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1003: Science for Non Science Majors - Study Guide


1003: Science for Non Science Majors - Study Guide 1003

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Science for Non Science Majors

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Science for Non Science Majors
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This 43 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday October 17, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 1003 at George Washington University taught by Zysmilich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.


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Date Created: 10/17/14
7 Chem 1003 Midterm Study Guide What is chemistry 1 Chemistry a The study of matter an Matter a Anything that ha upies space b Made up of building blocks led atoms Molecules a Groups of atoms b Smallest unit of matter that can retain the properties of a substance Chemical symbols and lines H HjC H H 8 3D ball and stick model H l C 1 H H Methane CH4 8 3D space filling model Matter exists in three states a Solid i Not compressible own shape and volume ii Inter molecule forces energy keeping it together gtgt Kinetic energy energy the molecule has to move around b Liquid i Not compressible own volume but changes to the shape of the container ii Inter molecular force is about equal to the kinetic energy c Gas i Highly compressible adopts the shape and size of the container ii Inner molecular energyltltKinetic energy 8 Mixtures a Combinations of two or more substances b Homogenous mixtures i The mixture looks uniform sugar and water c Heterogeneous mixers i The mixture looks separate water and oil water and sand d Mixtures can be separated into pure substances and pure substance can be either compounds or elements i Pure substance is like water e Element i A pure substance in which all the atoms that make up the molecules are iden cal ii Hydrogen f Compound i A pure substance in which the atoms are diferent ii Water Heterogeneus Mixture Element M Pure substance Yes Compound No I Homogeneus Mixture Yes Homogeneus Mixture Solution Is it J lili t gl ig A into m E11 1 llzny cl1eiItialt an sees K 9 10 The Periodic Table of Elements a Used to organize the 100 elements in a meaningful way b There are periodic properties associated with the periodic table lm it i Q Number i quot Symbol P M S d Hgt Hydrogen i Very reactive diatomic gas ii So is F Fluorine and Cl chlorine e Hegt Helium i Inert monatomic gas ii So ie Ne Neon and Ar argon f Ligt Lithium i Very soft very reactive metal ii So is Na Sodium and Kpotassium g Begt Beryllium i Soft reactive metal ii So is Mg magnesium and Ca calcium h The Periodic table organizes the elements by column 39LILiI Iili1 I LHiI l V Iiiitzutt 15 quot lE3939 39 i39t l39nrt 391 39rE1 92 it Ti39 iiEl1Cit1iJ1tH wk y y frquot J quot H3Izlrttngera 3 4quot3i 0 p quot1IlZIE E 1 L IliZ ar1imil Eatquotli39uquot5 I391 7LJj5 l I39IlL39l11 La139l land rial bi vall1l39i39IiE39 IuIjrn39Ilzrar alizirriivs rr ias HIEmEnI airJi I E39iIEl1ETDl u39Ila Atmosphere 1 Blanket of air that surrounds the earth 2 Mixture of gases 3 Troposphere O to 15 km a Region in immediate contact with the Earth s surface b Where the weather happens 4 Stratosphere 15 to 50 km a Contains the ozone layer 5 The troposphere and the stratosphere take up 999 of the atmosphere s mass Tihe Earth e trmoephe re 713 131 M 3E Mmpm W The tropesphere erltll etretroepherre m rneike up 999 percent of the etmleepnerieis rrlase EJZI 1 Due pertliy to the effect of greiriity the eemipeeiitiezn of Hire etmeeip here is hot H uhiforrn Lighter l39I39IIDlEEiilllE9 tend to E 39quot 1 rseeicle iiur heriiroim Earths slirl39ace k JlilJi E39 E imteei E 139 aI Stratosphere 15 to 51 km 2 eeritains the ozenie layrer Trepesphere El he 15 km regizorl in immedliate cehtect with A Eart39i39e euirfece in which all of Temperature ii 6 Eu I551IElfquotIEE El1erniee Clleeeifiicatinn WIl 3E2lllE lFIlJli39lilI39IllJ iwitrogeh H2 Ti element diatemiic rygen Elg 21 Element digatmie etrgien er 99 element meneatenfiic Carl U liii Ge 9 I94 eomipmu r1d7 triatnmi it d Water I El eomipeiun trietemiic 7 Molecules 1 Combination of a fixed number of atomes help together in a certain geometric arrangement Chemical Formula s 1 Symbolic representations of the elementary compositions of chemical compounds Nitrogen N2 Chemical Reactions 1 Atoms are rearranged in different compounds 2 Reactants are transformed into products 3 carbon oxygen gt carbon dioxide e 0t e iI jg B A Law of conservation of mass 1 In a chemical reaction mass is conserved 2 Combustion of methane calla 0 CD2 H20 a b All chemical reactions must be balanced c See the drawings quotquotComplete combustion reactions 3 Always conserved a Identity of the of the reactants in the products b Number of atoms c Mass 4 May change a Number of molecules b Physical states Gasoline 9 rcorniplete mm risti nrrt C3lHa 02 E02 H20 tZ2I39Iquoti liaF l E39 39 arbntn dilntid E ln complete combu stion or Hl2O mana ca rbun f39i39llrEiF1ii39i5iElEE Major Air Pollutants Garnun nnnnrmruid GD Irneonwnplater rnnnhu51cLirrn of uels Eulhfur midens SE 3 E33 Eurninr of coal 0 in seal 1 ED2 SD sulfur diimridier E32 E E3 sulfur trirorri1d e Nitrogen nzrrdes rffi ll 3 NIEIE Eirerie prsndunst Tfrnm intrnal nomibustinrn eirrgines ears NE 32 7 lquotII3939 I rnitriijus nri nje N 32 VI NDEnitmgen uziirzrid iFquoternein39I Ens nges in iir ueliify in The United E1a1quotes IQEIEE Fanllrutarnrt Eut ur dismride SUE T1993 ZE1I3939B3EE Nitrogen climiirzl H02 46 decrseasae Earmn rnan1 ruideiGEJj quot39 E vdecrseaeye DEERE IE1rEI3 E539539EdE1i339E3EE Learil F39b 91 decrease Lecture 3 Two main regions of atoms 1A 1D 39393m Nucleus o Protons Charge of1 Mass of about1 amu o Neutrons Charge of 0 no charge Mass of about1 amu Electron 0 Charge of 1 0 Mass of 00005 amu Atoms are mostly empty space 0 The nucleus is most of the atomic mass 0 The electrons move around in the cloud How do they join to make molecules 0 Let39s look at the most basic element 39 Mass number number of protons plus number of neutrons in the Atomic number Number of protons on the nucleus Lewis dint reupre5enrtatiun I2 c Carbon o 6 protons o 6 neutrons o 6 electrons Where are the electrons The electrons on the first ring above or on any other level than the outer level are the core electrons The electrons on the outer ring above are the valence electrons They are interacting with their environment The different 0 Shells o The first shell can only have two electrons in the shell 0 The second shell has a maximum of eight electrons in the shell Silicon has a similar chemical properties 0 They have the same number of valence electrons 0 They both have four valence electrons and they are both in the fourth group of the period table Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Ii I i I I lel N39 9 E Np Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group B 0 Periodic Table Review 0 Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number number of protons Elements with similar chemical properties fall in the same column number of valence elections 0 Elements in the same row have the same number of core electrons and energy levels 0 Chemical properties vary in a regular way with increasing atomic number periodically Chemical Bonding 0 Octet Rule 0 Atoms tend to gain lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons Ionic bond 0 The gain or loss of electrons 0 Covalent bond 0 Shared electrons Ionic Bond Has extra electron Needs electron 0 Sodium become positively charges and chlorine becomes negatively charged 0 Isoelectronic The same number of electrons as another element 0 Sodium is isoelectronic with Ne o Chlorine is isoelectronic with Ar a l O 0 Cation 0 Positive charge 0 Anion 0 Negative charge Example Covalent Bond E E Instead of switching electrons they join electrons by making a covalent bond 0 Triple bonds are less reactive Electromagnetic Radiation EM Radiation is a form of energy Described as a wave a 25 la39uE3939uiZiZE EI39 W The wave is moving at the speed of light Wavelengths is the distance between successive peaks Frequency v is the number of peaks passing a fixed point in one second V C o C is the speed of light 0 The frequency and wavelengths are inversely proportional Max Planck 0 Energy is not a continuum 0 Energy is quantized They are tiny particles of energy bursts Albert Einstein 0 Radiation is constituted of individual bundles of energy called photons particles of light The energy of each particle is given by 0 Ehvhc o h is a constant 663x1O3934 o c is a constant 3OOx1O8 ms The shorter the wavelength the higher the energy The higher the frequency the higher the energy Electromagnetic Sipecrtrium 1 Frezquenicy isII I039 I103 IIZI15 1iIf39I395 1014 IIWE IEIW IIZIE 1IIIIE 104 39 I39 III39E I Iiriicrowatrea TIII LoIrIgI Iruratrere sI ieiItI e Garnma rays Ulltratriioleti Iniirared IJIHF FIFIII IEIIIII I I II I Idquot at I I I I I quotIEIquot39I r InIE IoID Iowa 1o4 InE 1 me Ior Ir39IrImI III Itrriy p II amt K quotquotIF Wau39eenggtIIt7fm I I 4IZIIZI EIIZIU EIDIIJ WaIIreIIenIgthI IIIquotII139IIIII O 0 Distribution of energy in solar radiation above the Earth39s atmosphere 0 of radiation 1 IEFII CI II I I I Hi I 53 HeIeIti39IIe inteneitgr E I 39 I I I It I I I I II 50 D 1 IIIIIII39III Ii EIEIIEI EEIDDI EEIIIIUI SUEID BEIGE 40 Di i LN IH T Visible IIquotIIa39IreeIngtIII IjInanrnIeteraII Interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter Gamma and Xrays ionization X Xf l equot Ulltraviolet dissooiotion X lXquotX X Visible electronic transitions X quot39 X Infrared vibrational transitions Microwaves rotationai trr1nsitions Radio Waves nncleor spin tmnsiiions MRI Energy Shorter Wavelength Longer Ultraviolet VI IFI Microfwave iv I iu I re 0oooO 0 Wooo ooo0 gt Molecule dissociates Molecule vibrates llulloleciulle rotates o o Gamma and Xrays transfer energy to matter 0 UV radiation is damaging because it can break molecules in the body and can creat genetic mutations which can lead to cancer 0 Visible light will only absorb energy and move up energy levels 0 Infrared light stretches chemical bonds just stretches it 0 Microwave excited the rotation of molecules 0 Absorption of Radiation Detector Dletectr o g Detector Ligt W t A Emma Detector Detector Ligt 4 t A Emma Detector o o Aelc A absorbance e extinction coefficient depends on the wavelengths and substance pathenth c concentration Ozone Bad Ozone Good Ozone I1 u illjnq tj tI1i i 1 fli m I umll T A 539F439 39E 1 1 A tl H H U1 DEIDRE iL Io39liIII2fEli liofEl1 1ZI39lZi39tl o What is the ozone 0 Its 03 Ozone A 3 Q I I y I 7 o 5 p 02003 y II II cgt395 o 0 Double bonds are stronger than single bonds 0 OO 121 A o 00 148 A o In the ozone the bonds ate 128 A 0 Because the two models are both legitimate the real description of O3 is O O O 39iEJ Mr uiliity n eit iufiilutm liilf Quality Elgascriiptur ta an l to Edit Gouda tI ii E5 tn il ElEitl 51 tn Hndieeratei I il5 tn tI iI39lIl Tim to 15 Uil39Iquoti iEiiIi39I 39vgIquot far Eensintitre Groups tI E tn il il il il ti U lltr 1ealitlagar El12 Erhzrjl 1 t i tithr I ll39il 39t R S Llnhealflw The amount of tropospheric ozone in the air o Ozone is a poisonous material Photochemical smog NO and NO2 Referred to NOX Largely produced by automobiles and power plants Major contributor to photochemical smog Catalytic conversters o Designed to convert carbom monoxide CO into CO2 and oxides of nitrogen NOX into N2 The reactions that contribute to the formation of photochemical smog 0 N2O2gt 2NO nitric acid o 2NOO2gt2NO2 nitrogen dioxide o N02 nitrogen dioxide ightgt NOnitric acidO atomic oxygen o O 02 molecular oxygen ightgt O3 ozone O3 and 02 are allotropes o Different forms of the same element o 02 is the most stable forms Health effects of ozone Irritated the respiratory system Reduces lung function Aggravates asthma lnflames and damages the liing of the lung Plant and Ecosystem Damage interfered with the ability of plants to produce and store food Damages the leaves of trees and other plants Reduces crop and forest yields and increase plant vulnerability to diseases etc Misconceptions of the Ozone Layer Depletion There is an ozone hole 0 There is no hole there is just a lot less concentration of ozone 0 About 13 to 4 of what it would be The ozone hole is responsible for the clogal warming 0 They are almost not related 0 Small relation Ozone depletion is no longer a problem 0 It just has been overshadowed UVC is absorbed by the ozone 0 Greatest energy but it totally absorbed by the ozone UVB is absorbed by the ozone and the earths surface 0 UVCgtUVBgtUVA UVA is absorbed by the service 0 Smallest energy Thur isiartLliiquot Py Py I39Ji39tI I Ia IE1 lWvti39 rarJiaitinquotutr i in ragtim vnergl 1Hrial ithtuaan mist t prsteami am litr il ll wt and Ii 391 ri3lr iI39I39Lii 5 g Iii rm ll3ILil39 rta439l W11 H xglhl 39LlIl39IWlsll alrrfutl p lIttFIi3Itail I139I hmtr Itl g anti imrm a laquotrm mh1rHr m irL m Eft a Hind 39Iri39im39I Ta iiiE E 1 cii 3iiTiFlii 17 Tsii iim 39i39IiIiE39il39iEE iquot39iigIT39I Eelaiirure Eneiggg i iti 39ii39i39ii i iLI39in39iii 3EiIanimtl rm iI2f39Ef5T Ei39iiEFgff iieast IIgiFIquotIu3 iiii iI aai39u EEEii39iE395 thE Earthfs surfaaazas in gxretiitsat maaunat iii39ii E EEIi39tI 3 iiIIZI nrn HighEF ensuergr ETIi gEgt39lgi13E7lE39 iI39iFa lihan J39Inquotmri339 ltiatit IEPLIZ IE5 IETI39Iigi 39lii lihain iI7395 eznenigg tie iIti39I Mm Liquoti39 E is til ran u sheathed lIsgrIi3939t5 In Hm satraitsnshiarE LitE Ellal39t39E i39l 391a E39EighiEELE39 E39igly Minst nlarnaglngi taut Fifliai ipinzitiliem itheatiause it is tv l ttillgir athis11 by gnarl E33 iin t1he5tra L are Chapman Cycle How is ozone formed in the stratosphere Solar Formation aiit Q Qt 2 4 242 um Ozone formation reaction Solar Destruction 3 242 320 um Once that ozone is formed it makes this cycle continue Chapman Cycle o t znene antzll eteyglen atenrle ere eentilnueuely being ilntelreentterted eel ereIar tit breaks zene and the 2tygen ratern reeete with anether eeygen ntelleeule Tquot2 120 I i2ey gen nfeleeulee are if p hle39teyzre yiieltflling O O pg eatygen eteme V O Tquot T I 39 N 39 39 39 39 39 T 39 quot 39 39 39 39 quot quotquot quot1 if 39 E pNN quottileTneE et Ee7l E np E s E 3 S 3 Cizene ie leet by a l39EFEltlil2tl1 with an een39srerte ll39lf redietttiien inte therlrnell energy iheatjing the etreteephere leeygen etern er the ezene meleeullee with eaten i1T39i ll IEf39 These reactions heat up the atmosphere Every day 300000000 tons of stratospheric ozone is formed and an equal mass is destroyed The level stays constant t s a steady state What is the reason of stratospheric ozone decreasing Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina proposed that chlorofluorocarbons CFCs could be responsible for the depletion CFCs are compounds of chlorine fluorine and carbon developed in the 1930s Many different reactions that are increasing the production of carbon dioxide which is among the most dangerous causes of global warming Matter and Radiation Greenhouse effect o The concept of cases trapping energy from the sun o Is there a relationship between the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and the temperature of the Earth 0 Estimate the temperature and concentration of CO2 in the past and look if there is a correlation 0 Temperature from the isotopic ratio in ice cores in Antarctica Isotopes Elements with the same atomic number but different mass number 0 Water containing Hydrogen 1 evaporated faster than water containing Hydrogen 2 and that shows on the isotopic ratio in snow 0 Amount of CO2 determined by measuring CO2 concentration in trapped air bubbles in ice iurn ji quot3Ti39S 39u39ti3a39 Hfi GE T 5I t F u t51 539 usctww quot5 39E 3quot39 1UquotjT 39fj39 if I5 Emil Iii ll 39f e nIlil s I E 0V 5quot quot I quot s 39 I 3 ti 59 i I E H II I E tttl 7 E T I I I I M I2 73 IiI 39 e E1 It In I z I M I I I p V ill L I l39 s I t I 3939E II I I I 1 H51 I IIrILiii iIITiIiTI It IIiIiItI EtIiTIiitItI I i IiicIttIIcTlITt ti tf39ct ln tirrt Jt39EFiii IIZ o This is what happens 0 There is a correlation between the temperature and the CO2 concentration The Erteeenhouse aEF39Fett The Ti ilippi g quotE El tFhIrti39 n of the tinfrred mdiattih etrnitted by the Eirth towards the atmn5qhere Withut this effE39it the vezruge temperogturae on the Erth s surfucle wiziuid he 15 r2 Feirdiattiv2 Bniance of the Eu Equot fh it 39eeFtim39 quotr ed the n by nfrrtmsphehe Mu e T Inrii1a1i vi1re d by the cctrnbsphazm PFq reenhinuse 31595 rt Z 2t EEHE r and Hg j trup v of the Hhini j by 5 seati ping energy ntr11as pilquotuere j A steinrd trestn he is reached ZIrliHiii i139atuirgr the Earth The more greenhouse gases is sent into the atmosphere the more radiation we will trap making the temperature to rise i ngtieeuitar iaF1 l3 tT 7I i I iI o To absorb the infrared radiation they should be asymmetrical Global Warming Observations The concentration of carbon dioxide has increased by 40 in the past century o Since the industrial revolution The temperature is increasing o The planet is a huge system so the changes take a while to react o But the temperature is definitely increasing Carbon Cycle rtitrr Tflcinl 1irtsiW1 a Einillcal and schmliml proaeasse EI H iefE39quot l El3939i fl39irg Mostly come from burning fossil fuels Deforestation Industry Transportation Residential Russia releases the most carbon dioxide US the worst per capita Molecular Geometry Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Domains Mon bonding domain not maltinga tzhemitzal band i I39I D u tll are iE39IrEitFDII1 El 39 ld m l n 39 Bonding Domains Making a chemical bonds To minimize the repulsion hold the electrons as far apart as possible O 0 These are all the different forms 0 Ii I g 1iE1IEitr lquotI aien1ain5 EDl3LiniE ar I II b II I go C II I lit Ii r i in g 3 EiIiEiIIr IquotI ilaien1aIrI5 EllIE tfig al pa nar EEESE 3 I 0 ii I J lnglle at 1EEi395 vlElrEigFEiEEii in 3 3 tE1ItEiIIf lquotI iliien1ain5 EllG trE1tfEIquotIiElI fEl dig in figure 393 in l II o The EDG and Molecular geometry arean t always the same Eltectrson Domain 39EiE I39I1EtFIquot EDE 3 Trigonal planar quot39quot395l39tE l339 quoti5lT 395E39339quotquot39EtT iquot Bent I39I39IH39I4IE39lLlIE lltiffteirtent EDE and MG I2iiEIli3i39ilE1IIIquotIEIIIquotIiFl12I ED ilIt39IiE139iIquotIquot39II have an attachetzl msoltecultei EDE belt ra h E42 Feta I ME lzkent or In 1 aha pad Trigonal pyramid Trignntalt P1i39ramtirla Global Warming Deforestation Trees help to maintain atmospheric levels of CO2 by using it in photosynthesis Burning trees after they are cut adds CO2 to the atmosphere Global Warming Potential T ilills i 133 V quotElmquotltisl 39rilrTatIrI39l1irlgP nteImti11lquotnarquotI7lirEs Gnwssmhnuste ags 39llilliIiHl m39i539a HlI mllEl1 Tn39eLlIlI5phlriI 39 EIIleIlI39IlIEIl3939iL 539lIllIEJl jIi39IE llutnlaetllsiatlj tEHquotI quotJquot E illi jt t39quot t l 335 EifflL 2 Lil itlfLIIquot sis ftl Sources of l39u llethmane and INi tr o us Oxide Sources of CH 1 4 E Pmdlustiicm and transport at csI natiural gas squot5 quot l quot and oil 7 l Decay of organic matter dead plants and g F 02 L3 anirT1alls llsindfilllsll s quot quot 3 Agriculture sash cow releases 500i L at CH4 n E per day thursughn belching and lflatuilence 73 59 Rce elds as millicm metric tons of C 4 are released per T year by the rurT1inants We Sources of N20 tjlauighiinvg gas arndl snsstlttsti c W Agricultursll lfsrt ilizsrs and industrial 0 activities 39 5 5 Busrniing of biomass solid waste and lfsssil 5 T2 fuels 9 E E s 0 3 1 DCl I 5D lfll Tirne De39lDre 20105 The increase in temperature of the world FLDGEM Frsjsctjitrrrls sf Su1rlYaETernreratutea 1 FlELH1i39 3939aiIilllill39 f H Lu H1 H1 FlJali139rlquotquotrIha139l39rl39 El FlIlail3991Eraihahiia r il l 1 1 Ll 1 3 I5 Ii Jn39rwI aw g3Sm39l azrTtmpvmturniiheingii f Il Potential Climate Change Impacts Climate changes o Temperature o Precipitation o Sea level rises Consequences o Health impacts Weather related mortality Infectious diseases Air quality respiratory illnesses o Agricultural impacts Crop yields Irrigation demands o Forest impacts Change in forest composition Shift geographies range of forests o Water resource impacts Changes in water supply Water quality o Impacts on coastal areas Erosion of beaches o Species and natural areas Shift in ecological zones Energy and Fossil Fuels ni ti i1i til1t 2r I II itILliilE ililg xhLl iquotI l 39Lge39li quotIT i quottll1 li39 o The burner Fossil fuels Hydrogen Nuclear fission Solar energy 0 Geothermal energy Other ways to make turbine spin 0 Wind o Hydropower o Tides Electricity o Solar energy Photovoltaics o Batteries OOOO Energy the capacity to do work Kinetic energy 0 The energy of motion o Everything moving has its own energy 0 KE 12mv2 Potential energy o A form of energy that depends on the position of an object o Sitting on a shelf ready to fall o The energy of interaction between charges is dependent on the distance between the charges 0 PE mgh Ggravity Potential energy changes into kinetic energy The potential energy that turns into kinetic energy turns into the vibrational energy that is in the floor Energy is never created nor destroyed Electromagnetic radiation o EE hc Energyflow Heat o Energy flows from a hotter to a colder body Temperature is related to molecular motion Work 0 Change involume o Electrical work Energy Units Calorie o Energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius Joule o 1 caorie4184 Joules One heartbeat requires about 1 joule of energy 0 1 J1 kg m2s2 First law of thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed How do we produce energy 0 Conbustion reactions EHatquotQ 2 02 lei G02 19 1 2 llg lg butethiane 1 o o Exothermic reactions Produces and released heatinto the environment The energy released from the chemical reaction How is energy used 0 energy 2 ED E 2 Ha p 2 o Endothermic reaction Absorbs heat from the environment Chemical Energy Glth 19 E U2 Q 1 CD2 9 H29 Ell MEmanE Exothermic reaction Energy pi Fleactants CH4 E D Energy change IS positive Gain of energy The Opposite End0thermiC reaCti0n p 2 HUERJ 802 kJ Emmi E Enerrgy it FquotF t3liUrii E j 33 2 H291 energy 39 Eproductsgt E reactants 39 Eproductslt E reactants Energy change is negative Loss of energy CH4 I E E QUE Q E Hg haietharnte Energy needed to break these bonds given on table Ta 3 ig aqlq liiiii ulElillifaquoti l j iE jt jl3r aEm inlllriit liii H ll I39I El F El Br I S ngliE Estrrla 1 l l g 1215 SEE hll ll E5 liEnII Ei allali 3535 Elillil 39e IEi E 3 2539 225 F 5E 4 E352 1 IiIII E26 1531 El 431 32339 P33 39ELIE 255 255 242 El 3 355 3113 31quot T53 313 EH39 TEEI I51 MulEipnl39E EI39II i39i IC C sq E M 15315 EiI 39i 3 E E 313 Eilltl E Eh 1lTa5Ei l39rlltFll I113 II i 53 Iquotl3H turf H c L p7p The g HEEQWHH H 139 ElH 39339 x a H H H Energy Change detaE Bonds broken broken formed 4416 2498 28034467 814 Do all energetically favorable reactions occur at an appreciable rate NO Acitvaiton energy 0 Energy necessary to initiate a reaction f eetiiluatien energy A HEaG EiEli IllS p Energy Net elnetrgty change in reaetien Precluete Path ef reaction 0 0 Why is it important If you want something like fuel you want it have as much energy as you can but you also want a fuel that will is stable and will react slowly Fossil Fuels Coal 0 Mostly Cs Natural Gas 0 Mostly CH4 Petroleum 0 Very complex mixture All energy stored in fossil fuels originated in the sun Sunlight was captured millions of years ago by green plants through photosynthesis r A g J chlorophyll g g Wh 5 C2 lg 5 H20 ll CeH1l2 OeSl g 5 29 glucose When plants lie they turn into CO2 and H20 0 But under certain conditions they become fossil fuels Animals have the reaction but in the opposite way C5lH12O395S 029 T 0Ic 0 H g H20 ll r A o Combustion reaction 0 The energy released is used to power muscles and nerves and all biological reactions Coal Complex mixture carbon content up to 85 by mass Also contains hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and sulfur 0 And small amounts of a bunch of stuff silicon sodium nickel etc Drawbacks of coal 0 Difficult to obtain Underground mining is expensive and dangerous 0 lt s a solid Difficult to transport It can t be pumped 0 Dirty fuel It produces unburned soot and sulfur and nitrogen oxides Natural gas Methane CH4 Currently provides heat to two thirds of the single family homes and apartment building in the US Burns much more completely and cleanly than coal and gasoline o No release of S02 very low emissions of CO NOX leaves no residue of ash On a per joule of energy basis it produces 30 less CO2 than oil and 43 less than coal It can be used to power cars and trucks to generate electricity Petroleum Took a while for it to catch on t s a liquid 0 Easily obtained 0 Just drill and pump it out o It yields more energy per gram than coal Why did if take long to catch on o It needs to be refined The main drawback o It cannot be used as it comes from the source o Combustions reactions Exothermic reaction 100s to 1000s KJ Petroleum t s a liquid Much easier to obtain than coal Yields 40 o 60 more energy per gram than coal Complex mixture of hydrocarbons 0 Carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbons I39ll l I39ll V H l Hi i H is 5quot ta a t 39t E l 3 H J is flu F z m H H H H H1 H H H H Methane itecane p 154 cl 114 to o The largerthe molecule of hydrocarbon the higher the boiling point The components of crude oil are separated by fractional distillation 0 Purification technique in which the components of a mixture are separated based on their different boiling points Means of separation fractional distillation tower below tractional i hemrwmait carbon atoms FrnIiinnaltin teznwar B ii E FEF Elli 39 i untains hjlIrurim39trlt irs afE 12 39EElrH2il39l HI39in39I5 i Usastti aasirnizllrzatrluial inatlusmial 5quot 5 39 il Eini1l iuquotn5 hydmEamprl39ampa13 39Sal 1il lE aquot39EIrl 39HIquoti atxrns i LIEEldrBtElJEil Eur lamps amuse 1r ur5 IEIIEEEl Br1gi 1as slanting 39l391Bl IiE3939lEij for the crimlting zprmass Contains lquotiyEE39IZl I LlfIIEl39 139E of 1513 carizuzun at39urr15 Llsrednsatmitlrig quot IEJIETIBJ fer tzarizzlting ElnEl39elIIrf1EiEfjHg cuih feir ll39L HlJ j39 am1 f139nJr tiEEiianlfLiian J Lu a39iIaJing ail slack l339I2l39 alquotE hyozlr 1arltii1 E of 1E E39I quot EfZtL39I39 atcumxaz il V quotum 95 r 3quot l quot l 1 4 lbllll 1 l1lLo L l Lsatitt5lulris39airn1zs 3ruIJ7iil1Ifap4ir51i3972I 3 Fl i lsIE i ll flilIn 393 i39liquot lll1 E ImImi mmas N do nn1gaparise ii SAFE 393 3ai JI39quotIa I39quotr P39t1raIlquotiI I waxes asphalt name 139 Catt 39rE segmaratad further Iiti i 2Ii I3lIEILlt39quotE iEt llquotIEl El39EIl JiJf39quotl339E Gasoline Hydrocarbon with 5 to 12 carbon atoms in their molecules H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H X H X H X X H H H HebiL iEiH EiH iEiH iHHJ H H H E H E H E H H H H H H H H H H H H Gtltane H A H H H H C H HHGH Iso stane 13 Isitrlers H G nm The yield of gasoline can be improved by cracking a heavier molecule 0 Process by which large molecules are broken into smaller ones Gasoline additives o Tetraethal lead PbC2H54 Highly toxic Makes the combustion faster 0 Oxygenated Gasoline QHE ll3C O C C H3 CHQCHQOHH CH3 HtlHtH13r tier tl3iut3rl EHHTIEH Ettiarml MTBE MTBE is bad for water supplies Ethanol comes from corn Better octane rating Molecules contain oxygen Oxygenated gasolines burn more completely reducing carbon monoxide CO emissions Oxygenated gasoline is required in 40 states in the US 0 Ethanol Ethanol combustion yields less energy It burns more cleanly lt s already being used How much energy is used in producing it o It takes a lot to produce 29 more fossil fuels to create energy than you get in return


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