Fourty Studies That Changed Psychology Summaries
Fourty Studies That Changed Psychology Summaries PSY 101
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Date Created: 10/18/14
Zimbardo s Stanford prison experiment A Prison By Any Other Name Testing the belief that the environment around youa situation can determine how you behave more strongly than who you areyour internal dispositional nature Powerful situations can overcome certain inherent behavioral tendencies and lead us to engage in behaviors that are very different from our usual selves Set out to discover what happens to normal people who are placed into a situation that exerts great power over individuals like prisons Zimbardo had no specific hypothesis Setting Experiment was meant to last two weeks Basement of psychology building was set up to be as close to real prison as possible with barred windows and doors and solitary confinement Participants Ad placed in newspapers offering money to participants Warned that they might experience violations of personal privacy and civil rights and food would be minimal 24 collegeage men were selected half randomly assigned to prisoners and half to guards Decided by flip of a coin to ensure it was random Procedure Prisoners Students were arrested for armed robbery searched handcuffed and taken to the real Palo Alto Police Department in a real police car with sirens and lights on Each student was booked fingerprinted blindfolded and taken to the mock prison The student guards searched striped and gave each prisoner a uniform Uniform consisted of smock with a four digit number rubber sandals nylon stockings to be worn over hair at all times and a chain wrapped around the ankle with a padlock The chain and padlock were not attached to anything but it served as a reminder of prisoner status Three prisoners per cell each with their own cot thin mattress and one blanket Although procedures varied from reallife prisons the idea behind them was to simulate the same humiliations repression and entrapment Guards Worked 8hour shifts three men per shift Given identical guardstyle uniforms nightsticks but were not allowed to hit the prisoners and reflective sunglasses Sunglasses gave them all a menacing and anonymous appearance Received no training Just told to keep the prisoners in line and maintain order Results In less than a week the line between play and real life became blurred Guard treated prisoners as if they were animals taking pleasure in cruelty Prisoners became servile dehumanized robots who thought only of escape survival and hatred for the guards Prisoners seemed to have forgotten they had free will and could quit at anytime 5 prisoners became depressed were unable to think clearly and stopped eating They were released within the first several days Some guards tormented the prisoners while others were less strict and more fair but yet still never interfered with the cruel guards or told on them to Zimbardo Experiment lasted six days instead of two weeks Guards Used demeaning degrading language Harassed intimidated humiliated the prisoners Used pushups as punishments for minor offenses Shot prisoners with fire extinguishers to stop a rebellion Denied prisoners bathroom privileges and instead made them use a waste bucket Forced prisoners to sleep on ground with no blankets Prisoners Quickly become docile subservient and conformed to the rules set bu the guards Showed signs of trauma and depression Begged to be paroled Attempted to rebel and planned an elaborate escape plan that never materialized Gave up all attempts to rebel and escape Assumed an everymanforhimself attitude Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures Obey at Any Cost Milgram was curious as to how people could be capable to carrying out great harm to others simply because they were ordered to do so Referring to WWII Milgram believed the human tendency to obey is so deeply ingrained and powerful that it canceled out a person s ability to behave morally ethically and sympathetically Individuals who would never intentionally cause someone physical harm would inflict pain on a victim if ordered to do so by a person whom they perceived on a powerful authority figure Faced the problem of how to create a controlled situation in which one person would order another person to injure a third person physically without actually hurting anyone Method Milgram designed a shock generator with 30 toggle switched labeled with voltage levels from 30 volts to 450 volts Switched were labeled in groups of slight shock moderate shock and danger severe shock Participant would be ordered to administer electric shocks at increasing levels to the victim Victim was not real and no shocks were actually given to anyone Participants Ads and mail solicitations asked for paid participants in a study about memory and learning Ads said that paycheck was just for showing up and was theirs to keep no matter what happened after they arrived Ensured participants knew they could back out at anytime and still receive money 40 males between the ages of 20 and 50 participated 15 were skilled or unskilled workers 16 were whitecollar sales or businessmen and 9 were professional men 47yearold confederate acted as another participant and an actor dressed in an official grey lab coat acted as the experimenter Procedure Each participant sat next to the confederate while the experimenter told the two that the experiment was about the effect of punishment on learning Participants drew pieces of paper out of a hat to determine who would be the teacher and the learner Drawing was rigged so that the true participant was the teacher and the confederate the learner Learner Strapped to a chair but still able to reach four buttons marked a b c and d to answer questions and wired to electrodes Tasked with memorizing connections between various pairs of word while the teacher would read the list of words to test the earner s memory For each incorrect response the teacher was told to administer an electric shock and move up the level of shock voltage on the generator Responses were preprogrammed to be correct or incorrect in the same sequence for all the participants As the voltage increased learner would shout his discomfort in prearranged prerecorded phrases including the fact that his heard was bothering him At 300 volts he pounded on the wall and demanded to be let out After 300 volts he stopped answering questions Teacher was told to treat the lack of response as an incorrect response and to continue with the procedure Teacher Most participants would turn to the experimenter at some point for guidance on whether to continue the shocks Experimenter always ordered the participant to continue in a series of commands that increased in severity Please continue The experiment requires that you continue It is absolutely essential that you continue You have no other choice you must go on Milgram recorded the level of shock at which each participant refused to continue Each participant could receive a score of O to 30 Those who continued the whole time were labeled obedient subjected while those who stopped early were called defiant subjects Results Yale students and colleagues estimated that about 12 of participants 3 out of 100 would deliver the maximum shock Every participant continued at least to 300 volts which was when the confederate banged on the wall 14 participants stopped before reaching the maximum voltage while 26 of of the 40 or 65 followed the experimenter s orders and continued to the maximum voltage Many of the 65 were stressed and concerned for the learner while delivering these high voltage shocks but yet they obeyed the experimenter when he said to continue Milgram repeated the experiment outside of Yale on unpaid college student volunteer and on women participants and found similar results each time Additional experiments showed that the physical and emotional distance of the victim from the teacher altered the amount of obedience Victims in different rooms who could not be seen or heard by the teacher resulted in higher level of obedience than when the learner was in the same room as the teacher Additional experiments also showed that the close the experimenter the greater the obedience When the experimenter was outside of the room and telephoned his commands to the participate obedience fell Additional experiments showed that when participants were allowed to punish the learner by using any level of shock they wished no one ever pressed any switch higher than 45 volts Observations Strength of the participants tendency to obey All were average people who agreed to an experiment about learning and who were tight from an early age that hurting people against their will is wrong Experimenter was a person of authority but he had no real authority No way to enforce his order and participants would lose nothing by just leaving which they were allowed to do The situation clearly carried a force of its own that created an atmosphere of obedience Extreme tension and anxiety manifested by the participants as they obeyed the experimenter s commands Professional businessmen who cam in smiling were reduced to twitching stuttering wrecks who begged for the experiment to stop but yet continued to deliver the shocks Possible explanations by Milgram from the point of view of the participant If the experiment was sponsored by Yale it must be in good hands and it would be silly to question it The goals of the experiment are probably important and I must do my part to help realize these goals The learner is also a volunteer and he has an obligation to the project just like me It was random chance that I am the teacher and he is the learner and it could have just as easily been the other way around They re paying me to do this so I better do the job I don t know the rights of a psychologist and his participants so I will listen to the psychologist because he would know They told both of us the shocks are painful but not dangerous Criticisms Unethical to lead someone to believe they are hurting someone because a person in a lab coat told them to Creates unacceptable levels of stress Milgram surveyed participants and found that 84 were happy to have participated and only 1 regretted the experience After the participants were debriefed on the real reason behind the experiment they may have felt used embarrassed and distrustful of psychologists or legitimate authority figures in the future Psychiatrist interviewed 40 of the most uncomfortable participants and found that none had suffered longterm effects Because participants trusted and depended on the experimenter and the laboratory was an unfamiliar setting the experiment did not represent obedience in real life Milgram stated that participants were adults capable of accepting or rejecting the experimenter s commands Sperry s amp Gazzaniga s brain experiment One Brain or Two Left hemisphere Responsible for the right side of your body Controls ability to use language Right hemisphere Responsible for the left side of your body Involved in spacial relationships Two hemispheres of brain are in constant communication with each other via the corpus callosum Experiment to determine what happens if the corpus callosum is severed Will a person still have a sense of vision hearing speech and touch after the surgery Would the ride of side your body suddenly be unable to coordinate with the left Would thinking and reasoning processes exist in both halves separately Can a person function normally when the two brains are no longer able to communicate Participants Severing the corpus callosum on subjects would be highly unethical Some people have a very rare and extreme case of uncontrollable epilepsy which could be reduced or eliminated by severing the corpus callosum Of the ten people who underwent the surgery four consented to participate in Sperry s and Gazzaniga s examinations and tests Method Three types of tests were created to explore the range of mental and perceptual capabilities of the patients Visual abilities A picture of an object a word or parts of words were transmitted only to the visual area field in either the right or left brain hemisphere Tactile abilities Participants could feel but not see an object a block letter or a word in cutout block letters A screen blocked the subject from being able to see the object but they could still reach through and touch it Auditory abilities When sound enters either ear sensations are sent to both sides of the brain so limiting sounds to one side of the brain is impossible Subjects were verbally asked to find certain items in a cloth bag by touch If the left hand reaches into the bag the right brain is in control and vice versa Results Visual abilities Both halves of the brain are equally skilled in visual perception The center for speech is located in the brain s left hemisphere Tactile abilities Verbal abilities are located in the brain s left hemisphere Visual plus tactile tests The right hemisphere is able to comprehend language in a nonverbal way The left hemisphere of the brain is superior to the right for speech while the right hemisphere of the brain is superior to the left for spatial relationships and shapes The overall conclusion is that two different brains exist within each person s head each with complex abilities Your left brain is better at speaking language writing mathematical calculation and reading Your right brain is better at recognizing faces resolving problems involving spatial relationships symbolic reasoning and artistic activities Gazzaniga believed that if our brain is really two brains we might have the potential to process twice as much information if the two halves are divided Rosenzweig s brain measurement More Experience Bigger Brain Rosenzweig believed that animals raised in highly stimulated environment swill demonstrate differences in brain growth and chemistry when compared with animals from plain or dull circumstances Subjects 12 sets of three male rats each set from the same litter were studied Procedure One rat remained in the laboratory cage with the rest of the colony Contained several rats in an adequate space with food and water always available A second rat was assigned to the enriched environment cage Six to eight rats lived in a large cage furnished with a variety of objects to play with New toys were placed in the cage every day Athird rat was assigned to the impoverished cage Smaller cage isolated in a separate room in which the rat was placed along with adequate food and water The rats lived in the different environments from 4 to 10 weeks and then examined to determine if any differenced had developed in brain development Rats were presented in random order by code number so the person doing the autopsy would not know which condition the rat was raised Results Brains of the enriched rats were different from those of the impoverished rats The cerebral cortex responds to experience and is responsible for movement memory learning and sensory input vision hearing touch taste smell of the enriched rats were significantly heavier and thicker Greater activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that allows for faster and more efficient transmission of impulses among the brain cells was found in the brain tissue of the enriched rats The enriched environment also produced larger neurons in rats The ratio of RNA to DNA was greater for the enriched rats implying that a higher level of chemical activity had taken place in the enriched rats brains Replication of the experiments resulted in the same pattern of differences Every trial yielded an increased ratio of the weight of the cortex to the weight of the rest of the brain the subcortex This measurement is the most accurate measurement of brain changes because the overall weight of the brain may vary with the overall weight of each animal The synapses of the enriched rats grew by 50 compared to the impoverished rats potentially allowing for increased brain activity Determined that brain anatomy and chemistry are change by experience Critics claimed that some effects had not be so clearly demonstrated Maybe the enriched environments didn t produce brain changes but instead other differences in the treatment of the rats like handling or stress Enriches rats were held twice a day when the toys were changed while impoverished rats were not held In response a second test was held where one group of rats was held every day and another group was never held both were raised in the same environment No difference in the brains between the two groups were discovered Another test was later performed where the original study was recreated but instead the enriched and impoverished rats were held equally Again the two groups had different brain anatomy and chemistry Bouchard and Lykken s study of nature vs nurture in twins Are You A Natural Attempted to discover how much influence your genes have in determining your personal psychological qualities Difficult because every person besides for those adopted grew up with their genetic donors This means your sense of humor is either because your dad raised you nurture or because you got your dad s senseofhumor gene nature Participants Monozygotic twins who were raised and grew up in different environment and reunited as adults put up for adoption Monozygotic twins who were raised and grew up together never put up for adoption Procedure Each twin completed 50 hours of testing on nearly every human dimension This includes four personality trait scales three aptitude and occupational interest inventories and two intelligence tests as well as a checklist of their household belongs to see the similarity between their family resources Results If the environment is really responsible for the individual differences ideally the twins raised together should be very similar to the twins raised apart The researchers found this to not be true and therefore it was not the environment but the genes that dictate a twin s human characteristics The data shows that genetically identical twins who were raised in separate and different settings grew into adults who were very similar in appearance basic psychology and personality The data also shows that an environment has little effect on identical twins who were raised in the same setting Results created controversy because we ve believed that people are not born to behave evil for example but instead their environment made them that way If environment really does have no effect on our personalities and psychology then why bother working hard to be a good parent or trying to help those who are upset Bouchard and Lykken replied that although 70 of the variation in IQ is due to genetics the other 30 is due to environmental influences like education family setting toxic substances and socioeconomic status Additionally Bouchard and Lykken replied that genes are not necessarily destiny and that devoted parents can still influence their children in positive ways even if they are only changing a small percentage of the total variation Gibson and Wak s visual ciff experiment Watch Out for the Visual Cliff ls depth perception a learned skill or inbred in us Experiment meant to discover at what point in the early development process animals or people are able to perceive depth It would be unethical to put humans and animals on the edge of a cliff and see if they are able to avoid falling off The visual cliff instead presents to participants who are unable to perceive depthheight with what appears to be a dropoff when no dropoff actually exists Gibson and Walk nativists believed that depth perception and the avoidance of a dropoff appear automatically as part of our original biological equipment and are not products of expenence Empiricists instead believed that depth perception was a learned skill The visual cliff allowed them to ask three questions At what stage in development can a person or animal respond effectively to the stimuli of depth and height Do these responses appear at different times with animals of different species and habitats Are these responses preprogrammed at birth or do they develop as a result of experience and learning Method The visual cliff Atable about four feet high with a top made from a clear glass Directly under half of the glass on the table is a solid surface with a red and white checkered pattern Under the other half is the same pattern but down at floor level underneath the table This creates the appearance of a sudden dropoff to the floor although in reality the glass extends all the way across the table Participants 36 infants between the ages of 6 months and 14 months and their mothers Each infant was placed on the center board of the visual cliff and was then called by the mother first form the glass only side and then from the glass over patterned surface side The experiment was performed with baby animals as well minus their mothers Animals included chicks turtles rats lambs baby goats pigs kittens and puppies Each animal was planed on the center board as well and observed to see if they could avoid stepping off the cliff Results 9 infants refused to move at all This was not explained by the researchers but perhaps it was just infant stubbornness Most of the children either crawled away from the mother or cried in frustration at being unable to reach the mother without moving over the cliff Some would look down through the glass and then back away while others would pat the glass with their hands and still refuse to cross Though most children refused to cross the results do not prove that a human s ability to perceive depth is innate rather than learned All the participants had at least 6 months of life to experience However it would be impossible to test babies younger than 6 months because they lack adequate motor abilities Baby chickens at less than 24 hours of age never made the mistake of stepping off the cliff Baby goats and lamb just born also did not cross Rats on the other hand did not appear to show any significant preference for either side Can be explained because rats do not depend very much on vision to survive since they locate their food by smell and they move with their whiskers The glass on both sides felt the same to their whiskers so the rats knew both sides had solid surfaces and they could stand on either side without falling Kittens at about 4 weeks of age did not cross Gibson and Wak s observations were all consistent with evolutionary theory All species of animals if they are to survive need to develop the ability to perceive depth by the time they achieve independent movement For humans this does not occur until around 6 months of age while other animals acquire this skill immediately It was concluded that the capacity of depth perception is inborn because to learn it through trial and error would cause too many potential fatal accidents Criticism Researchers complained that Gibson and Walk did not properly prove that depth perception is innate in humans because the infants were 6 months old A later study used 2 to 5 month old infants and found that their heart rate decreased a signed of interest when showed the cliff This shows that these younger infants did not yet learn to fear the cliff and would learn the avoidance behavior somewhat later This study disproved Gibson and Wak s findings Pavov s salivating dogs experiment It39s Not Just About Salivating Dogs The classical conditioning theory was inadvertently developed by Pavlov while he was studying digestion Participants Pavlov used dogs while studying the role of salivation on digestion The dogs would be introduced various foods and the amount of salivation produced by the dogs was recorded He believed salivating was a reflex a response that occurs automatically to a specific stimulus without the need for any learning Over time the dogs began salivating before the food was introduced to them or the scent of food was present The second they heard footsteps coming towards them or saw the person who usually gives them food the dogs salivated Observations Pavlov theorized that the dogs learned to expect food following the appearance of certain signals and although the signal stimuli do not naturally produce salivation these dogs began to associate these signals with food creating salivation From this experiment Pavlov determined two kinds of reflexes must exist Unconditioned reflexes lnborn and automatic requiring no learning and are generally the same for all members of a species Examples salivating when food enters the mouth jumping at the sound of a loud noise dilation of pupils in low light Formed by an unconditioned stimulus UCS producing an unconditioned response UCR In the study the unconditioned stimulus was food and the unconditioned response was salivation Conditioned reflexes Acquired through experience or learning and vary across individuals of a species Examples a dog salivating at the sound of footsteps feeling pain in your teeth when you smell dental disinfectant Formed by a conditioned stimulus CS producing a conditioned response CR In the study the conditioned stimulus was footsteps and the conditioned response was salivation Questioned that if conditioned reflexes are not inborn how are they acquired Proposed that if a particular stimulus in the dog s environment was often present when the dog was fed this stimulus would become associated in the dog s brain for food The footsteps the dogs heard before feeding could not have caused the dogs to salivate making them a neutral stimulus NS over time the footsteps just prior to being fed were associated with food making the footsteps alone cause the dogs to salivate Method Pavlov created a soundproof lab isolating the subjects from the experimenters and from all extraneous stimuli during the experimental procedures Allowed for a stimulus to be administered and responses to be recorded without any direct contact between the experiments and animals Pavlov chose food as the unconditional stimulus meaning food elicits the unconditioned response of salivation and a metronome as the neutral stimulus The dogs were exposed to the ticking of the metronome and then presented with food After several repetitions of the metronome and then food Pavlov observed that the sound of the metronome had become a conditioned stimulus for the conditioned response of salivation Pavlov repeated this procedure with the odor of vanilla NS prior to placing a lemon juice like solution in the dog s mouth UCS creating salivation over time UCR as well as an object that was rotated NS prior to food and over time the rotating object by itself CS caused the dogs to salivate CR Watson and Rayner s experiment of fear Little Emotional Albert In the 1900 s Freudian thought dominated psychology The idea that behavior thoughts and emotions are generated internally through biological and instinctual processes and that human behavior is motived by unconscious instincts and repressed conflicts from early childhood In the 19290 s behaviorism was developed Pavlov and Watson spearheaded the new movement Believed that behavior is generated outside the person through various environmental or situational stimuli Watson theorized that emotional responses exist in us because we have been conditioned to respond emotionally to certain stimuli that we encounter meaning we learn our emotional reactions All human behavior according to Watson was a product of learning and conditioning Purpose Watson theorized that if a stimulus automatically produces a certain emotion in you such as fear and that stimulus is repeatedly experienced at the same moment as something else such as a rat the rat will become associated in your brain with fear You will eventually become conditioned to be afraid of the rat According to Watson we were not born to fear rats but that such fears were learned through conditioning This view is the same as Pavov s theory of classical conditioning Two fundamental goals of the study To demonstrate that al human behavior stems from learning and conditioning To demonstrate that the Freudian conception of human nature that our behavior stems from unconscious processes was wrong Participant Little Albert Ninemonthold baby who was raised as an orphan from birth in a hospital He was judged to be very healthy both emotionally and physically Procedure Researchers presented Albert with a white rat a rabbit a monkey a dog masks with and without hair and white otto wool to see if he was naturally afraid of certain stimuli Albert was interested in the various animals and objects and would reach for them and sometimes touch them never showing fear towards any of them These object because they produced no fear were referred to as neutral stimuli Researchers presented Albert with the white rat Albert was at first interested in the rat and reached out to touch it and as he did this a metal bar was struck startling and frightening Albert This was repeated seven times over the course of a week One week later when presented with the rat and no noise Albert reacted with extreme fear to the rat crying turning away and following over to one side away from the rat Researchers were curious if this fear would transfer to other objects This transfer is referred to as generalization If Albert showed fear of other similar objects then the learned behavior is generalized Aweek later Albert was again presented the white rat and again had the same fear response To test generalization a white rabbit was presented to Albert Albert leaned away from the animal whimpered and then cried When the rabbit touched him he buried his face and then crawled away crying the whole time Albert had not been afraid of the rat before this procedure and had not been conditioned to fear the rabbit specifically Over the course of a day Albert was presented to a white dog a package of cotton and Watson s grey hair All these objects and animals were met with fear Researchers were curious if Abert s fear response to these animals and object occurred only in the experimental setting and nowhere else of if they could occur in nature Albert was taken to an entirely different room with brighter lighting and more people present Abert s reactions to the rat and rabbit were fearful but less intense than before Researchers were also curious if Abert s newly learned emotional responses would persist over time Albert was adopted and scheduled to leave he hospital in the near future After a month of no testing Albert was presented with the same objects and he had the same fear response Watson meant to recondition Albert and eliminate his fearful reactions but Albert left the hospital too soon and the reconditioning was never performed Results Study succeeded in convincing the psychological community that emotional behavior could be conditioned through simple stimulus response techniques This finding helped to launch one of the major schools of thought in psychology behaviorism Something as complex and personal as an emotion was shown to be subject to conditioning just as Pavov s demonstrated that dogs learn to salivate at the sound of a metronome While Freud would explain thumb sucking as an expression of the original pleasure seeking instinct Watson would interpret thumb sucking as a conditioned device for blocking fearproducing stimuli since Albert sucked his thumb whoever he felt afraid Bandura s study on aggression See Aggression Do Aggression Possible causes of aggression We are biologically preprogrammed to be aggressive because aggression in certain circumstances has been an evolutionary survival mechanism Situational factors like repeated frustration or specific types of provocation determine aggressive responses Aggression is learned Bandura The founder of the social learning theory which proposes that human interaction is the primary factor in the development of human personality For example important people reinforce certain behaviors and ignore or punish others a you grow He believed that behavior can be shaped in important ways through simply observing and imitating the behavior of others through modeling Set out to examine whether imitative learning would generalize to settings in which the child was separated from the model after observing the model s behavior Participants 36 boys and 36 girls ranging in age from three years to almost six years The control group consisting of 24 children would not be exposited to any model The remaining 48 children were divided into two groups one exposed to aggressive models and the other exposed to nonaggressive models Those two groups were further divided so that half of the children were exposed to sam sex models and half to oppositesex models What if some children were already more aggressive than others The children were rated by an experimenter and a teacher who both knew the child well on their levels of physical aggression verbal aggression and their aggression toward objects Procedure Children were exposed to adult models who behaved in either aggressive or nonaggressive ways Children then tested in a new situation without the model present to determine to what extent they would imitate the acts of aggression they had observed in the adult Bandura predicted four outcomes Children who observed adult models performing acts of aggression would imitate the adult and engage in similar aggressive behaviors even if the model is not present Children who were exposed to the nonaggressive models would not only be less aggressive than those who observed aggressive models but also significantly less aggressive than a control group of children who were exposed to no model Participants would imitate the behavior of the samesex model to a greater degree than a model of the opposite sex because children tend to identify with parents and other adult of their same sex Boys will be more predisposed than girls toward imitating aggression since aggression is a highly masculinetyped behavior in society A child was first brought to the playroom and an adult was invited to come join in the game While the child played the adult model would play at a different table The nonaggressive models played normally while the aggressive models played for a minute and then proceeded to attack a Bobo doll with aggressive and nonaggressive comments After ten minutes the experimenter took the child to various game rooms In the first room children were presented with Tinkertoys and a Bobo doll for ten minutes In the next room the children were allowed to play with very attractive toys like fire engines and jet fighters and doll houses and then told that they cannot continue to play because those toys were reserved for the other children In the last room the children could play with a Bobo doll a mallet dart guns a tea set crayons and paper dolls cars and tricks and toy animals for 20 minutes Results Children who were exposed to violent behaviors tended to imitate the exact violent behaviors they observed Physical and verbal aggression was virtually unobserved in the participants exposed to nonaggressive models or in the control group that was not exposed to any model Children in the nonaggressive conditioned averaged significantly fewer instances of violence than those in the nomodel control group Boys violent behavior was influenced more by the aggressive male model than by the aggressive female model Girls were more likely to imitate verbal aggression while boys were more inclined to imitate physical violence when in samesex aggressive conditions Boys were significantly more physically aggressive than girls in nearly all conditions Loftus memory reconstruction experiments Thanks for the Memories Loftus hypothesized that if eyewitnesses are asked questions that contain a false presupposition about the witnessed event the new false information may be incorporated into the witness s memory of the event and appear subsequently in new testimony by the witness Presupposition is defined by Loftus as a condition that must be true for the question to make sense Method Four experiments were conducted Experiment 1 150 participants in a small group saw a film of a fivecar chain reaction accident that occurred when a driver ran through a stop sign into oncoming traffic The accident lasted four seconds and the film was less than a minute long Participants were given a ten question questionnaire Half the participants were asked How fast was the car when it ran the stop sign as their first question The other half of the participants were asked How fast was the car when it turned right Both groups had the same remaining questions The last question for both was Did you see a stop sign for the car In the group that had been asked about the stop sign 40 participants 53 said they saw a stop sign while 26 of the group asked about the speed of the car as it turned right 35 said they saw the stop sign Experiment 2 40 participants were shown a three minute segment of a class being disrupted by eight antiwar demonstrators Participants were given a 20 question questionnaire Half the participants were asked Was the leader of the four demonstrators who entered the classroom a male The other half were asked Was the leader of the twelve demonstrators who entered the classroom a male All remaining questions were identical for the two groups Aweek after the initial test the participants from both groups answered 20 new questions about the film without seeing it again Both groups were asked how many demonstrators interrupted the class The half that were originally asked about the twelve demonstrators reported seeing an average of 885 people while the other half that were asked about four demonstrators reported seeing an average of 640 people Experiment showed that on average the wording of one question altered the way participants remembered the basic characteristics of a witnessed event Experiment 3 Designed to see if a false presupposition inherent in a question could cause witnesses to reconstruct their memory of an event to include objects that in reality were not there 150 university students watched a short video of an accident involving a white sports car and then answered ten questions about the content of the video Half the participants were asked How fast was the white sports car going when it passed the barn while traveling along the country road The other half was asked How fast was the white sports car going while traveling along the country road One week later the participants returned and answered ten new question about the accident including Did you see a barn Of the half that had previously answered the question mentioning the barn 13 173 answered yes while of the half that had not been told of a barn only 2 27 answered yes Experiment 4 Two goals Meant to further demonstrate the memory reconstruction effects found in experiment 3 Loftus wondered if perhaps just the mention of an object even if it was not included as part of a pals presupposition might be enough to cause the object to be added to memory Three groups of 50 participants each viewed a three minute clip of a car that ends up colliding with a baby carriage pushed by a man Group D Received questionnaires with 40 questions of no importance and five key questions directly asking about nonexistent objects like Did you see a barn in the film Group F Received questionnaires with the same 40 questions of no importance and five key questions that contained presuppositions about the same nonexistent objects like Did you see a station wagon parked in front of the barn Group C The control group received only the 40 questions of no importance One week later all the participants returned to answer 20 new questions about the film Of the questions five were the exact same key questions that were asked of the directquestion group a week before meaning Group D received these five questions twice Results Based on these studies Loftus argued that an accurate theory of memory and recall must include a process of reconstruction when new information in integrated into the original memory of an event The findings of these studies cannot be explained by assuming that recall simply involved a mental replaying of an event even with varying degrees of accuracy Rosch s research on categories As a Category It s a Natural Cognitive psychology Research on human processes like language thinking analyzing knowing and remembering Concepts Allows us to group objects into categories for efficient processing of information Cognitive psychologists wonder where our categories for objects come from Old belief was that categories are a function of the language we speak meaning categories exist because we have words for them Categories and concepts vary from culture to culture Purpose Eleanor Rosch proposed that categories do not necessarily arise from the language but exist naturally on their own in relation to humans biological abilities of perception Theorized that if the old theory was correct all objects belonging to a certain category would have equal status in that category meaning it would fit into it equally well Rosch observed this is not the case because some members of a category are perceived by us to be better examples of the category than others Argued that most categories do not have clear boundaries as to what fits and what does not but categories borders are fuzzy because we decide if an object fits into the category by comparing it to our category prototype Believed categories can be psychologically real even when there are no word s in a person s language with which to name them Subjects Young Dani males who were all pretested to be sure that no one was colorblind and that their knowledge of color terms was restricted to mii dark and moa light Because the Dani do not measure age participants were throughout to be at least 1215 years of age Subjects volunteers and were compensated after completing the learning part of the procedure Divided into several groups of 12 subjects each but only two groups were important Procedure Color stimuli Glossy color chips like from a paint store were used as the stimuli for the colors to be learned Chips represented specific colors of exacting wavelengths Chips were pink red yellow orange brown green blue and purple For one group of subjects the colors were the focal prototype hue for each color like fireengine red These colors were theorized to be universally represented by natural categories Other groups received hues of the eight color chips that fell in between focal colors like redbrown or yellowgreen These colors were called ambiguous or nonfocal colors Each color was named after a sib or a family group similar to a clan To avoid bias a subject s own sib name was not used as a color category On the first day the colors were presented to the subject and the name assigned to each color was spoken by the researcher and repeated by the subject The colors were then shuffled and repeated again When the subject answered correctly he was praised and when incorrectly he was corrected After 512 days the subjects were tested on their learning of the color categories and their progress was recorded until the subjects completed the test without error An additional test was performed to determine if this new ability was rule understood as a general concept and would transfer to new situations or was limited only to the specific colors learned Each subject was shown a group of carious colors and asked to identify eight of them that had not been part of the training categories The success rate of the transfer task was calculated for the subjects in both groups Results Should demonstrate faster learning for the focal color categories than for the nonfocal color if humans really do posses by nature the ability to perceive certain categories of colors The average number of errors over the entire learning period was 854 for the prototype color group and 1896 for the ambiguous color group The group presented with the colors we consider central to a particular color category was able to learn the name of the colors faster than the group that learned the nonfocal color categories The subjects identified colors that were not part of the learning period with 90 accuracy Rosch only expected about 12 accuracy due to chance Demonstrates that the skill of recognizing color categories can be transferred to new s ua ons Main finding people from a culture that did not possess concepts for colors could learn colors that constituted hypothesized prototyped faster than they could learn nonprototype color Findings indicated that certain concepts exist in the brains of all humans regardless of the language they speak or whether they have ever used the concepts themselves So important because the research showed that the nearly universally accepted idea that language produces concepts was incorrect and that the opposing view that linguistic concepts follow and form around these naturally occurring categories was correct Possibly most of what you perceive is analyzed and categorized by you according to how well or poorly it matches an appropriate prototype natural or not rather than how well it meets the crier of a formal linguistic definition
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