PSY 325: Health Psychology - Study Guide
PSY 325: Health Psychology - Study Guide PSY 325
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Solomon Yang on Friday October 17, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 325 at University at Buffalo taught by Schlauch, Robert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 420 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 10/17/14
EXAM1 STUDY GUIDE REMEMBER THIS IS JUST A GUIDE TO ASSIST YOU IN YOUR STUDY ALL INFORMATION PRESENTED IN THE BOOK AND LECTURES ARE FAIR GAME ADVICE FOR STUDYING 1 Be able to describe the various topics in your OWN words 2 Apply examples to various topics Lecture 1 Introduction to Health Psychology Understand trends related to lifeexpectancy it went from 5080 years Factors affecting lifeexpectancy public sanitation vaccines and treatments of infectious disease What is the single most important reason life expectancy has increased Decrease in infant mortality What are the leading causes of death and how that varies based on age Leading cause of death in the 1990s were infectious diseases tuberculosis pneumonia diarrhea Leading cause in the 2000s was chronic illness which is long lasting or recurrent disease affecting people over long periods of time heart disease cancer stroke Factors related to mortality and reasons why 1 Age older people are more likely to die than younger people 2 Ethnicity leading causes of death vary among ethnicities 1 cause of death for EuropeanHispanicAfrican Americans is heart disease 1 cause of death for Asian Americans is cancer 3 Income limited access to health insurance and medical care poor mothers likely to have lowbirth weight babies and deliver babies who have had prenatal child abuse increase infant mortality rates 4 Education those who attend college have lower death rates than those that have not Higher educated people report better jobs higher incomes better access to health care fewer daily health symptoms less stress healthier habits Trends related to health care including medical costs In the US medical costs have increased faster than in ation Know Sheldon Cohen s research on colds and its implications Participants received a cold virus and then quarantined not all participants developed a cold The implications of this study demonstrated the inadequacy of the biomedical model to explain all infection and disease and highlights the importance of psychological and social factors in understanding infection and disease Traditional and contemporary views of health traditional view of health is the biomedical model contemporary view is the biopsychosocial model World health organization currently de nes health as a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or in rmity Biomedical vs biopsychosocial models of health 0 Biomedical traditional view of health disease results from exposure to pathogen views health as the absence of disease 0 Benefits stimulated research on the search for speci c pathogens spurred the development of drugs and medical technology 0 Drawbacks this view conceptualized disease exclusively as a biological process that is an almost mechanistic result of exposure to a specific pathogen 0 Biopsychosocial disease results from a combination of biological psychological and social in uences views health as a positive condition What is behavioral medicine similar discipline to health psychology that is concemed with the integration of biomedical science with behavioral sciences developed as a field in 1977 Key difference from health psychology is that behavioral medicine encompasses health psychology but places a greater focus on combining psychology and medicine for the prevention diagnosis and treatment and rehabilitation Also an interdisciplinary field where health psychology is sub discipline within psychology Lecture 2 amp 3 Research Methods What is the scientific attitude Approaching the world with curious skepticism thinking without blindly accepting arguments and conclusions question things Why should we care about research and research methods 0 Research is important because we cannot simply rely on our intuition It helps us evaluate common ideasbeliefs helps keep you up to date on information that is relevant to your life makes you an informed consumer develops critical thinking skills helps you become an authority expert in certain topics 0 We should care about research methods because it allows researchers to make health related claims be familiar with each other s work use controlled methods for collecting data keep personal biases from contaminating results make claims cautiously replicate their studies Reliability and Validity 0 Reliability consistency o lntemal consistency o Interrater reliability 0 Testrest reliability 0 Validity measures what it is designed to measure Correlational studies What are they studies to identify whether or not factors are related to each other Correlation coefficient the scale by which the strength of a correlation is measured as well as its valance whether its positive or negative Positive vs negative correlation 0 Positive indicates a positive association 0 Negative indicates a negative association Spurious correlation when two factors are correlated but the correlation is due to a 3rd variable that you do not know about Determining Causality general criteria 0 Correlation does not mean causation 0 Cause must come before the effect there must be a correlation between the two factors and the causal relationship must be nonspurious Crosssectional vs Longitudinal designs 0 Crosssectional conducted at a point in time and examines different age groups aids in the study of developmental issues can tell us if there is a relationship 0 limitation of this type of designs is that it cannot make conclusions about individual changes over time 0 Longitudinal these studies follow the same set of participants over time tells us if there is a relationship but cannot rule out spurious relationships also can tell us about temporal relationships 0 drawbacks for this design is it is very expensive and time consuming and there is a high drop rate Experimental designs assist researchers in determining if one variable directly causes another variable helps establish causality Criteria of true experiments 3 conditions must be satisfied 1 Must systematically manipulate or vary at least 1 independent variable 2 Must assign people to groups in a way that ensures their initial equivalence 3 Must control for extraneous variables that may affect the results Independent vs dependent variable experimental vs control conditions 0 Independent variable variable that is manipulated o Dependent variable variable this is measured 0 Experimental group receives treatment 0 Control group does not receive treatment Importance of random assignment helps ensure initial equivalence QuasiExperimental designs an empirical study used to estimate the causal impact of an intervention on its target population Limitations Cannot rule out confounding variables Determining causality in epidemiological or health related research 7 criteria 1 A doseresponse relationship exists Removal of the condition reduces prevalence or incidence of the disease The condition precedes the disease A causeeffect relationship is physiologically plausible Research consistently reveals a relationship Strength of the relationship in relatively high 7 Relationships demonstrated with welldesigned studies What are RCTs Participants are randomly assigned to either a study group or a control group onften considered the gold standard of research designs eliminates potential confounds lie self selection bias What are placebo effects Inactive substance or condition that has the appearance of an active treatment placebos have been shown to positive health outcomes for many health disorders and symptoms Placebos do not just effect people psychologically expectancies are a major component they effect people physically as well can alter neurotransmitters hormones and endorphins Nocebo can produce adverse effect that occurs when a placebo is given EquotquotS quot Lecture 4 Health Care Disease vs Illness 0 Disease the process of physical damage within the body 0 Illness the experience of being sick or having a diagnosis of sickness Illness Behavior vs Sickrole behavior Illness behavior activities undertaken by people who experience symptoms but who have not yet received a diagnosis Sickrole behavior behavior of person after diagnosis is received Segall s three rights and duties 0 3 rights 1 to make decisions conceming health issues 2 to be exempt from normal duties 3 to become dependent on others for assistance 0 3 duties 1 to maintain health and get well 2 to perform routine health care management 3 to use a range of health care resources Factors in uencing seeking medical attention 1 Personal factors a Examples how people view their own body level of anxiety related to their condition level of anxiety related to their condition coping resources level of physical functioning level of stress personality traits 2 Gender a Women tend to report more symptoms and distress about those symptoms b Men only report lifethreatening symptoms and are less likely to seek medical attention 3 Age a Young adults are the least likely to seek medical attention older adults tend to attribute their symptoms to old age and delay seeking medical attention 4 Socioeconomic a higher SES groups experience fewer symptoms but are more likely to seek medical attention than lower SES groups b low SES groups wait longer to seek care but once they do symptoms may be more severe c Why Low SES have less access to health care facilities and often wait longer at facilities they do attend 5 Ethnic a European Americans most likely to seek medical care b Ethnic minorities are likely to experience discrimination c Those who experience discrimination less likely to seek care Symptom characteristics when are people more likely to seek attention 0 Symptoms are visible person perceives symptoms as more severe symptoms interfere with everyday life symptoms are frequent and persistent Be sure to know the 5 components in the conceptualization process 1 Identity of the disease if the label of the disease is viewed as minor one is less likely to seek health care how we label something will in uence what else we report label one assigns will carry information about the symptoms and time course of the disease 2 Timeline people with chronic disease often don t see it as chronic but rather acute and time limited this view can be problematic when managing an illness chronic labels can also be associated with greater psychological distress perhaps why people may be biased to labeling symptoms as acute 3 Cause of disease tends to occur more after a diagnosis if the symptoms can be attributed to a cause less likely to seek attention less likely to seek attention if attributed to emotional or spiritual causes 4 Consequence of the disease although often linked to the diagnoses misperceptions of the consequences may affect treatment seeking behaviors people who view a disease as hopeless are more likely to neglect health care people who fear potential consequences may delay seeking medical attention for symptoms 5 Controllability of the disease refers to peoples belief that they can control the course of the course of the illness by controlling the treatment people who view the disease as uncontrollable are less likely to seek care and experience greater distress people who perceive they can control their symptoms without medical consultation will be less likely to seek professional medical care Sources of medical information 0 Lay Referral Network refers to friends and family of those affected who offers information and advice before any official medical treatment is sought often the first source of information obtained most people only seek help after having a conversation with people close to them 0 Internet majority of intemet users in the US report seeking medical information about themselves women and those with a higher education are more likely than others to use the intemet Potential issues with using internet sources increase access to misinformation Challenges faced with receiving medical care limited access to medical care choosing a practitioner being in the hospital 0 people without insurance are less likely to have a regular physician more likely to have a chronic health problem and less likely to seek health care because of cost 0 people with chronic disease and no health insurance have poorly controlled conditions difficulty obtaining prescriptions more health crises higher risk of mortality Lecture 5 Adhering to Healthy Behavior Adherence a person s ability and willingness to follow recommended health problems Ways of measuring it including strengths and limitations accuracy of the methods 1 ask the practitioner 2 ask the patient 3 ask other people 4 monitor medication usage 5 examine biochemical evidence 6 use a combination of those procedures Barriers to Adherence cost patients see the regimen as being too difficult or time consuming patients treat regimen as advice rather than orders patients stop taking medication when symptoms disappear Factors Predicting Adherence O O OOOO O O Severity of the disease people s perception of the severity of their disease is more predictive of adherence than objective severity of disease Treatment characteristics side effects of the medication complexity Age young and old are more likely to be nonadherent Gender generally women and men have adherence rates Personality patterns there is no global set pattern of personality trait that leads to adherence Emotional factors high stress and depression is related to nonadherence Economic factors people with greater income and greater education are more adherent Social support tangible and intangible help a person receives from friends andor family Cultural norms individuals less acculturated to western medicine have poorer adherence Continuum vs Stage Theories O O Continuum use a single set of factors to explain adherence for everyone one size fits all Stage theories propose that people pass through a series of stages as they attempt to change their behavior Know what each model is including the strengths and weakness of each Health Belief Model suggests four beliefs that should predict healthrelated behaviors including adherence 1 Perceived susceptibility to disease 2 Perceived severity to the disease 3 Perceived benefits of healthenhancing behaviors 4 Perceived barriers to healthenhancing behaviors Selfefficacy theory I believe they can initiate and carry out this behavior selfef cacay 2 believe that the behavior will produce valuable outcomes outcome expectations Theory of planned behavior 1 Three factors shape intention attitude toward behavior perceived behavioral control subjective norms Behavioral theory reinforcement strengthens behavior punishment decreases behavior Transtheoretical Model precontemplation contemplation preparation action maintenance Precaution Adoption process model stage theory consisting of seven distinct states between ignorance and completed preventive action Stages are unaware of the issue aware of the issue but not personally engaged engaged and deciding what to do planning to act but not yet having acted having decide not to act acting and maintenance Health action process approach involves two general stages motivational phase volitional phase Strengths of the theory are that it takes into account planning which has been shown to be very important in physical exercise Weakness is that it is a newer theory so not as much support Motivation phase includes outcome expectations risk perceptions self efficacy and intention Volitional phase includes planning and action IntentionBehavior Gap some health behavior theories suggest that peoples intentions are predictive of people s behaviors however research had shown that people often intend to behave in one way but do not Behavioral Willingness person s motivation at a given moment to engage in a risky behavior Improving Adherence educational strategies increasing peoples knowledge behavioral strategies more directly involved in changing behaviors Lecutre 6 amp 7 What is Stress Stress and Disease Know the basic physiological response involved with stress Sympathetic nervous system s role Mobilized body for action active under stressful conditions Increases heart rate breathing sweating Decreases gastrointestinal activity Two ways in which the ANS can be activated 1 direct activation of the sympathetic division which activates the adrenal medulla 2 indirect activation through the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal HPA axis What is allostasis and allostatic load 0 Allostasis process of achieving stability or homeostasis through physiological or behavioral change 0 Allostatic load biological cost of adapting to stress General Adaptation Syndrome body s generalized attempt to defend against a stressor 3 stages alarm initial response to stressor resistance body mobilizes to defend against stressor exhaustion ongoing response to stressor can lead to depleted resources for the body Helps to explain how stress relates to physical illness Hans Selye view may be too simplistic we may not respond to all stressors the same way his view also ignores situation and psychological factors Strengths and weaknesses Transactional Theory of Stress conceptualized stress as being determined by a person it is not the environmental event nor the persons response but rather the person s perception of the situation that determines what is stressful Including types of appraisals if the person perceives a stressful event as a treat they will panicfreeze up If they perceive it as a challenge then they will be arousedfocused Coping with a stressful situation coping is a process as it constantly changes and adapts to the situation it is not automatic it is a leamed pattem of responses to stressful situations it requires effort and its an effort to manage the situation Sources of Stressors some stressors are cataclysmic unique and powerful events that could be intentional terrorist attacks or unintentional natural disaster PTSD is a mental health disorder triggered by an extremely stressful event Other stressors are major life events including life changes negative events or positive events things like medicalpsychological illnesses Characteristics of Stressors severity chronicity timing proximity expected controllable What is Coping strategies that individuals use to manage the distressing problems and emotions in their life Two factors determining how well someone will cope personal resources and speci c personal coping strategies Emotion vs Problemfocused coping o Emotionfocused managing emotions that come from stress such as venting about a problem can be useful when problemfocused coping is not a viable coping strategy 0 Problemfocused changing the source of the stress such as making a plan to help you solve a problem overall contributes to good health especially when dealing with chronic stress Behavioral Interventions for Stress Relaxation CBT Emotional Disclosure For the biological connections between stress and immune functioning know generally how does stress affect immune functioning ie see figure on title slide and slide titled Stress and immune functioning DO NOT WORRY ABOUT SPECIFICS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Psychoneuroimmunology multidisciplinary field that focuses on the interactions between behavior the nervous system the endocrine system and the immune system all these systems interact and exchange information with each other and impact health Diathesisstress model s role in stress and disease 0 predisposition diathesis vulnerability stressor disease Stress and Headaches stress may increase the number of headaches or magnify the pain Infectious Disease higher the person s stress the more likely the person is to become ill Cardiovascular Disease people who have heart attacks name stress as a cause of their disorder workplace and home stress nancial stress and major life events are the type of stress that impact risk of attack Ulcers stress that in uences the increase of behavioral factors may directly cause ulcers Anxiety generalized anxiety disorder persistent worrying and apprehension about multiple domains Depression stress contributes to the development of depressive symptoms Know generally how stress increases the risk of the above conditions
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