PSY 325: Health Psychology - Study Guide
PSY 325: Health Psychology - Study Guide PSY 325
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Solomon Yang on Friday October 17, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 325 at University at Buffalo taught by Schlauch, Robert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 271 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 10/17/14
Lecture 8 Chronic Pain Understanding and Managing Pain What is Pain Unpleasant feeling caused by illness or injury Purpose of pain pain is important to survival Understand the general physiology of pain Somatosensory system 0 Starts with the senses sense receptors located on the surface of the body turn physical energy into neural impulses which travel to the peripheral nervous system toward the spinal cord amp brain Most common places of origin of pain are skin amp muscles 0 Sensory afferent neurons relay information from the sense organs toward the brain 0 Myelinated afferent neurons I A fibers important in pain perceptions I Responsible for fast prickly pain 0 Unmyelinated afferent neurons I C fibers responsible for slower dull pain Spinal cord 0 Pathway for ascending sensory information and descending information and descending motor information to and from the brain Brain Somatosensory cortex in particular 0 Part of the brain that receives sensory information that allows the entire surface of the skin to be mapped Neurotransmitters 0 Chemicals that are synthesized and stored in neurons I ie endorphins enkephalins and dynorphin modulate pain I Glutamate substance P bradykinin and prostaglandins produce pain 3 Stages of pain 0 Acute pain lets us know we are injured and we should be careful cause is clear adaptive 0 Chronic Pain less obvious adaptive benefit 0 Prechronic pain between acute and chronic pain Factors in uencing pain 0 Individualized differences in pain 0 cultural differences in pain 0 gender Theories of Pain Specificity theory 0 o Hypothesizes that specific pain fibers and pain pathways exist making the experience of pain virtually equal to the amount of tissues damage or injury pain is the result of pain signals sent to the pain center of the brain 0 Limitations of this theory I Overly simplistic I Research has failed to identify specific receptors or pain centers Gatecontrol theory 0 Pain perception is subjected to a number of modulations that in uence the experience of pain 0 Structures in the spinal cord function as a gate for the sensory input that the brain interprets as pain 0 Theory also suggests that pain has motivational and emotional components gate control trigger Pain Syndromes Know the different syndromes we discussed including some of the basic statistics regarding them eg male versus female differences age differences prevalence etc More than 30 of people in the US experience chronic or intermittent persistent pain Chronic pain is categorized as a syndrome symptoms that occur together Different types are headache pain 90 of people experience low back pain 80 experience them arthritis pain in ammation at joints mostly biological Fibromyalgia tender points throughout body similar to arthritis accompanied with extreme fatigue headache cognitive difficulties anxieties sleep disturbances psychological component more than biological Phantom limb pain experience of chronic pain in a part of the body that is missing 0 90 of amputees experience this 0 Treated through mirror therapy Medical approaches for dealing with each type of pain 0 Treatment for acute pain is easier as source of pain is clear 0 Chronic pain is more difficult because there is not usually an obvious source 0 Relief can be sought through 2 methods I medical approaches 0 analgesic drugs relieve pain most likely to be opiates or nonnarcotic analgesics 0 surgery aims to repair the source of the pain or alter the nervous system to alleviate the pain I behavioral management approaches 0 relaxation therapy systematic tensing and relaxing of muscles treats tension amp migraine headaches rheumatoid arthritis low back pain 0 behavioral therapy process of shaping behavior through the application of operant conditioning principles removal of reinforces that may have been prompting pain traps has been effective in decreasing pain intensity and improving quality of life 0 cognitive therapy based on the principle that people s beliefs personal standards and feelings of self efficacy strongly affect their behavior identify irrational thoughts or catastrophizing and eliminate or change them 0 cognitive behavioral therapy CBT type of therapy aimed at developing beliefs attitudes thoughts and skills to make positive changes in behavior Lecture 9 Infectious Disease HIV and STDSTIs What are STIs Know definition 0 Refers to more than 25 infectious organisms that are transmitted primarily through sexual activity and includes infections that are asymptomatic doesn t show symptoms What are some health problems and complications that can result from STIs 0 Infertility pelvic in ammatory disease ectopic pregnancy pregnancy outside of the uterus and chronic pelvic pain Which STIs must be reported to the CDC Many STIs are asymptomatic what does this mean And why does that matter 0 Asymptomatic doesn t show symptoms this is important because the person might be infected with an STI may not even know it Gender differences in STIs and related complications 0 Women suffer more frequent and more serious STD complications than men do Social behavioral economic factors affecting STIs Sexual networks refers to groups of people who can be considered linked by sequential or concurrent sexual partners A person may have only 1 sex partner but if that partner is a member of a risky sexual network then the person is at high risk for STDs Substance abuse intro of new illicit substances can alter sexual behavior drastically in high risk sexual networks leading to the epidemic spread of STDs Poverty STDs disproportionately affect disenfranchised people and people in social networks where high risk sexual behavior Is common and either access to care of health seeking behavior is compromised Raceethnicity certain racial and ethnic groups have high rates of STDs African American Hispanic American IndianAlaskan native compared with rates for whites Perhaps the most important social factors contributing to the spread of STDs in the US are the stigmas associated with STDs and the general discomfort of discussing intimate aspects of life What are some sexual behaviors that increase risk of STI 0 Having more than one sexual partner changing sexual partners frequently not using a condom using unreliable barrier methods using barrier methods inconsistently Major STIs Caused by bacteria Chlamydia I Incidence very common I Transmission sexual contact with infected person I Treatment antibiotics I Symptoms burning with urination discharge 0 Often asymptomatic 75 of women and 50 of men Gonorrhea I Incidence common I Transmission sexual contact with infected person man who has unprotected sex with infected women has 2030 chance of becoming infected I Treatment antibiotics I Symptoms burning with urination discharge pelvic pain spotting between periods 0 Usually within a few days to few weeks after infection 0 Asymptomatic 30 of women and 10 men Syphilis I Incidence common I Transmission sexual contact with infected partner I Symptoms primary syphilis painless ulcer called chancre secondary syphilis rash lymph node swelling and hair loss I Treatment antibiotics Caused by protozoan Trichomoniasis I Incidence common most common preventable STI I Transmission sexual contact with infected partner via vaginal intercourse even if partner doesn t have symptoms 0 Not transmitted via oral or anal sex I Symptoms genital itching redness discharge exclusively in genital area 0 Often asymptomatic in men I Treatment antibiotics Caused by virus Hepatitis B I Incidence less common I Transmission infected body uids I Symptoms nausea yellowing of skin diarrhea o Often asymptomatic I Treatment none for acute infection interferon for chronic infection Herpes I Incidence very common I Transmission skin contact with area of partner that s infected or with infected secretions I Symptoms painful ulcers or blisters variations I Treatment w antivirus can reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks the virus remains in the body and can be transmitted even if no lesions are present I HSV l herpes type 1 usually occurs around mouth I HSV 2 herpes type 2 usually occurs in genital areas HIV I Incidence rare I Transmission blood semen breast milk vaginal uids 0 Contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into bloodstream from a needle or syringe I Symptoms u like symptoms 24 Weeks post exposure fever enlarged lymph nodes sore throat rash I Treatment antiretroviral therapy HPV I Incidence very common I Transmission skin to skin contact with infected partner easiest via thinner skin of genitals mucous membranes 0 Transmission can happen whether or not infected partner has visible Warts at the time I Symptoms painless bumps in the genital area 0 Lag time between infection and symptoms 3090 days 0 Vast majority are asymptomatic I Treatment topical treatments cryotherapy Statesregions that have highest incidences of STIs I East coast NY MD Florida Louisiana Virgin islands Strategies for decreasing STI risk I Abstinence vaccination mutual monogamy reduce of sex partners condoms STI testing I There is no single test that detects all STIs NO test is perfect can fail to detect infection Screening tests When no symptoms present 0 HPV visual examination pap smear tests cervix only 0 Chlamydia gonorrhea test genital secretions or urine 0 Syphilis herpes specific blood tests 0 HIV rapid and blood tests Lecture 10 Cardiovascular disease Behavioral Factors Types of CVDs 1 Coronary Artery Disease damage of the coronary arteries by either atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis a Ischemia restriction of blood ow 2 Coronary Heart Disease damage to the myocardium as a result of insufficient blood supply a Myocardial infarction i Heart attack death of myocardial tissue 1 Common signs feeling weakdizzy nausea cold sweat difficulty breathing pain in chestarmsshouldersback 3 Stroke damage to the brain resulting from lack of oxygen a Obstruction in the arteries of the brain will restrict blood ow and oxygen to the brain b 3rd most frequent cause of death in the US Know some of the basics of CVDs Atheromatous plagues 0 Forms as a result of damage to the coronary arteries Atherosclerosis 0 Specific type of arteriosclerosis when an artery wall thickens as a result of the buildup of atheromatous plagues Arteriosclerosis 0 General term describing any thickening and hardening of arterial walls in the arteries Angina 0 Results from restriction of the blood supply 0 Symptoms include crushing pain in chest amp difficulty breathing 0 Usually caused by stress or exercise 0 An indicator that there is obstruction in the coronary arteries Hypertension abnormally high blood pressure Consequences of hypertension 0 Can lead to strokes retinopathy heart attacks kidney failures and damage to artery walls Treatments for CADCHD I Bypass surgery replaces blocked portion of the coronary artery expensive and risky but usually relieves angina and improves quality of life I Cardiac rehabilitation helps cardiac patients adjust lifestyle to minimize risk factors often involves psychologists to help patients adjust lifestyles CVD trends and reasons for them I Decline as of late due to improved emergency coronary changes increased awareness in risk factors of CVD surgeon generalis report improved medicine and improved lifestyles Inherent risk factors Age family history gender men have a high rate of death from CVD ethnic background African Americans have higher risk Physiological risk factors Hypertension single most important risk factor for CVD Cholesterol strong predictor of CVD for young and middle aged adults glucose metabolism diabetes other blood sugar problems In ammation in uences development of plaques stress in uences in ammation and increases risk for CVD Behavioral risk factors Smoking leading behavioral cause for CVD smokers are 34 more likely to suffer a heart attack quitting smoking helps decrease risk weight and diet obesity is a risk factor but is also related to other risk factors blood pressure diabetes cholesterol physical activity important behavioral risk factor for CVD Psychosocial risk factors Education and income Social support and marriage Stress anxiety and depression Hostility and anger Preventing First Heart Attack focus on modifying risk factors such as eating healthier exercising not smoking reducing hypertension lowering serum cholesterol modifying psychosocial risk factors Lecture 11 Cancer Behavioral Factors What is cancer including neoplastic tissue benign vs malignant I Group of diseases characterized by the presence of new cells that grow and spread beyond control 4 main groups of cancers 1 Carcinomas cancers of the epithelial tissue 2 Sarcomas cancers of the connective tissues bone muscles cartilage 3 Leukemia cancers of the blood bone marrows 4 Lymphoma cancers of the lymphatic system less common Trends in cancer rates overall and then for men and women I Death rates for cancer declined during 1990s due to early detection and treatment Life style factors also played a large role in the lower rates of cancer I Cancers with decreasing death rates 0 Lung for men breast prostate colonrectum cancer rates have all declined I Cancers with increasing death rates 0 Liver melanoma esophageal for men lung for Women Inherent Risk factors Ethnic background 0 African Americans have greater incidence for most cancer and greater mortality as Well diagnosis for African Americans are usually done later too which means lower survival rates Age 0 Increasing age is a risk factor for all illnesses Family history and genetics 0 only 5 lO of cancers are due to a specific inherited gene genes represent only a predisposition that interacts with other factors to increase a person s risk of cancer Environmental Risk factors Asbestos pesticides radiation motor exhaust others Behavioral Risk factors Smoking linked to a lot of different types of cancer Diet including foods that may prevent foods that may cause cancer are called carcinogenic foods that lackhave certain preservatives foods high in fat consumption of preserved meat raises the risk for colorectal cancer obesity Alcohol increases risk for mouth esophageal breast and liver cancers women that drink have higher risk for breast cancer Lifestyles sedentary lifestyle increases the risk for certain cancers being active reduces risk of cancer Tanning ultraviolet light exposure increases risk for skin cancer strong genetic component for skin cancer Sexual behaviors cancers resulting from AIDS IIPV increases risk for cervical and oral cancer can decrease risk by practicing safe sex Psychosocial risk factors Personality traits 0 Research has now found a relationship between personality traits and increased risk for developing cancer I ie negative emotionality and tendencies to repress emotion however the relationship is small Cancer prevention effects on other diseases I Cancer prevention lifestyles helps prevent other diseases 48 lower risk for CVD 42 lower risk for all cause mortality Problems of adherence to medical treatments I All medical treatments have negative side effects such as fear anxiety loss of hair fatigue and depression Psychological adjustment to a diagnosis I Factors that predict a poor reaction to cancer diagnosis are negative affect and social inhibition optimism relates to adjusting well to a diagnosis of cancer Importance of social support I Can be provided by health care professionals family friends or support groups Types of psychological interventions bene ts I Cognitive behavioral stress management skills providing social support opportunities to express emotions I Been shown to yield short term benefits Lecture 13 Positive Psychology According to Martin Seligman what was the state of psychology in 1998 What did he think needed to change He believed it was not good enough wanted positive psychology to change from studying and trying to undo the worst things in life to studying and trying to build the best things in life Pros and cons of the disease model 0 Pros DSM measuring fuzzy concepts discover causes create treatments assess effectiveness of treatments 0 Cons victimologistspathologists few interventions Why has psychology historically focused on studying the negative not the positive Why is studying positive psychology important What is happiness Having money Having lots of choices Af uence Synthesizing happiness The pleasant life 0 More positive than negative emotions The engaged life 0 Active involvement absorption in work play community family relationships The meaningful life 0 Purpose direction personal expressiveness religion spirituality nature transcendent beliefs beyond self interest Resources and happiness Physical health 0 Stress and illness I Effects on immune system 0 Optimism as predictor of good health Social relationships Cognitive ability
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