another asks the person questions that require a yesorno response agree or disagree The way it s handled for selfreports is this write half the items so that yes indicates being at one end of the personality dimensions white writing the other half of the items so that a no response means being at that end of the personality dimension b Social Desirability Reflects the fact that people tend to portray themselves in a good light in socially desirable ways whenever possible Psychologists deal with this problem by trying to phrase items so that the issue of social desirability isn t salient This is a process of trying to avoid even bringing up the idea that one kind of person is approved of more than the other A different way to deal with the problem is to include items that assess the person s degree of concern about social desirability and use this information as a correction factor in evaluating the person s responses to other items 18 Two approaches to developing personality measures were described in the text ldentify them and briefly describe or give examples of how personality psychologists might use them Page 4 of 7 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam One Review September 25 2009 m RationalZTheoretical Approach Based on theoretical considerations First the psychologist develops a rational basis for believing that a particular dimension of personality is important The next task is to create a test in which this dimension is reflected validity and reliably in people s answers This approach to test development often leads to assessment devices that have a high degree of face validity Empirical databased Approach Basic characteristic of this approach is that it relies on data rather than on theory to decide what items go into the assessment device There are two major variations An inductive approach in which the person developing the 57 measure uses the data to decide what qualities of personality even exist Criterion keying approach in which the items retained are those that empirically distinguish between the criterion group and other people MMPI Chapter Four 19 Discuss the major differences between types and traits a Types distinct and discontinuous categories 57 Traits people occupy different points on continuously varying dimensions Differences are seen as quantitative not qualitative People are seen as differing in how much of various characteristics they incorporate in their personalities 20 How does the nomothetic approach to personality differ from the idiographic approach a Nomothetic Approach This view holds that everyone stands somewhere on each trait that exists Allows comparisons among people b ldiographic Approach emphasizes each person s uniqueness This view holds that traits are individualized A given trait must be possessed by only one person in the world Suggests that people often can t be compared because everyone is on a different scale 21 Describe the major steps in factor analysis a The process starts by collecting measurements on many variables from large numbers of people Typically selfreport or observer ratings 57 Once the data is collected correlations are computed between every pair of variables The set of correlations is then put through a procedure called factor extraction This distills the correlations to a smaller set of factors Each factor represents shared 0 variations underlying commonalities among several of the measures rather than two at a time d Once the factors are extracted each can be described by a set of factor loadings correlations between the factor and each item rating that contributes to its existence Items that correlate strongly with the factor usually higher than 030 or so are said to quotload on that factor The items that load on the factor tell you what the factor is about e The final step in the analysis is labeling the factors When you name the factor you are naming the trait Page 5 of7 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam One Review September 25 2009 22 Describe the major differences between Cattell s and Eysenck s approach to the identification of important personality traits a 23 Identify the five llBig 5 personality traits and briefly definedescribe each a Extraversion often thought of as implying a sense of sociability but some argue that that s actually a byproduct of other features of extraversion b Neuroticism Emotional Stability Subjective experience of anxiety and general distress c Agreeablenes Concerned with the maintaining of relationships Not just a quality of being warm and likeable versus being cold it may extend to a kid of docile compliance d Conscientiousness Qualities of planning persistence and purposeful striving toward goals e Intelligence Culture openness to experience Imaginative side and also logical side Explain how the 5factor model of personality relates to Eysenck s theory N P a What is the basic difference between the Situationist view and the interactionist view a Situationist View Idea that situational forces determine behavior not personality Argued that correlation between traits and behavior were low because situational N U variables overwhelmed the effects of personality b Interactionist View Idea that traits and situations interact to influence behavior Neither the setting alone nor the person alone provides a complete account The possibility that some people are less consistent in general than others is suggested by the construct of selfmonitoring Briefly explain the differences between high and low selfmonitors N O and its implications for consistency a People in high selfmonitoring like to fit smoothly into situations they encounter They look to others for cues about what actions are appropriate and they bend to the needs of the situations People low in selfmonitoring behave the way they think they are no matter the situation It follows that high selfmonitors should be less consistent from one situation to another than low selfmonitors N l Identify three major criticisms ofthe trait approach a Chapter Five 28 Briefly define what is meant by need and press a Need An internal state that s less than satisfactory a lack of something that s necessary for wellbeing An internal directional force that determines how people seek out or respond to objects or situations in the environment b m External influences Is an external condition that creates a desire to obtain or avoid something Has motivational influence just as does an internal need Page 6 of 7 PSY 4327 Theories of Personality Exam One Review September 25 2009 29 According to Murray needs sometimes fuse with other needs so they are reflected in the same act Give an example of such a situation a W O Briefly describe the TAT testing procedure and describe how the TAT is scored a You view a set of pictures in which it isn t clear what s going on and are asked to create a story about each one Your story should describe what is happening the characters thoughts and feelings the relationship among characters and the outcome of the situation b Through appreciation the themes in your stories should reflect your implicit motives UJ Briefly explain how people who are high in need for achievement differ from people low in need for achievement in terms of their approaches to achievementrelated situations Why are their approaches different a High need for achievement Desire to do things well to feel pleasure in overcoming obstacles Associated with choice of moderately difficult tasks diagnosticity Predicts higher performance in some domains May be reflected culturally to influence economic growth May result in behavior that is similar to that motivated by desire to avoid failure In N Briefly explain how level of responsibility can affect the behavioral manifestations of the need for power a W W Draw on your research knowledge to describe what people are like who are high in need for affiliation a W J Briefly define the need for intimacy How does need for intimacy differ from need for affiliation a Briefly describe the inhibited power motive Why is it good for leadership In U1 W 039 Identify the distinctions McClelland made between implicit motives and selfattributed motives a Implicit Motives What the TAT measures b Selfattributed Motives What39s measured by selfreports Page 7 of 7
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