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Cognitive Psychology Study Guide: Perception and Cognition

by: Lisa Montanez

Cognitive Psychology Study Guide: Perception and Cognition 400

Marketplace > Edinboro University of Pennsylvania > Psychlogy > 400 > Cognitive Psychology Study Guide Perception and Cognition
Lisa Montanez
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

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About this Document

This study guide covers the concepts of Perception and Cognition.
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Michael Skelly
Study Guide
Cognitive Psychology
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Montanez on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 400 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Michael Skelly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 03/19/16
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY STUDY GUIDE PERCEPTION AND COGNITION I. LINK BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND COGNITION  Related and interactive processes  Knowledge of environment dependent on our senses  Share concepts and theories II. STAGES OF PERCEIVING 1. Distal Stimulus: object in environment 2. Proximal Stimulus: image of stimulus on sensory receptor 3. Sensation: Proximal transduced to neural signal 4. Perception: internal representation 5. Recognition: place object in category that gives meaning Naïve Realism: believe what we perceive is accurate Sensory systems both limit and accentuate information III. APPROACHES TO STUDYING PERCEPTION A. Direct perception a. Directly perceive environment from information in the stimulus b. No need for memories or reasoning process I. Movement Perception a. Optic Flow Patterns: changes in retinal image caused by movement b. Gradient of Flow: things close flow faster: further, slower i. NO FLOW = Destination B. Constructive Perception a. Perceptions acquired through experience 1. Unconscious Interference: by experience make perceptual rules: rules are automatic 2. Information Processing Approach a. Perceptual experience is a combination of sensory info and perceptual and cognitive process b. Sensory system extracts info of basic features: edges, color, movement, spatial location c. Basic features used by perceptual and cognitive processes to create experience IV. BASIC PROCESSES IN VISUAL PERCEPTION A. Size Perception 1. Size Constancy – size stays the same even if the size of the object on the retina changes a. Learned with experience Size-Distance Scaling a. Emmert’s Law: S = R X D S = size R = Retinal size D = perceived distance Misapplied size – constancy scaling Brightness constancy – brightness remains the same even under changing illumination Color constancy – perceive colors are the same even under different lighting Figure ground - See distant shape (figure) - The remainder (ground) Psychologically can reverse it (not stimulus driven) B. Depth Perception: locating objects in space a. Monocular cues – available with one eye b. Size cues – close object occupies more visual field than for object c. Occlusion – close object block far object i. The most formative depth cue d. Atmosphere perspective – distant object appear more bluish in color than close object e. Linear convergence / perspective – two parallel lines converge as distance increase f. Horizon cues – object near the horizon are farther away than object away from the horizon g. Binocular cues – must use 2 eyes i. Convergence – eyes converge for closer stimuli ii. Divergence – eyes diverged for further stimuli 1. Eye muscles give cue for depth iii. Retinal disparity 1. Larger the disparity the closer the object 2. Two eyes two different images 3. Differences between the two images = disparity Texture gradient – textures become compressed as distance increases V. PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION  Gestalt principles of organization  Group it: o Proximity: color together o Similarity: look alike o Good Continuation: smooth lines o Common Fate: move together o Closure: missing center of line VI. EDGE DETECTION Match Bands – seeing light and dark bars near borders between light and dark areas Fourier Analysis – synthesis VII. PATTERN RECOGNITION: RECOGNIZING OBJECTS IN THE WORLD STAGES OF PERCEIVING 1. Distal Stimulus 2. Proximal stimulus 3. Sensation 4. Perception 5. Recognition PATTERN RECOGNITION A. Template Matching Approach a. Template – stored models of all categorizable pattern b. Recognition: when exact match to a template occurs i. Problem: enormous variability in objects B. Feature Comparison Theories a. Feature – very simple pattern, a fragment or component i. Features can be combined ii. Recognize whole patterns by breaking them iii. Must successfully match features in LTM for categorization I. Feature Detection Models a. Perceptual system detects presence or absence of specific features i. Information is used for categorization II. Advantages of feature over Template a. Requires less memory than template i. Small set of features ii. Structural Description 1. Info about the configuration arrangement and connectivity 2. Can account for variability PANDEMONIUM MODEL  Demons: mental mechanisms in processing a visual stimuli  Image (data) demons: encodes the visual object pattern on the retina  Feature demons o Feature analyzers o Matches a single feature in a pattern o Shouts if match  Cognitive demons o Each represents a different letter of the alphabet o Listens for a particular combination of feature demons o Lourdes shouter is the one with the closet match  Decision demons o Final say in recognition and categorization pattern 1. Feature Detection a. Elementary simple features 2. Compatible with Physio Evidence a. Hubel and Weisel (1962) i. Simple cells – neurons that fire to specific orientation ii. Complex cells and hyper complex cells Complex (Cell) - Orientation and specific direction Hyper – complex (Cell) - Orientation, specific movement, size Selective adaption – whole features disappear with extensive exposure Idea of Parallel Processing: Brain accomplishes 2 tasks at same time MISSING LINK OF PANDEMONIUM VISUAL SEARCH EXPERIMENTS  Pandemonium assumes: o Scan through column o Extract features from each pattern o Classify letter as “target” or “distracter”  Targets having similar features to distracters = SLOWER reaction time  Target differs in features ( e.g., curve)  Appears to “Pop-out” from distracters o Recognition system can “shut-off” features (curves) Pandemonium Missing Link = Top-down processing 3D PATTERN RECOGNITION AND WORD SUPERIORITY EFFECT OBJECT RECOGNITION  Recognition-by-components  3 stages: o Object segmented into basic sub-objects o Classify category of each sub-object  Geons – geometric ions  Alphabet for objects GEONS  Created by combining edges and lines o Non-accidental properties o Distance regardless of point of view o Color and texture not necessary Object Recognition by identifying their geons and relations among them - Geons match with LTM (long-term memory) representation PARTIAL, COMPLEX, DEGRADED OBJECTS  Partial o Not necessary to identify all geons  Complex objects named faster o Configural superiority effect  Degraded objects (can’t see perfectly) o Joints / intersections available can recover o Joints / intersections deleted CONTEXT EFFECTS (WORD BIAS)  They are cooking apples  I saw that gas can explode  Syntactically OK, but ambiguous (Need context)  Letter identification o Discriminate D and K better in context of word than alone (word superiority effect) o 10% more accurate for words  Explanation: not seeing D better INTERACTIVE ACTIVATION MODEL  Computer stimulation of word recognition  Combines Top-down and Bottom-up processing word level Excitator y letter “go” level Inhibitor y “off” feature level Visual input  There can only be one letter in all levels MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  3 levels (feature, letter, word)  Letter work in parallel  All letter interact  Units of stimulus are represented by NODES  Each node has a certain level of activation  Connections between nodes 2 TYPES OF CONNECTIONS 1. Excitation – increases the Node’s activation 2. Inhibition – decrease activation  Connection between 2 units is excitatory o (inhibitory) when they are consistent (inconsistent)  Links within a level are all inhibitory o No 2 letters or words can be in the same position PARTIAL STIMULI Model accounts for recognition of partial visible words and word superiority effect  Attention: o The study of one capabilities and limitations of a person to select and process sensor info from the environment  Selective Attention: o Attending to only 1 of several available streams of information  Cocktail Party Phenomenon: o Hearing only 1 person when surrounded by several others  But we can still pick up relevant information from unattended conversations I. Cherry (1953)  Divided Attention o Processing more than one stream of info at a time  Dichotic Listening = 1 ear hears something different than other ear  Diotic = both ears hear the same SPEECH SHADOWING TASK (COPY-CAT) (Attended Ear) Requires A LOT of attention to repeat copy-cat voice = monotone: lagged by I second poor memory of attended message Unattended Message - Detect it as speech - Detect gender change of speaker - Could NOT detect specific words or phrases Aware of physical characteristics; not semantic (meaning) SELECTIVE MODELS OF ATTENTION Selective Models I. Early Selection Models (Early – physical, Late – meaning) “Bottleneck” – Broadbent (1952) - Easier to do shadowing task when attended and unattended ears are different voices vs. the same. - Conclude: must filter information used Filter Model – Broadbent 1. Everything is sensed; attend to only a portion (sensory stories: Echoic and iconic) 2. Filter selects one stream in sensory store


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