Psych 379: Lifespan Development
Psych 379: Lifespan Development 379
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Marcello on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 379 at Catholic University of America taught by Degnan, K. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Psychlogy at Catholic University of America.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
PSY 379 Exam 3 Study Guide The exam will be 60 multiple choice and fill in the blank questions (mostly multiple choice) at ½ a point each and 10 short answer questions at 1 point each. The exam is worth a total of 40 points towards the final grade. This guide is an overview of what you should be thinking about and studying but is not comprehensive – topics not covered may be on the exam. Questions will come from the bolded terms in the text as well as both the lectures/powerpoints and the book. Ch. 11Physical & Cognitive Development in Adolescence Puberty and its Consequences Refers to the period during which an individual becomes capable of sexual reproduction→ encompasses all physical changes that occur in the growing girl or boy Puberty has 5 chief components o Rapid acceleration in growth (huge increase in height and weight) o Development of primary sex characteristics (further development of the gonads- testes in males and ovaries in females) o Development of secondary sex characteristics (changes in genital and breasts, growth of pubic, facial and body hair, and further development of gonads) o Changes in body composition (quantity and distribution of fat) o Changes in the circulatory and respiratory systems (leads to ↑ strength and endurance) All of the above are a result of developments in the endocrine and central nervous system, and is universal for all kids The Endocrine System produces , circulates, and regulates levels of hormones in the body Doesn’t have a mind of its own, it receives its instructions from the brain The HPG axis is the feedback loop involving the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and the gonads→ androgens and estrogens (sex hormones) are released in puberty to guide sexual maturation and other aspects of growth o Pituitary gland- one of the chief glands responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body (located at the base of the brain o Hypothalamus- a part of the lower brainstem that controls the functioning of the pituitary gland o Androgens- sex hormones that are found in both sexes, but are found in higher levels in males after puberty. o Estrogens- sex hormones that are found in both sexes but are in higher levels in females after puberty o The HPG axis is there during infancy and, like a an “alarm is genetically programmed (“set”) to go off at a certain time in an individual’s life, with much help from environmental factors as well. Ex: exposure to sexually mature individuals, if a female is getting enough nutrients to support pregnancy, whether the individual is physically mature and healthy enough to start reproducing Some researchers say that high levels of leptin (protein produced by fat cells) may be the most important signal, at least in females, because it stops the inhibition of puberty Adrenarche- activation and maturation of the adrenal gland (causes early feelings of sexual attraction) → leads to physical changes (growth and hair development) Changes in Height, Weight, and Appearance Growth hormones, thyroid hormones, and androgens stimulate rapid acceleration in height and weight, commonly known as the adolescent growth spurt o Growth is at the same rate as a toddler (Males: about 4”/yr, Females: 3.5”/yr) o On average, girls begin puberty 2 years earlier than boys Tanner Stages- Development of secondary sex characteristics into 5 stages o Boys Generally the first stages of puberty involve growth of the testes and scrotum, accompanied by the first appearance of pubic hair→ approximately 1yr later, the growth spurt in height begins, accompanied by growth of the penis and further development of pubic hair (now coarser and darker). Emergence of facial hair, body hair, and deepening of the voice are relatively late developments in the pubertal process. Changes in skin and oil glands which could lead to the development of acne, pimples, and oily skin. Note: boys are capable of producing semen (and fathering a pregnancy) before their physical appearance is adult- like o Girls The first sign of sexual maturation in girls is usually the elevation of the breast, although in about ⅓ of adolescent girls, the appearance of pubic hair is first. Development of pubic hair follows closely to that of the males (from sparse, downy, light colored to more dense, curled, coarse, and darker hair) Menarche (beginning of menstruation) is relatively late in development. Generally a girl does not ovulate until 2 years after menarche, and she is not fertile until several years after her first period. Note: girls generally appear more physically mature before they are capable of becoming pregnant. The Psychology and Social Impact of Puberty The biological changes can affect behavior directly. o The increased sex drive is a direct result of the surge in hormones that occur during puberty o Biological changes of puberty can also affect the individual’s self- image, which in turn may influence their behavior A kid who looks in the mirror and sees an adult image, will demand more independence and adult-like treatment o Changes in appearance for the individual may change the way others treat the individual Puberty and emotions o The impact of puberty on adolescents’ psychological functioning is to a great extent shaped by the social context in which puberty takes place o Effects of hormones on emotions are strongest in early puberty, when hormone levels are fluctuating the most Ex: rapid increases in hormones are linked to more irritability, impulsivity, aggression (in boys) and depression (in girls), especially in early adolescents. Sleep o The emergence of the wacky pattern of sleep teen have (staying up really late and sleeping all day) is called delayed phase preference it is driven by the biological changes of puberty Falling asleep is caused by a combination of biological and environmental factors with the most important factor being melatonin levels as melatonin rises, we get sleepier (need of 9 hours of sleep is still constant) During puberty, there is a shift in when melatonin is made melatonin comes later and later which means adolescents are able to stay up later. Also, those who are in puberty are sleepier in the mornings than those who are prepubertal Early and Late Maturation Puberty can begin as early as 7 in girls and 9 ½ in boys, or as late as 13 in girls and 13 ½ in boys. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Timing o Puberty is predisposed, but environmental factors can influence that timing. Most important being nutrition and health o Secular trend- the tendency, over the past two centuries, for individuals to be larger in stature and to reach puberty earlier, primarily because of an improvement in health and nutrition Boys who mature earlier tend to feel better about themselves and are more popular than their late-maturing peers. However, early maturing boys are more likely to get involved with more delinquent activities due to the fact that they are more physically mature and tend to make friendships with older boys Girls who mature earlier have more emotional difficulties, including lower self-image, and higher rates of depression, anxiety, eating disorders and panic attacks (has to do with how they feel about their weight) More likely to be involved in problem behavior including delinquency and drug/alcohol use (due to hanging with older girls) In sum: Boys Girls Positive self-image Emotional difficulties They’re popular Negative self-image Victimization is worse popular Risk taking Body image issues Risk taking The Adolescent Brain There appears to be considerable remodeling in the brain of a teen through the process of synaptic pruning and myelination this created an increase of white matter in the brain which is critical for quick and accurate transmission of signals I the brain o Prefrontal cortex is pruned the most during adolescence, which is the most important area for planning, thinking ahead, weighing risks vs. rewards, and impulse control. Development of the PFC is not complete until the mid 20s o There are changes in the levels of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and serotonin, in the areas of the brain that process rewards as well as emotional and social stimuli, most notable in the limbic system This makes the individual more emotional, more responsive to stress, and more interested in sensation seeking. Also thought to increase the vulnerability to substance abuse o The late maturation of the PFC makes adolescents crave novelty, reward and stimulation several years before they complete maturation of the brain systems that control judgements, decision making, and impulse control. Tis gap may explain why adolescence is a period of heightened experimentation with risk. How thinking changes in adolescents There are 5 important changes o They become more able to think about what is possible, not just what actually is Using deductive reasoning (all soccer players wear shin guards. Chris is a soccer player, does Chris wear shin guards?) and hypothetical thinking (if-then statements) o They become more able to think in sophisticated ways about abstract concepts like love, democracy, and justice o They become better at thinking about the process of thinking Also called metacognition involves monitoring one’s own cognitive activity during the process of thinking (like when you remember the strategy you used on how to remember something) Development of Adolescent egocentrism (selfish thinking) which can result in two problems: Imaginary audience- involves having such a heightened sense of self-consciousness that you think your behavior is the factor of everyone’s concern and attention. Personal fable- revolves around the belief that his/her experience s are unique (like they don’t think anyone else has been through adolescence) o They improve their ability to think about things from multiple dimensions at the same time o They start to see things as relative rather than in absolute. Piaget’s view of adolescent thinking o Formal operational though seems to take place in 2 steps 1. During the first step (early Ad) formal thinking is apparent, but it has a sort of :now you see it, now you don’t” quality to it (as in the demonstrate formal thinking at some times but others may not be able to think in concrete terms 2. It’s not until late adolescence that formal operational thought becomes consolidated and integrated into the individual’s general approach to reasoning The Information-Processing view of Adolescent Thinking o Five main areas of improvement: attention, working memory, processing speed, organization, and metacognition. variation in strategy use variation in efficiency Achievement motivation and Beliefs individuals differ in the extent to which they strive for success, and this difference in striving helps to account for differences in actual achievement o a number of studies indicate that students’ beliefs about the abilities exert a particularly strong influence of their motivation and effort, which in turn influences their scholastic performance o intrinsic (mastery) motivation motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task strive to achieve because they like the way they feel when the master the material o extrinsic (performance) motivation motivation based on the rewards one will receive from successful performance striving to achieve because they want to be a rich business owner one day, and punishments they receive from performing poorly (being benched for a game) Prevention/Intervention programs for risk taking (slides) – watch video! Ch. 12Socioemotional Development in Adolescence Identity development Erikson viewed the developing person as moving through a series f 8 psychosocial crises over the course of the lifespan. The resolving crisis of adolescence is identity vs. identity diffusion o The key to solve the identity crisis lies within the adolescent’s interactions with others The psychosocial Moratorium o According to Erikson, the complications inherent in identity development in modern society have created a need for a psychosocial moratorium, or a “time out” during adolescence from responsibilities and obligations that might restrict selfdiscovery It is during this pause that teens can really experiment with different roles and identities in a context that permits and encourages this sort of exploration Determining an Adolescent’s Identity Status o Identity status refers to the point in the identity development process that characterizes an adolescent at a given time. developed by James Marcia o •Commitment to identity nt Achieveme Foreclosure Identity • Unengaged in identity • Engaged in identity search search Diffusion Identityormtoriu •No commitment to identity o Identity Diffusion – has made no commitments to an identity and isn’t trying to make any Usually have psychosocial and interpersonal problems, socially withdrawn, and have the lowest level of peer intamacy o Identity Foreclosure – has committed but did not experiment/explore (this is when everyone in your family is a doctor so you think you have to be a doctor to, so you don’t experiment) Tend to be more authoritarian and prejudiced, have the highest need for social approval o Moratorium – in the midst of exploration Leads to anxiety, conflict over authority, and they do not have a firm set of beliefs and values o Identity Achievement – has explored/tried new things and committed to an identity best outcome Leads to achievement, moral reasoning, intimacy with peers, and career maturity Rated on two main parts: engagement in identity search, commitment to identity o For adolescents who are not par of a majority culture, integrating a sense of ethnic identity into their overall sense of personal identity is an important ask of late adolescence. concerns ancestry or racial group membership Realization that one is different than others Exploration: rejecting majority culture and immersion in own culture Resolved: develops coherent ethnic identity and helps others with similar issues o Phinney’s 4 categories of ethnic identity Assimilation – adopting majority, rejecting own group Marginality – living in majority, but estranged Separation – adopting own group, rejecting majority Biculturalism – acceptance of both majority and one’s own group Changes in SelfEsteem o Research has shown that selfesteem remains about the same level, or increases. In general, young adolescents are more selfconscious as they transition into adolescence Girls were more depressed and had lower selfesteem than boys, which was largely driven by a lower body image Hispanics more depressed and lower selfesteem than others, above and beyond body image AA had most positive body image that was related to neither self esteem or depression Other data has shown that selfesteem increases across adolescence, but different groups and genders start out at different levels to begin with Family relationships in adolescence Adolescence a period of disequilibrium o Competence: interaction patterns allowing teen to express individuality and autonomy while attached to family o Depression: autonomy is stifled, alienated, hostile relationships Adolescents’ relations with parents and siblings o Some parents find that they and their teen are on more equal footing, while others find that they are constantly butting heads with their teens Teens usually try to take on a more forceful role in the family, but the parents may not acknowledge the adolescent’s input this leads to interrupting the parents more o By middle adolescents they’re treated more like adults and have more influence over family decisions but do not have to insert their opinions through interruptions o Young adolescents usually have emotionally charges relationships with siblings that are marked with conflict and rivalry, but also nurturing and support. o Over the course of adolescence, the relationships with siblings, especially with younger siblings, becomes more egalitarian, but more distant and ;ess emotionally intense Adolescents’ relationships with peers o Difference from childhood: More time spent with peers about 50% time Peer interactions largely unsupervised More time with opposite sex peers Large collectives begin to emerge (“crowds”) o Cliques – small groups defined by common interests (lead to social skills) Orientation toward school, usually in the same grade Orientation toward teen culture, usually from the same social status Involvement in antisocial activity o Crowds large groups defined by stereotypes & reputation (lead to identity) Categorize individuals in larger school Form associations with certain peers Contexts that reward certain lifestyles o Peer pressure When given the option to succumb to pressure from parents, pressure from adults, or their own wishes, it is hard to tell In some situations, the adolescent listens to his in more short term situations (on what to wear, what to listen to, how to behave in school), while they listened to their parents in more long term decisions (such as college decisions) Conforming to peer pressure is greater in early adolescence than later. o Usually teens reject those who show aggression, who are withdrawn, or who are a combination of both. Sex differences in relationships o Friendships become closer and more intimate during adolescence, but girls are more willing to admit intimacy in a relationship than boys. o Girls also put more emphasis on emotional closeness in their evaluation of romantic partners o There are also sex differences in conflict Conflict between boys usually are briefer, are typically over issues of power and control, usually resolved through aggression, and more typically just let it go Conflict between girls are longer, typically about some form or betrayal in their relationship, and only resolved when the friend apologizes. Dating o Today, the average adolescent has started “dating” by ages 13/14, though nearly 50% have had a date before age 12 o By age 16, 90% have had a date o Causal opposite sex socialization precedes dating intense dating early on in adolescence usually leads to negative outcomes No dating leads to dependence on parents to help them Moderate dating until age 15 is usually beneficial for social skills o Dating has strong impact on emotional state – break ups are most common trigger for depression o By age 18, nearly all of adolescents have been on a date. Socioemotional Problems o Many problems are due to transition from late childhood to early adolescence Usually resolved by early adulthood o “raging hormones” do not cause craziness Perhaps more linked to neurotransmitters and brain development o Substance Use o Externalizing Problems when a young person’s problems are turned outward and are manifested in antisocial behavior (behavior that is intended to harm others or deliberately violate societal norms) Usually leads to 2 types of delinquency Lifecoursepersistent offenders when the aggression begins in childhood and leads to property and violent crimes later in adolescence and adulthood Adolescencelimited offenders when delinquent behavior begins and ends during adolescence Risk Factors; Male, Poor, divorce, hostile, neglectful, or abusive parents, Early aggression o Internalizing Problems when a young person’s problems are turned inward and are manifested in emotional and cognitive distress (depression, anxiety, or phobia) Depressed Mood vs Depressive Symptoms 10% teens report symptoms of Depression 3% teens have Depression disorder Late adolescence greatest risk DiathesisStress Model: individual predisposition combined with stressful event triggers depressive symptoms/disorder Cognitive style (hopelessness, pessimism, selfblame) High conflict family, poor peer relations, chronic stress Ch. 13Physical & Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood Guiding Principles and Assumptions o Development continues into adulthood o The paths of development are more variable and selfdirected than in earlier life periods Varies between individuals greater potential for people to act as agents of their own development making your own choices o Development in adulthood involves more than growth maintaining stability adapting to declines/losses o Development is cumulative (builds upon itself) all stages of adulthood seem to be in different steps, but they are all interconnected The 3 major periods of adulthood Young adulthood (ages 1840) o Emerging adulthood earliest stage of young adulthood, the transition between adolescence and adulthood (ages 1825) in which the individual begins to establish independence from parents and assume adult roles Middle adulthood (ages 4065) Late adulthood (ages 65 and older) Transition to adulthood markers and meanings o in many societies, you are not seen as an adult until you are self sufficient and it is hard for people to associate themselves with adulthood because there aren’t any societal roles linked to adult status o a gradual process not an event o Transition may be easier in societies where adult status is linked to social roles longer transition historically speaking o Linked to need for extensive education, so the transition seems longer because we have to get through college, and once we graduated it’s lie “Whoa, I’m an adult” Entering workforce, marrying, becoming parents later than in the past o Lack of clear structure could lead to stress 5 characteristics of Emerging Adulthood 1. the exploration of possible identities before making enduring choices 2. instability in work, romantic relationships, and living arrangements 3. a focus on oneself and functioning as an independent person 4. the subjective feeling of being between adolescence and adulthood 5. the subjective sense that life holds many possibilities Wellbeing in Emerging Adults o Uncertainty & financial instability VS. Carefree optimism & independence o Most (80%) report stable wellbeing from adolescence to adulthood o 17% either increased or decreased in wellbeing due to: Work Romance Citizenship (social conscience, charity) social vs psychological adulthood boundaries of adolescence/adulthood there are differing ages for each of these depending on the state o Age of majority Legally vote at 18 Own property o Parttime work The Federal law allows 14yr old kid to have a part time job 12y in CA, IN, MN, NH, NJ, OR, UT, WI o Fulltime work Federal: 16y 18y (AR, CA, DE, FL, IN, MD, MA) o Leave school 1618yrs o Drive Restricted: 14yr 3mo (SD) 17yr (NJ) Full license with no restrictions: 16y (MT, ID, ND, SD) 18y (CT, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, MD, MA, MN, etc) 21y (ME) o Consent to own health care 14y (HI, NH, WA) 1516y (SC) Physical health For most people, young adulthood is a time where their physical functioning will be at its peak o Reach max height in the 20s and gain muscle mass and strength until about the 30s o Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, immune, neuroendocrine and other bodily functions work at their greatest capacity and efficiency o Accidental injury is the leading cause of death 70% involve motorvehicle accidents Binge drinking and smoking increase in young adulthood o New social roles may decline health risk behaviors Senescence Normal aging, signs appear in early adulthood o Characterized by gradual, agerelated processes of decline o Homeostasis refers to the automatic adjustments that the human body makes constantly to maintain equilibrium Health promoting/damaging behaviors o Healthpromoting behaviors good nutrition, regular physical exercise, and adequate sleep o Health damaging behaviors cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and unsafe sex Increase risk of illness, injury, and even death. o Young adults is also characterized by spikes in the rates of physical violence including homicide, suicide, and sexual assault Due to complex roots and multiple causes Sexual attitudes and functioning Sexual attitudes and behavior o Time of exploration, attitudes become more accepting and openminded Nearly all adults are sexually active by age 25 o Gender differences Socialization women have been typically socialized to confine their sexual feelings and behaviors to close relationships Oxytocin circuits hormone involved with nurturing behavior as well as sexual excitement and orgasms, particularly among women. Women have more oxytocin circuits in their brain, which leads to their nurturing behavior. o Sexual minorities Gay men and lesbians as well adjusted psychologically as heterosexuals labeling typically began in adolescence, but have their first samesex relationship in YA Women’s sexual orientation more fluid than male’s New ways of thinking postformal thought a type of thinking that is relativistic, flexible, pragmatic, tolerant of ambiguities and contradictions, ad integrated with emotion. o Due to continued development of the brain which allows for more efficient and complex thought processes, and also immersion in social roles and contexts that require more complex thought processes o Cognitive affective complexity the ability to integrate emotions and reasoning in decision making and planning Reflective judgement a type of thinking that involves the capacity to reflect on knowledge itself and to understand that knowledge is uncertain, must be critically evaluated, and sometimes needs revision Metacognition ability to monitor and regulate one’s own cognitive processes advances in YA everyday problem solving improves o Cognitiveaffective complexity Increases awareness of others’ motivations and emotional needs Helps people manage intense emotions May account for age differences in everyday problem solving Moral reasoning o Young adults move into the postconventional moral reasoning in which young adults make moral decisions based off of their universal knowledge of what is right and wrong and their own personal moral code rather than parental standards and societal laws. emphasis on reasoning Moral Intuition o Some researchers believe that emotion Is the key process involved with reasoning o Moral intuition is an immediate reaction of approval or disapproval regarding someone’s conduct influences our decisions Moral identity o The integration of moral values and commitments into one’s selfconcept important aspect of moral development For people where being moral is more part of their identity are more likely to selfmonitor and reinforce their own moral conduct High education o Those who attend college have higher incomes, which then leads to better health. o During college young adults become more questioning, independent in thinking, and tolerant o stereotype threat the awareness of a negative stereotype about a group to which one belongs and the fear that one’s behavior could confirm the stereotype o Influence of Work & Responsibility for others Work requires independent thinking and judgement can foster cognitive development in YA and the benefits extend into ter stages of adulthood as well Having meaningful and sustained responsibility for the welfare of others is requires for true moral growth according to Kohlberg this arrives with parenthood Ch. 14Socioemotional Development in Young Adulthood Developmental tasks, timetables… o Recentering the shift from parental control to selfcontrol o Developmental tasks the specific achievements that people are expected to accomplish in a given life period arise from biological (physical maturation), social (norms and expectations), and personal (needs and aspirations) forces. o Intimacy vs Isolation (Erikson) the capacity to be involved in an intimate, loving relationship require a sufficient sense of self and sufficient trust to be willing to reveal oneself truly to another person . Also requires having general concern for the other person’s needs and being willing to set aside one’s own needs at time s o Social clock o Social norms that specify the age by which important life events are expected to happen (ex: leaving home, entering the workforce, marrying) o On time vs Off time People are considered “ontime” when they experience key life events at the expected, or normative, age People are considered “off time” when the experience key life events at a nonnormative age A women who has her first child in her 20s would be on time, and a women having her first child in 50s would be off time. o risks if violate timetables those who are too early or too late experience disapproval or criticism from others (ex: having a child at 16) even if they do not experience social disapproval, they may suffer a decline in selfesteem as they compare themselves to peers off time can be stressful because fewer peers will be experiencing the same thing social institutions are usually organized around the social clock o age irrelevant society a society in which the passage through adulthood is not constrained by strict societal age norms and timetables Theory of Selective Optimization with Compensation successful development results from the use of basic processes of developmental regulation: o Selection (constraints) involves choosing life goals to pursue that are manageable given one’s resources and opportunities Comes into play when people must make choices among an array of possible goals or options they can pursue o Optimization using and enhancing one’s resources to pursue one’ =s goals o Compensation finding alternative ways to pursue one’s goals and maintain one’s current level of functioning when one’s resources decline. Love & Friendship o emotional loneliness is when you have no friends at all o social loneliness is when you don’t have a set circle of friends Triangular theory of love (Sternberg) o Has three basic levels of intensity: Intimacy (closeness and trust), commitment (decision to stay in the relationship for a long time) , passion (physical arousal, desire) Types of love: romantic, liking, companionate, empty, fatuous, infatuation, & consummate ↓ o Adult Attachment styles are based on the dimensions of avoidance of intimacy (low or high) and anxiety about rejection (low or high), have been identified. o secure, preoccupied, dismissive avoidant, fearful avoidant Secure individuals (low on anxiety and avoidance) believe that others can be counted on to be responsive and feel comfortable in depending on others if needed. Greater emotional and sexual intimacy Happiness Stronger commitments Handle break ups better Preoccupied individuals (high on anxiety and low on avoidance) have a desire to be close to others but also fear rejection. Such individuals doubt their partner’s commitment and need frequent assurance that they are loved. Fearfulavoidant individuals (high on both anxiety and avoidance) distrust others, anticipate rejection, and are uncomfortable with closeness. Dismissiveavoidant individuals (low on anxiety and high on avoidance) have a high sense of selfregard, do not care if others accept them, and are selfsufficient. o o First the love is initially passionate (intimacy + passion) compassionate love (intamacy + commitment) Ideally you can consummate love (intimacy+passion+commitment) Marital satisfaction o Declines within first 24 years of marriage o Wives express unhappiness before husbands o May be inevitable for spouses to experience some decline in marital satisfaction as they habituate to each other o Married individuals generally happier and healthier than divorce o Gottman identified four types of behavior that are damaging to relationships Criticism attacking a partner’s personality or values Contempt insulting the partner’s sense of s Defensiveness deflecting partner’s complaints by presenting oneself as the victim Stonewalling refusing the engage the partner o For happy couples, spouses provide support, seek out common fun activities, and have a willingness to forgive misunderstandings. o Stresscrossover effect when a partner’s stress may transfer to the other spouse can contribute to individual health and the health of the relationship o vulnerabilitystressadaptation model marital quality is determined by the personal vulnerabilities of each spouse, encountering stressful events, and the way the couple attempts to adapt to difficult life circumstances. This model proposes that neither personal vulnerability nor life stress alone will necessarily erode marital quality (a combination of the two creates the problem). Marriages can be strengthened by the alleviation of stress or helping someone overcome personal vulnerabilities. This is critical in that while teaching communication skills may help some marriages, others might benefit more from programs that could alleviate chronic stressors (e.g. poverty, drug use). Divorce o Rates soared in 70s and 80s and peaked in 90s o Divorce is typically the result of a persistent decline in satisfaction accelerated by conflict and an erosion of positive behavior. The aftermath continues long after the legal finalization, with divorced individuals experiencing declines in self esteem, increased alcohol use, and worsening physical health. Divorce also negatively impacts financial status (especially for women), changes relationships with friends, strains efforts to raise children, and increases feelings of social isolation. The psychological effects often subside after several years, especially if there is a remarriage. Unfortunately, the rate of divorce of remarriages is as high, or higher than first marriages. Transition to Parenting o When people enter parenthood, couples face challenges like roundtheclock care for a newborn and juggling work responsibilities. A newborn also means less time for shared leisure activities, decreased sexual intimacy, and other challenges that can trigger conflicts and disagreements. Change in the way that couples spend time together Some couples show drop in marital satisfaction Variations in the impact of parenthood: Mothers experience greater change and stress Characteristics of infant can affect adjustment Couple’s characteristics such as satisfaction will influence adjustment Couple’s social network can assist in adjustment Transition to Work o Source of income and identity o work values reflect the kinds of rewards individuals seek from their work 4 types of rewards: extrinsic (income/job security), intrinsic rewards (being able to learn from your work), altruistic (helping others and making a contribution), social (working with people you like). o role of personality by working in a job that emphasizes certain personality characteristics, requires certain abilities, or provides particular types of rewards, individuals start to change their personality, skills, and values some jobs are more wellsuited for certain people, based on their personality o Super’s stages of career development career development unfods in 5 stages: o o Lifetime employment model people worked for one or two employers fr the bulk of their work lives, and employers made similar longterm commitment to their employees more rare nowadays o changes in job market rapidly changing technologies no need for worker skill manufacturing is more scarce college education and specialization is often needed now Now YA need to know that they may have multiple employers, change their lines of work, or need to obtain additional education.
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