SBS 100: Human Origins - Study Guide
SBS 100: Human Origins - Study Guide 72914
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meg Reynolds on Friday October 17, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 72914 at University of Massachusetts taught by Robert Paynter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Anthro 10- Human Nature in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/17/14
Cu h P c T1123 j W 6 J0 V1 1 A e T u4 Zi 1 x 0C L r1 p SC quot1 fj5L P L E quot5 f Z t39VAf1ur1mcAZ V L 1 quotquot F 3 I W m E E 2 M as quotquot Ng5L k h p 0 MJT3gamp39 uw1xe39 39 is3939439 Lr f 39 1 vi 7f3939T 3 6 lM vb 6 M 1 H M m i L quot39 Jquota 1 Fig 39339 Am 4 6 f 39m i 39k T A C f H A Ls 5 k L quot397a r mc7 r quot 239 p eTM v I K 1xI hiL7Z p am J vi L J L Huh I I WH 39gtid39 j quot i y 39 39 w In I F39 quot K k T 3 quot K quotH 4vgr k 39 L239 31 W1 3quot7quot 1 39 I u 0 0 39 39 lt a1gt M4l39 l v x it i w PG 0 q 0 0 Q L n quotWquot 0 F 39 W Anlthro ltlt E l339aynte39r Text39hoollt Study Guide 1 General Conee39pts for Understanding Hurnmi Nature These chapters introduce you to basic anthtrolpoillogieal concepts They are not exactly the same as the eoneepts used in lecture l quotd have to have writt en the textbook for that to be true All the j of diern qw quite elose to the p enneepts 39lquothinlting about them and eomparing and contrasting the way they are used in the text and in lecture will aetually expand your of how an39tl391ropo39logists thinlt about q nature Since these ehapters like the 39leetures are about how we thinlL rather than what we know they i get pretty abstract Read through them and worlr with the study guide i it tells you what i zg you need to eoneentrate on The lectures and the appliieation of these ideas later in the enurse may elear them up lf not always ask a TA or me Chapter l introduction to Anthropologr l What are the four sub elds of antl u39ojpologquot lecture and pp 29 What questions are anthropaologists in each ottheste suh eld 5 trying to answer and what kinds of p39fDjiEClS are you likely to nd them working ori What is applied anthropologr 91l39 De ne l39ossis artit aets middens partieifnant ohservation etlinonltp hy holistic X What is the seientitie method tjl3 l l3 What is the relationshilp hetween la l39lylpCttl lEStl5 data and a theory Think ahout the di er ence between objective lltnowleclge and ssuhjeetive lltnowledge quotl hough this idea is not in the test What would you irnagine to he mtersuhieeitive knowledge De ne hyypothesis 4 What are sorne etxamn7les of how antl1r opoquotlogists study topics of interest to Llquotl l13u1nanities l4 l 7 Chanter ltl Culture and CJhapter l4 Analyzing Soeioeultural Systems i What is Seupin and DeCorse39s de nition of eulture 2 l 2 2239l 592 and how is it sirnilar to and di ierent frorn Paynter s de nition De ne society and system 2 l2 G 8 the meanings of worlrdviewg ideologt and eultural hegtemonyl 2 l 3 What is the diffe39relne e hetween ideall and real culture 220 Givxe an vesarn39ple of ideal and real culture at UMass Define eultural retlathdsm and iethnoeentrism 22l l I You dsonht have to memories all otquotthern but do look at the list ofeultural uniuersals on page 226 Do any catch your attention What would P some things that Unliversal People do 226ft l 2 Chapter 14 is very abstract and 39presents ideas and concepts without many es iarnples As a result it may idit cult to every idea that eornes up However many will reoecur in later read ings sections and lectures should malts more sense by the end of the semester For instance read over the seetiorl on ethnogaphie resear h and strategies and etl1ies297quot3 Ilyou will he dUlltlg la rhini c later in the semester andirereadinjg this section then may help you SUCGE5l5 Jllyi eomnlvete the reereise The sections on the Llniversals Vz1riaquothlesi Studiied by Cultural Anthropologisyts Lliilh1eloseily parallel my lecture on the eornponenits of eulture Reading over this section may help you better 0 these key eornponients only briefly discussed Then again they not malce sense until we talk about thern later in the sernester Here are some of the key ideas in this section to come to grips with What is a biorne and what is the name and eharaeteristies of the hiorne of Massachusetts 3l3 What is meant hy subsistence lpatterns M what are T basic of subsistence 39oatte rns found in the world39s cultures 3 D239 De ne tdernogaphy 304 What is 0 capacity 3U4 r How ahout a detinitinn of teehnolog is it just the tools we use 3tl5quot What39s an39thropol ogist mean hy the economy the division of labor i3t395a6g39 What is social suuetur39e ascribed and achieved status 306 Hlow do Seupin and Detjolrse de ne family generally and nuclear and extended farnilies 3 7e339 What Z the lin1etions of families Blll8 What39s the dif l7erenee hetween sea and gender 3t8 9 quot39 What are age gadesi 3 10 What are age grades that are relevant to the soeialf of UMass39 De ne the four types of poilitieajl systems on 3 l Note that we use slightly diffe39ren t terms de nitions in lecture llJITipiI1gl1llE tribes and ehiefdoms into rantlced society itdentitiying the hands widi egalitarian society and the states surati ed soeiety llow talaoiut the difterenee hetween a war and a feud 3 l2 and read about the rather long definition of religion on f7 13 Cieertz z are 39rnytl1s and rituals and thaw do they work in religion 3 l 4 Do rituals only occur in theliiohitexT 7 o reilquotig39iorns Who are sltarnans P 39prieslesses and priests 3 I 5 Smmltt 394 dt c 1cI1N xl gtQM f PS mock p T 0l L 39 8 a rquotquot gt 39T 0 T cT v B yHW TL e2ag Y d4 391ggS d C elm gimm r 1 39 F 1 T W5 1 05 a t1 rw1f5 L T V i dual u 3 rwul e 1M t w E42 M S 9 g ate J5 mrf14LJ 4 J f M1V17ampVV k aam 7 g fgtmn39 9 mm u Lx T 7 X v39 5139 39 2T3 i 39e W a L x A E Mn m tb M M Agata Ew 2TTTTigtgtw r u H njmtkej P J M WJL UM 39j quot M2 P quotTT 395T quot T5 T5 bv p 0 v2 360 A gtUS T3un Ce J9 f7I 4 LS quot Ux A L 4 1 J1 c2H4 39 mmwm 3 A 9zy9vW7 frr g W7lt 1 cLam4 T amp Tcw r QM TL5 viiquot77r J if v 39 l t39li quot39 TTquot39ampTT13Tl luwwvn 7 C1u rEwf r 94 53 yTirr1 r j Pa D T P A quotquot TTC7 5 F5 W jva M f Z c53939 39 1ff3 i 39 Lsv7 CEVIJTEn 7T5T393 I as1 TT 3T615 W 395 3 T T T T Ebkgf T T T 1 LTIZ 5egt 5345quot pa T cI 2 z TT T In dquotc41 quotAT T M7Z2 w T F S rwMw j5TTTTTbrr 714 TV p4 P V e UH ip2Wm MMm M J L 5 quot 5 Y 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aamprmn 1mq LENI 1zAe r39r quot7quote M7 z P 6 P h J U 6quotff PO P p 1 r p p d P i T VT w 1 X 0M p m p0 9 0 0 ciiseq m 4 I wxet3E575nw m 47m Pi w ir 397 C quot C2 Li j0 if myargfrjktc C3 jL ia41J Iuc aA39 r J 7quotCj Q44 f39T f g d39yf 1Pt Z r jg L Jfr 5 4rm N Lf ta6 i u2re Z3 39 fL 1 W A V L I gig p8 1 L 3 Z1 3 t L ag a ta 2 3 lt J P Anthre l00 Peyn39ter39 Textbook Steely Guide quotl Chapter l3 Ainthrepe lngi cal Esplanati euns l39l39his is a very dense chapter that lays haul the various ways that an nnpolngists thi M abent the prelelenr of llndiefsl dlllg P nature Here are same key concepts to understaI1cl What is a ltle nitien of unilineal evelutien and how is it an ethnoeentric VlEquotW 2822S3l PI Uquott39id 3llEX IT1plE efpeeple IOClE1y t15lng nniilineal evelntien te ttntle c culnnal variations 39Which theer r 39heltls that each society has its own unique hist erilcal de39velepment 2C341285 How is this di erent from unilineal evnlutinn hVh 39 lE39VElUpEfl39lli1iS approach What was his rnethad llle tc an 284 that Boas was a famens antl1relpelegist who theught ahent hnrnan natures in terms of culture language b l IDgj atI1vd39tetht1DlDg39jilSllike this ccwursel clees m was Leslie Whitequots hypetllesis eif cultural esrelu len tn explrain s eci naeultural di quoterenees 286 What was ie themes of luian Stewards cultural et0logr quottn 39U dB39fSllEJ ld peepile s Il1ltt1FE53923 7 What was Karl Pq ertfplanatien ef39w39l391at pr acluces the general cl1arac ter efsecial political 0 spiriimal processes of life 238 293 Does this makes 0 a materialist or a cnlturalist 29 l 2 What is the man paint of the fEmi1l 1iSl pelrspe ctiv39e in anthrnpelegr 29 I ll What is your crpinien about the pn str neclernists criticism of the licleatl391at elthncgraphers are scielnti c and objective and the people they shurdy lil e yen are subjective think with traclitienal wnrldviews and ces39meIegies 3293 2939 l39 How hav el anthre peln gists zrespendecl ta this tlebatel 293A Which of these the ories er e en1h inatiens ref them best describes hew l Rw appraac hlng x nature Chapter 3 Esnlutien l De ne Coslrnelogies What is the most important cesrno39egical nacllition affecting Western views at creatien 45 46p 2 De ne evelultilon 43 594 who are associated with ehe idea ofevelutien and especiaillly the idea elf naturali seileeti nn 49 Itquot you lift weights and devele p trernendense upper f strength 9 yen hinv39l0gically pass this b on to yours children who is assecia39tetl with this lucjnd of false e39seI ntien 43 Whats is the de nitien nf evelntien from llecture De ne gene 52 54 595 What hlilelegic39ally does a gene ales B fi do 54 What are de nitie ns of and the relationship between the genretype and phenetype 53 What 4 forces leacl te ehanpges in the frequency ef alleles between generetin39ns 39le in hielegical evolution 56539 and how Z rltey definecl De ne leeelegical niche and species 58 idealism andps1ne39uateel eqnilihriarn 59 The ll1e raesis V all is 0 W way to explain the extinction ef clinesaurs reps1and tl1eTrise efmamrnals us whales degs catsl monkeys andiso em But with a E l1Inhyear39 interval has it yet G payed a direct role in the lelvelntinn efihnniiin lsdls yen will J te sltuldy the cable en 4T5 and listen to lectures to consider this On the earlier hancli please de ne centinerrtal drift E2 EC it played a role in ihrurnan eveliutioln and does it still do so Cnrnpare and enntriastt Scielnce and LSeielntii e Creatlnlnism on the cnn cvept gt01 39evcl utien 6465 Chapter 6 p Variation lllknw do hernlnglebin and melanin a ect skin color quotI 23 What are esplanatielns fer Ithe variation in the arnmntt of melanin in the sldn l24 What is Allen39s rule l l 25 Why clues the stielzzlinpg trait persist despite the fact that peeple that carry me trait en hetgh ehrmnesorn ers lle 20 l1emeayge39t1s get the e en 39leIhal disease of sickle cell anemia 1262739l Why are people hem some populatiens mere likelly to be laetnse te39lerant as adults l2E 2 What is 3 definition nf race I2quot3lC l of racism I 33 3 Has there heen slcienti c agelelm ent an the nnmlner elf races see the table an L3 p Y is the idea efen1esand what is its signi cance for the idea elf race l3 lll 35 Hew dces rnnltlieariate analysis wealruen the nceion of l the existence of biological races among 0 l35j 39 What pJ tn account for IQ scare dillier ences hetween racial groups I 36 ls in1tel39ligenee a phen 0rn enen iea ifjreu smart in one thing yen srnart in all I l37 539quot39I39aI r39 gt p R K P JLS J quotl WLe Lsrwv1 F 1p aL S1gquotyMn SG H S pG qF G NI F J U I z cH I F Q p S G p X w quotWW Wu W V M W W P V A 0 F p V M OI U P Q U aF fF mig E F 0R G 3Z PwG 0 U u 0rY 0Z M M W X LBS 42 19 5 6F 0 R iT M Wm M5 39 B 5 W W39 39 quot W9 Q T ET R u L ca Qzgz SuwD im4 Ir P quot A Ida s H J 5 h 39 M 1rurar Pant er Anthro 100 Teztrtboolt Study Guide 2 M39iocene Pliocene Lowzer and Middle Iquot le39istooene Chapters 0 r The Record of the Past 0q This chapter concentrates on techiniqlues and procedures used to read the T As a result the authors go irito rnore detail than i thlinllt you need to lotow with the ettoepti on of some key points in the r1ext question llovweuerj if you thinlt archaeologt is interesting this e pretty quielc introduetiton to how we Tm errheeologist a H istoriesl Arehaeo logist in see W 239 about and proceed to inrvestigate the 2 Please de ne research design 2 l fossil 3 594 ar eIhaeo logieail sites 23 artifact 36 591 feature 28 P context 25 The key point about content is that if you tind a neat erehaeoltogitesl site you should leove the stuff in the ground or else you will mess up the potential to learn from studyiItg the oonteirt p at the picture on 36 What do you think is below Thompson 39Hall lquot your h o39useieper39unent Chapters 41 l3rimstes l P tzhapter gives an overview of quotwhat is 4 about the evolution of all the primates and some sense of their present eharaeteristies nnd situoti ons rt njumber are endangered species l n1ostly wantquot you to know about some of the basic tosttures of pritnate biology and behavior that are suggestive tor undersmnding the and euo lutison of the 0S printate So read ldeep ly39 in this ehepters if it interests you you can learn aboiut Lrtne Goodall and Dion Fosseyt for instance There is also owery interesting but technical discussion about the discussion in the eld about the terms hon1inid39quot and hominin on 73 The hook and my lectures stick with tlte term quot39quot horninid hut liflyou wont to go on in biological on39tlnrojpolog thtis discussion would g good to your head around Ull te Vl SE39 skim the chapter es en evlaboration on points brought up in lecture and be able to address the following issues Are descended from eonternporaery monkeys and apes 69 What q of the skeleton are the x and the post craniuru TH When did primates first evolve 74 What is a cornerstone ofprintste social life 33 moist39pr in1s1tes solitary or stoeial anirnsls 88 What advsntsges eorne with social iliffe 3839 What is social groorning 90 How do pnirnetes tend to order their social relations B9 is dontinanee 39 What happens when CirDf illquotl3TlCC hiererrhies are upset l939iZil Chapter 5 lelorninid Evolution i This chapter is gDOClBilE1lZlOI til on eoneepts theories l ossrils sites mentioned in lecture lquotrn not you to rernernher all the details though reading this chapter de niteiljy enrishes your irnng39in39ings of the Pli oPileistoeene well being to good reference for understanding the quotsensationalquot nds that will be reported in the media jaloout this Ther e Q some points tdiseussed more ully here then i can address in leetttre and i would like you to think about them and in sorne instencteis rneruorize pertinent facts identi ed in the following questions 2 Please the biologitsl eihsraeteris39ties e signifieonee of the following fossils andLioltr sites Piltdown 10se olr Olduuai Gorge I04llfl5 Lovey I ii I G the Leetoli footpri1139ts39lD 3t can hutlnsns outdistsuee alrnost all other rnornrnals over long distanoes peuticuilerily when it is hot 3997 p in discuss lng why there so many di erent interprets39tliorts of the quotfossil reeord Seupin DeC orse disting39uish between lumpers spl39itters llll What is this distinction is my leot1ue Insteriel Sl1ggB39Sli39lVBDilllquot39l iIilE being a luntper or e splitter What do you is the relstiionship hetw39een be ing to luiuperisplitter and pop u39stionist and typologieel drinking 4 What is the logic behind the Mlultiregionsl the ltep aclten1erit and the 1lyh39ridii2stion and Assimilation models for the euolution of modern Ilonto sepiens 1 l3 1 l5 P do Scupin and Decorse suggest that neendertols were not brutish 1 lo quot Suquot u39 5 53 E3 TSquot392 r PL Srfgt 5 quot L J39 quot99 39 gtquotF339j r r 0 is4PC H 3 7 fU391 ei 39J Jfigj 3 S3392 L C lw gz d 5 SsA m A 1 n T quot39 L4fJZ46 CO gt M 0 P TI L I 397 b b b i Ifii PwM V 0 M LM l539 139 Ew4ru mdw Pt Lmr fJig 4617 LH PO p F N 0SJ xN N N O NL p4O p4O A CI rM N L PWL fO i P L P N L L LCvi K J M IH M T MT K N I 7L N M M 5 p L Of L V i A9 S rJ In E 439 7I Lg lA f1 7i7u2 5 a j 39 v LLwe391are C yJ I 141quot 5 1J 0 5 r rLu 1 tax H 5 7L3 LxM Z5 F G pI A LE a a x11 D I Sf H E TE p G F p jf p E P A quot39 nn E 23 I B u A CrquotT 39Lr1Wquot x B L A c A C B p p A L 3936quot77quot C D quotU PC uurj CH hA B L W W3 QF1 quot r39Er 1 7L equotquot3 C T Q gt 1quot quotquot rF9 gr 395 R RA A A L 3 Q J mg WWLIC J 0 Lvaqec 9amp4 3 V M3 W D p A A 6714 b 39 1g 1 A P A 0 Inn I91 7 7A 71 3 I141 3 o39iHufarLrurJ l 5 LJ il ij St rm vw 5FMquot quotI W aLg Lw1 xL vELn w 5 ma 0 J t o o 51 bcL39ii3 39 L why 3 0 G P P if I V L m w j M r y m LE P 3 L 1r1 Lj f 3 Z L I x39 7 ai 5quotVquott7 Mi I 439 C5 33 13 6j p 13iZW1rami M P 5 c wvg 7 1 quot 1k 31ei k395quot39 quot3quotj m ixma 0 3 es 5 5 r w MiL5 E U A N V V 7 mi z M i2 W P H w 1L 9 7 1w C2 f l 7 quotfquotD ZiL I iLL 4 EVIL V P E Vquot L 7 H F b quotzL ff ff1 R3quot 391 P M F 0 M L E bl P N 1N 1 ue I J p L IL f AT 0 P JH p M 39 N P8 Z 39 quot r Jun EL a 0J pM L 2 M 1 f39flv39m 0 Q N 393 3I z V 4f 7tquot N 73947 A P V2 PhO p M V p P M H P N 0 cH 2 L lI K K p 1 V2 W1 K I J A K e namp 3r7 Li5 2 1 L 0 lr ufT 1 L3 P quot ZL 39qquotli quot C794 P K gig H Lt397 quot 39 39 LCquot quotIquot 135 H l r pD0 1 3 2 LLEj 16 E I quothug B C 3 0 1 3 X Q j r c L I E Q P pQ P P p O s5fLJLr3 J quot PF O fquot5 11 R C 39 FI r lt1 w lt 1me u 1v 39 P CO V LH R P 0 P mi Pe C ifw w if aarL 0 z O ifrUw 39 L LL rgrriM5 mw l P z H 3 F pn v 3 E S A P S S p E i R 7 rtMzsiw grm15 A h Pi AA E31 1w iL7M I C quot ff7e39f P P T R 0 E 5 r G R Chaptm T Paleolithic Cuhures This chapter is consider e d on1m 1iStI1dy Guides n P 3 3 1 What are basic characteristics of the Clmowan imdushy M3144 What is a crime peibbile or chopper tool I43 How do we knowquot how Olduwan totals were made and whant tl1e39y were used for 143439 392 2 is an Acheulian Jhand 1 14939 2 Acheumian hand axes found in the area that is today China and Ilndonesia I 50 Be suave to nnt39icet11e piclw39e of me hut on 156 and the eleph1nt bones on 153 since we Wm ml about them in lecmre when we discuss Terra Amama the hut and Tovrralba and Ambmna the lephant 39b0nesa ze f
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