New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psych 379: Lifespan Development

by: Ally Marcello

Psych 379: Lifespan Development 379

Marketplace > Catholic University of America > Psychlogy > 379 > Psych 379 Lifespan Development
Ally Marcello
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are the filed in studyguide for our exam on Adolescence and Young adulthood
Life Span Development
Degnan, K.
Study Guide
Psychology, lifespan development, physical development in adolescence, cognitive development of adolescence, puberty, young adulthood.
50 ?




Popular in Life Span Development

Popular in Psychlogy

This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Marcello on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 379 at Catholic University of America taught by Degnan, K. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Psychlogy at Catholic University of America.


Reviews for Psych 379: Lifespan Development


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/19/16
PSY 379 Exam 3 Study Guide The exam will be 60 multiple choice and fill in the blank questions (mostly multiple choice) at ½ a point each and 10 short answer questions at 1 point each. The exam is worth a total of 40 points towards the final grade. This guide is an overview of what you should be thinking about and studying but is not  comprehensive – topics not covered may be on the exam. Questions will come from the bolded  terms in the text as well as both the lectures/powerpoints and the book. Ch. 11­Physical & Cognitive Development in Adolescence Puberty and its Consequences  Refers to the period during which an individual becomes capable of sexual reproduction→ encompasses all physical changes that occur in the growing girl or boy  Puberty has 5 chief components o Rapid acceleration in growth (huge increase in height and weight) o Development of primary sex characteristics (further development of the gonads- testes in males and ovaries in females) o Development of secondary sex characteristics (changes in genital and breasts, growth of pubic, facial and body hair, and further development of gonads) o Changes in body composition (quantity and distribution of fat) o Changes in the circulatory and respiratory systems (leads to ↑ strength and endurance)  All of the above are a result of developments in the endocrine and central nervous system, and is universal for all kids The Endocrine System  produces , circulates, and regulates levels of hormones in the body  Doesn’t have a mind of its own, it receives its instructions from the brain  The HPG axis is the feedback loop involving the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and the gonads→ androgens and estrogens (sex hormones) are released in puberty to guide sexual maturation and other aspects of growth o Pituitary gland- one of the chief glands responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body (located at the base of the brain o Hypothalamus- a part of the lower brainstem that controls the functioning of the pituitary gland o Androgens- sex hormones that are found in both sexes, but are found in higher levels in males after puberty. o Estrogens- sex hormones that are found in both sexes but are in higher levels in females after puberty o The HPG axis is there during infancy and, like a an “alarm is genetically programmed (“set”) to go off at a certain time in an individual’s life, with much help from environmental factors as well.  Ex: exposure to sexually mature individuals, if a female is getting enough nutrients to support pregnancy, whether the individual is physically mature and healthy enough to start reproducing  Some researchers say that high levels of leptin (protein produced by fat cells) may be the most important signal, at least in females, because it stops the inhibition of puberty  Adrenarche- activation and maturation of the adrenal gland (causes early feelings of sexual attraction) → leads to physical changes (growth and hair development) Changes in Height, Weight, and Appearance  Growth hormones, thyroid hormones, and androgens stimulate rapid acceleration in height and weight, commonly known as the adolescent growth spurt o Growth is at the same rate as a toddler (Males: about 4”/yr, Females: 3.5”/yr) o On average, girls begin puberty 2 years earlier than boys  Tanner Stages- Development of secondary sex characteristics into 5 stages o Boys  Generally the first stages of puberty involve growth of the testes and scrotum, accompanied by the first appearance of pubic hair→ approximately 1yr later, the growth spurt in height begins, accompanied by growth of the penis and further development of pubic hair (now coarser and darker). Emergence of facial hair, body hair, and deepening of the voice are relatively late developments in the pubertal process. Changes in skin and oil glands which could lead to the development of acne, pimples, and oily skin.  Note: boys are capable of producing semen (and fathering a pregnancy) before their physical appearance is adult- like o Girls  The first sign of sexual maturation in girls is usually the elevation of the breast, although in about ⅓ of adolescent girls, the appearance of pubic hair is first. Development of pubic hair follows closely to that of the males (from sparse, downy, light colored to more dense, curled, coarse, and darker hair) Menarche (beginning of menstruation) is relatively late in development. Generally a girl does not ovulate until 2 years after menarche, and she is not fertile until several years after her first period.  Note: girls generally appear more physically mature before they are capable of becoming pregnant. The Psychology and Social Impact of Puberty  The biological changes can affect behavior directly. o The increased sex drive is a direct result of the surge in hormones that occur during puberty o Biological changes of puberty can also affect the individual’s self- image, which in turn may influence their behavior  A kid who looks in the mirror and sees an adult image, will demand more independence and adult-like treatment o Changes in appearance for the individual may change the way others treat the individual  Puberty and emotions o The impact of puberty on adolescents’ psychological functioning is to a great extent shaped by the social context in which puberty takes place o Effects of hormones on emotions are strongest in early puberty, when hormone levels are fluctuating the most  Ex: rapid increases in hormones are linked to more irritability, impulsivity, aggression (in boys) and depression (in girls), especially in early adolescents.  Sleep o The emergence of the wacky pattern of sleep teen have (staying up really late and  sleeping all day) is called delayed phase preference it is driven by the biological  changes of puberty  Falling asleep is caused by a combination of biological and environmental  factors with the most important factor being melatonin levels  as  melatonin rises, we get sleepier (need of 9 hours of sleep is still constant)  During puberty, there is a shift in when melatonin is made melatonin  comes later and later which means adolescents are able to stay up later.  Also, those who are in puberty are sleepier in the mornings than  those who are prepubertal  Early and Late Maturation  Puberty can begin as early as 7 in girls and 9 ½ in boys, or as late as 13 in girls and 13 ½ in boys.  Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Timing o Puberty is predisposed, but environmental factors can influence that timing.  Most important being nutrition and health o Secular trend- the tendency, over the past two centuries, for individuals to be larger in stature and to reach puberty earlier, primarily because of an improvement in health and nutrition  Boys who mature earlier tend to feel better about themselves and are more popular than their late-maturing peers.  However, early maturing boys are more likely to get involved with more delinquent activities due to the fact that they are more physically mature and tend to make friendships with older boys  Girls who mature earlier have more emotional difficulties, including lower self-image, and higher rates of depression, anxiety, eating disorders and panic attacks (has to do with how they feel about their weight)  More likely to be involved in problem behavior including delinquency and drug/alcohol use (due to hanging with older girls)  In sum: Boys Girls Positive self-image Emotional difficulties They’re popular Negative self-image Victimization is worse popular Risk taking Body image issues Risk taking  The Adolescent Brain  There appears to be considerable remodeling in the brain of a teen through the process of synaptic pruning and myelination this created an increase of white matter in the brain which is critical for quick and accurate transmission of signals I the brain o Prefrontal cortex is pruned the most during adolescence, which is the most important area for planning, thinking ahead, weighing risks vs. rewards, and impulse control. Development of the PFC is not complete until the mid 20s o There are changes in the levels of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and serotonin, in the areas of the brain that process rewards as well as emotional and social stimuli, most notable in the limbic system  This makes the individual more emotional, more responsive to stress, and more interested in sensation seeking.  Also thought to increase the vulnerability to substance abuse o The late maturation of the PFC makes adolescents crave novelty, reward and stimulation several years before they complete maturation of the brain systems that control judgements, decision making, and impulse control. Tis gap may explain why adolescence is a period of heightened experimentation with risk. How thinking changes in adolescents  There are 5 important changes o They become more able to think about what is possible, not just what actually is  Using deductive reasoning (all soccer players wear shin guards. Chris is a soccer player, does Chris wear shin guards?) and hypothetical thinking (if-then statements) o They become more able to think in sophisticated ways about abstract concepts like love, democracy, and justice o They become better at thinking about the process of thinking  Also called metacognition involves monitoring one’s own cognitive activity during the process of thinking (like when you remember the strategy you used on how to remember something)  Development of Adolescent egocentrism (selfish thinking) which can result in two problems:  Imaginary audience- involves having such a heightened sense of self-consciousness that you think your behavior is the factor of everyone’s concern and attention.  Personal fable- revolves around the belief that his/her experience s are unique (like they don’t think anyone else has been through adolescence) o They improve their ability to think about things from multiple dimensions at the same time o They start to see things as relative rather than in absolute.  Piaget’s view of adolescent thinking o Formal operational though seems to take place in 2 steps  1. During the first step (early Ad) formal thinking is apparent, but it has a sort of :now you see it, now you don’t” quality to it (as in the demonstrate formal thinking at some times but others may not be able to think in concrete terms  2. It’s not until late adolescence that formal operational thought becomes consolidated and integrated into the individual’s general approach to reasoning  The Information-Processing view of Adolescent Thinking o Five main areas of improvement: attention, working memory, processing speed, organization, and metacognition.  variation in strategy use  variation in efficiency Achievement motivation and Beliefs  individuals differ in the extent to which they strive for success, and this difference in  striving helps to account for differences in actual achievement o a number of studies indicate that students’ beliefs  about the abilities exert a  particularly strong influence of their motivation and effort, which in turn  influences their scholastic performance o intrinsic (mastery) motivation­ motivation based on the pleasure one will  experience from mastering a task  strive to achieve because they like the way they feel when the master the  material o extrinsic (performance) motivation­ motivation based on the rewards one will  receive from successful performance  striving to achieve because they want to be a rich business owner one day, and punishments they receive from performing poorly (being benched for  a game) Prevention/Intervention programs for risk taking (slides) – watch video! Ch. 12­Socioemotional Development in Adolescence Identity development  Erikson viewed the developing person as moving through a series f 8 psychosocial crises over the course of the lifespan.  The resolving crisis of adolescence is identity vs. identity diffusion o The key to solve the identity crisis lies within the adolescent’s interactions with  others  The psychosocial Moratorium o  According to Erikson, the complications inherent in identity development in  modern society have created a need for a psychosocial moratorium, or a “time­ out” during adolescence from responsibilities and obligations that might restrict  self­discovery  It is during this pause that teens can really experiment with different roles  and identities in a context that permits and encourages this sort of  exploration  Determining an Adolescent’s Identity Status o Identity status refers to the point in the identity development process that  characterizes an adolescent at a given time.  developed by James Marcia  o •Commitment to identity nt Achieveme Foreclosure Identity • Unengaged in identity • Engaged in identity search search Diffusion Identityormtoriu •No commitment to identity o Identity Diffusion – has made no commitments to an identity and isn’t trying to  make any  Usually have psychosocial and interpersonal problems, socially  withdrawn, and have the lowest level of peer intamacy o Identity Foreclosure – has committed but did not experiment/explore (this is  when everyone in your family is a doctor so you think you have to be a doctor to, so you don’t experiment)  Tend to be more authoritarian and prejudiced, have the highest need for  social approval o Moratorium – in the midst of exploration  Leads to anxiety, conflict over authority, and they do not have a firm set  of beliefs and values o Identity Achievement – has explored/tried new things and committed to an  identity best outcome  Leads to achievement, moral reasoning, intimacy with peers, and career  maturity  Rated on two main parts: engagement in identity search, commitment to  identity o For adolescents who are not par of a majority culture, integrating a sense of  ethnic identity into their overall sense of personal identity is an important ask of  late adolescence.  concerns ancestry or racial group membership  Realization that one is different than others  Exploration: rejecting majority culture and immersion in own culture  Resolved: develops coherent ethnic identity and helps others with similar  issues o Phinney’s 4 categories of ethnic identity  Assimilation – adopting majority, rejecting own group  Marginality – living in majority, but estranged  Separation – adopting own group, rejecting majority  Biculturalism – acceptance of both majority and one’s own group  Changes in Self­Esteem o Research has shown that self­esteem remains about the same level, or increases.  In general, young adolescents are more self­conscious as they transition  into adolescence  Girls were more depressed and had lower self­esteem than boys,  which was largely driven by a lower body image  Hispanics more depressed and lower self­esteem than others,  above and beyond body image  AA had most positive body image that was related to neither self­ esteem or depression  Other data has shown that self­esteem increases across  adolescence, but different groups and genders start out at different  levels to begin with Family relationships in adolescence  Adolescence a period of disequilibrium o Competence:  interaction patterns allowing teen to express individuality and  autonomy while attached to family o Depression: autonomy is stifled, alienated, hostile relationships   Adolescents’ relations with parents and siblings o Some parents find that they and their teen are on more equal footing, while others  find that they are constantly butting heads with their teens  Teens usually try to take on a more forceful role in the family, but the  parents may not acknowledge the adolescent’s input this leads to  interrupting the parents more o By middle adolescents they’re treated more like adults and have more influence  over family decisions but do not have to insert their opinions through  interruptions o Young adolescents usually have emotionally charges relationships with siblings  that are marked with conflict and rivalry, but also nurturing and support. o Over the course of adolescence, the relationships with siblings, especially with  younger siblings, becomes more egalitarian, but more distant and ;ess emotionally intense  Adolescents’ relationships with peers o Difference from childhood:  More time spent with peers­ about 50% time   Peer interactions largely unsupervised  More time with opposite sex peers  Large collectives begin to emerge (“crowds”) o Cliques – small groups defined by common interests (lead to social skills)   Orientation toward school, usually in the same grade  Orientation toward teen culture, usually from the same social status  Involvement in antisocial activity o Crowds ­ large groups defined by stereotypes & reputation (lead to identity)  Categorize individuals in larger school  Form associations with certain peers  Contexts that reward certain lifestyles o Peer pressure  When given the option to succumb to pressure from parents, pressure from adults, or their own wishes, it is hard to tell  In some situations, the adolescent listens to his in more short term  situations (on what to wear, what to listen to, how to behave in  school), while they listened to their parents in more long term  decisions (such as college decisions)  Conforming to peer pressure is greater in early adolescence than later. o Usually teens reject those who show aggression, who are  withdrawn, or who are a combination of both.  Sex differences in relationships  o Friendships become closer and more intimate during adolescence, but girls are  more willing to admit intimacy in a relationship than boys.  o Girls also put more emphasis on emotional closeness in their evaluation of  romantic partners o There are also sex differences in conflict  Conflict between boys usually are briefer, are typically over issues of  power and control, usually resolved through aggression, and more  typically just let it go  Conflict between girls are longer, typically about some form or betrayal in their relationship, and only resolved when the friend apologizes.  Dating o Today, the average adolescent has started “dating” by ages 13/14, though nearly  50% have had a date before age 12 o By age 16, 90% have had a date  o Causal opposite sex socialization precedes dating  intense dating early on in adolescence usually leads to negative outcomes  No dating leads to dependence on parents to help them  Moderate dating until age 15 is usually beneficial for social skills  o Dating has strong impact on emotional state – break ups are most common trigger for depression o By age 18, nearly all of adolescents have been on a date.  Socioemotional Problems o Many problems are due to transition from late childhood to early adolescence  Usually resolved by early adulthood o “raging hormones” do not cause craziness  Perhaps more linked to neurotransmitters and brain development o Substance Use o Externalizing Problems­ when a young person’s problems are turned outward and  are manifested in antisocial behavior (behavior that is intended to harm others or  deliberately violate societal norms)  Usually leads to 2 types of delinquency  Life­course­persistent offenders­ when the aggression begins in  childhood and leads to property and violent crimes later in  adolescence and adulthood  Adolescence­limited­ offenders­ when delinquent behavior begins  and ends during adolescence  Risk Factors; Male, Poor, divorce, hostile, neglectful, or abusive parents,  Early aggression o Internalizing Problems­ when a young person’s problems are turned inward and  are manifested in emotional and cognitive distress (depression, anxiety, or phobia)  Depressed Mood vs Depressive Symptoms  10% teens report symptoms of Depression  3% teens have Depression disorder  Late adolescence greatest risk  Diathesis­Stress Model: individual predisposition combined with stressful  event triggers depressive symptoms/disorder  Cognitive style (hopelessness, pessimism, self­blame)  High conflict family, poor peer relations, chronic stress Ch. 13­Physical & Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood  Guiding Principles and Assumptions o Development continues into adulthood o The paths of development are more variable and self­directed than in earlier life  periods  Varies between individuals   greater potential for people to act as agents of their own development  making your own choices o Development in adulthood involves more than growth  maintaining stability  adapting to declines/losses o Development is cumulative (builds upon itself)  all stages of adulthood seem to  be in different steps, but they are all interconnected The 3 major periods of adulthood   Young adulthood (ages 18­40) o Emerging adulthood­ earliest stage of young adulthood, the transition between  adolescence and adulthood (ages 18­25) in which the individual begins to  establish independence from parents and assume adult roles  Middle adulthood (ages 40­65)  Late adulthood (ages 65 and older) Transition to adulthood  markers and meanings o in many societies, you are not seen as an adult until you are self sufficient and it is hard for people to associate themselves with adulthood because there aren’t any  societal roles linked to adult status o a gradual process not an event o Transition may be easier in societies where adult status is linked to social roles  longer transition historically speaking o Linked to need for extensive education, so the transition seems longer because we have to get through college, and once we graduated it’s  lie “Whoa, I’m an adult”  Entering workforce, marrying, becoming parents later than in the past o Lack of clear structure could lead to stress 5 characteristics of Emerging Adulthood   1. the exploration of possible identities before making enduring choices  2. instability in work, romantic relationships, and living arrangements  3. a focus on oneself and functioning as an independent person  4. the subjective feeling of being between adolescence and adulthood  5. the subjective sense that life holds many possibilities   Wellbeing in Emerging Adults o Uncertainty & financial instability VS. Carefree optimism & independence o Most (80%) report stable well­being from adolescence to adulthood o 17% either increased or decreased in well­being due to:  Work  Romance  Citizenship (social conscience, charity) ­social vs psychological adulthood   boundaries of adolescence/adulthood there are differing ages for each of these  depending on the state o Age of majority  Legally vote at 18  Own property o Part­time work  The Federal law allows 14yr old kid to have a part time job  12y  in CA, IN, MN, NH, NJ, OR, UT, WI o Full­time work  Federal: 16y  18y (AR, CA, DE, FL, IN, MD, MA) o Leave school 16­18yrs o Drive  Restricted: 14yr 3mo (SD) ­ 17yr (NJ)  Full license with no restrictions:  16y (MT, ID,  ND, SD)  18y (CT, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, MD, MA, MN, etc)  21y (ME) o Consent to own health care  14y (HI, NH, WA)  15­16y (SC) Physical health  For most people, young adulthood is a time where their physical functioning will be at its peak o Reach max height in the 20s and gain muscle mass and strength until about the  30s o Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, immune, neuroendocrine and other bodily  functions work at their greatest capacity and efficiency o Accidental injury is the leading cause of death  70% involve motor­vehicle accidents  Binge drinking and smoking increase in young adulthood o New social roles may decline health risk behaviors  Senescence­ Normal aging, signs  appear in early adulthood o Characterized by gradual, age­related processes of decline o Homeostasis refers to the automatic adjustments that the human body makes  constantly to maintain equilibrium  Health promoting/damaging behaviors  o Health­promoting behaviors­ good nutrition, regular physical exercise, and  adequate sleep o Health damaging behaviors­ cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and  unsafe sex  Increase risk of illness, injury, and even death. o Young adults is also characterized by spikes in the rates of physical violence  including homicide, suicide, and sexual assault  Due to complex roots and multiple causes Sexual attitudes and functioning  Sexual attitudes and behavior o Time of exploration, attitudes become more accepting and open­minded Nearly  all adults are sexually active by age 25 o Gender differences  Socialization­ women have been typically socialized to confine their  sexual feelings and behaviors to close relationships  Oxytocin circuits­ hormone involved with nurturing behavior as well as  sexual excitement and orgasms, particularly among women. Women have  more oxytocin circuits in their brain, which leads to their nurturing  behavior. o Sexual minorities  Gay men and lesbians as well adjusted psychologically as heterosexuals  labeling typically began in adolescence, but have their first same­sex  relationship in YA  Women’s sexual orientation more fluid than male’s New ways of thinking  postformal thought­ a type of thinking that is relativistic, flexible, pragmatic, tolerant of  ambiguities and contradictions, ad integrated with emotion. o Due to continued development of the brain which allows for more efficient and  complex thought processes, and also immersion in social roles and contexts that  require more complex thought processes o Cognitive affective complexity­ the ability to integrate emotions and reasoning in  decision making and planning  Reflective judgement­ a type of thinking that involves the capacity to reflect on  knowledge itself and to understand that knowledge is uncertain, must be critically  evaluated, and sometimes needs revision  Metacognition­ ability to monitor and regulate one’s own cognitive processes advances  in YA  everyday problem solving improves o Cognitive­affective complexity  Increases awareness of others’ motivations and emotional needs   Helps people manage intense emotions  May account for age differences in everyday problem solving  Moral reasoning o Young adults move into the post­conventional moral reasoning in which young  adults make moral decisions based off of their universal knowledge of what is  right and wrong and their own personal moral code rather than parental standards  and societal laws.  emphasis on reasoning  Moral Intuition o Some researchers believe that emotion Is the key process involved with reasoning o Moral intuition is an immediate reaction of approval or disapproval regarding  someone’s conduct influences our decisions  Moral identity o The integration of moral values and commitments into one’s self­concept  important aspect of moral development  For people where being moral is more part of their identity are more likely to self­monitor and reinforce their own moral conduct  High education o Those who attend college have higher incomes, which then leads to better health. o During college young adults become more questioning, independent in thinking,  and tolerant o stereotype threat­ the awareness of a negative stereotype about a group to which  one belongs and the fear that one’s behavior could confirm the stereotype o Influence of Work & Responsibility for others   Work requires independent thinking and judgement can foster cognitive  development in YA and the benefits extend into ter stages of adulthood as  well  Having meaningful and sustained responsibility for the welfare of others is requires for true moral growth according to Kohlberg this arrives with  parenthood Ch. 14­Socioemotional Development in Young Adulthood Developmental tasks, timetables… o Recentering­ the shift from parental control to self­control  o Developmental tasks­ the specific achievements that people are expected to  accomplish in a given life period  arise from biological (physical maturation), social (norms and  expectations), and personal (needs and aspirations) forces. o Intimacy vs Isolation (Erikson)­ the capacity to be involved in an intimate, loving  relationship require a sufficient sense of self and sufficient trust to be willing to  reveal oneself truly to another person .  Also requires having general concern for the other person’s needs and  being willing to set aside one’s own needs at time s o Social clock o Social norms that specify the age by which important life events are expected to  happen (ex: leaving home, entering the workforce, marrying) o On time vs Off time­   People are considered “on­time” when they experience key life events at  the expected, or normative, age  People are considered “off time” when the experience key life events at a  non­normative age  A women who has her first child in her 20s would be on time, and  a women having her first child in 50s would be off time. o risks if violate timetables  those who are too early or too late experience disapproval or criticism   from others (ex: having a child at 16)  even if they do not experience social disapproval, they may suffer a  decline in self­esteem as they compare themselves to peers  off time can be stressful because fewer peers will be experiencing the  same thing  social institutions are usually organized around the social clock  o age irrelevant society­ a society in which the passage through adulthood is not  constrained by strict societal age norms and timetables Theory of Selective Optimization with Compensation­ successful development results from the  use of basic processes of developmental regulation: o Selection (constraints)­ involves choosing life goals to pursue that are manageable given one’s resources and opportunities  Comes into play when people must make choices among an array of  possible goals or options they can pursue o Optimization­ using and enhancing one’s resources to pursue one’ =s goals o Compensation­ finding alternative ways to pursue one’s goals and maintain one’s  current level of functioning when one’s resources decline. Love & Friendship o emotional loneliness is when you have no friends at all  o social loneliness is when you don’t have a set circle of friends Triangular theory of love (Sternberg) o Has three basic levels of intensity: Intimacy (closeness and trust), commitment  (decision to stay in the relationship for a long time) , passion (physical arousal,  desire)  Types of love: romantic, liking, companionate, empty, fatuous,  infatuation, & consummate ↓ o Adult Attachment styles are based on the dimensions of avoidance of intimacy (low or high) and  anxiety about rejection (low or high), have been identified. o secure, preoccupied, dismissive avoidant, fearful avoidant  Secure individuals (low on anxiety and avoidance) believe that others can  be counted on to be responsive and feel comfortable in depending on  others if needed.   Greater emotional and sexual intimacy  Happiness  Stronger commitments  Handle break ups better  Preoccupied individuals (high on anxiety and low on avoidance) have a  desire to be close to others but also fear rejection. Such individuals doubt  their partner’s commitment and need frequent assurance that they are  loved.    Fearful­avoidant individuals (high on both anxiety and avoidance) distrust others, anticipate rejection, and are uncomfortable with closeness.   Dismissive­avoidant individuals (low on anxiety and high on avoidance)  have a high sense of self­regard, do not care if others accept them, and are  self­sufficient. o o First the love is initially passionate (intimacy + passion)  compassionate love  (intamacy + commitment)  Ideally you can consummate love (intimacy+passion+commitment) Marital satisfaction o Declines within first 2­4 years of marriage o Wives express unhappiness before husbands o May be inevitable for spouses to experience some decline in marital satisfaction  as they habituate to each other o Married individuals generally happier and healthier than divorce o Gottman identified four types of behavior that are damaging to relationships   Criticism­ attacking a partner’s personality or values  Contempt­ insulting the partner’s sense of s  Defensiveness­ deflecting partner’s complaints by presenting oneself as  the victim  Stonewalling­ refusing the engage the partner o For happy couples, spouses provide support, seek out common fun activities, and  have a willingness to forgive misunderstandings.  o Stress­crossover effect­ when a partner’s stress may transfer to the other spouse  can contribute to individual health and the health of the relationship o vulnerability­stress­adaptation model  marital quality is determined by the personal vulnerabilities of each  spouse, encountering stressful events, and the way the couple attempts to  adapt to difficult life circumstances. This model proposes that neither  personal vulnerability nor life stress alone will necessarily erode marital  quality (a combination of the two creates the problem).   Marriages can be strengthened by the alleviation of stress or helping  someone overcome personal vulnerabilities. This is critical in that while  teaching communication skills may help some marriages, others might  benefit more from programs that could alleviate chronic stressors (e.g.  poverty, drug use). Divorce o Rates soared in 70s and 80s and peaked in 90s o Divorce is typically the result of a persistent decline in satisfaction accelerated by  conflict and an erosion of positive behavior. The aftermath continues long after  the legal finalization, with divorced individuals experiencing declines in self­ esteem, increased alcohol use, and worsening physical health. Divorce also  negatively impacts financial status (especially for women), changes relationships  with friends, strains efforts to raise children, and increases feelings of social  isolation. The psychological effects often subside after several years, especially if  there is a remarriage. Unfortunately, the rate of divorce of remarriages is as high,  or higher than first marriages. Transition to Parenting  o When people enter parenthood, couples face challenges like round­the­clock care  for a newborn and juggling work responsibilities. A newborn also means less time for shared leisure activities, decreased sexual intimacy, and other challenges that  can trigger conflicts and disagreements.   Change in the way that couples spend time together  Some couples show drop in marital satisfaction  Variations in the impact of parenthood:  Mothers experience greater change and stress  Characteristics of infant can affect adjustment  Couple’s characteristics  such as satisfaction will influence  adjustment  Couple’s social network can assist in adjustment Transition to Work o Source of income and identity o work values­ reflect the kinds of rewards individuals seek from their work  4 types of rewards: extrinsic (income/job security), intrinsic rewards  (being able to learn from your work), altruistic (helping others and making a contribution), social (working with people you like). o role of personality­ by working in a job that emphasizes certain personality  characteristics, requires certain abilities, or provides particular types of rewards,  individuals start to change their personality, skills, and values  some jobs are more well­suited for certain people, based on their  personality o Super’s stages of career development­ career development unfods in 5 stages: o o Lifetime employment model­ people worked for one or two employers fr the bulk  of their work lives, and employers made similar long­term commitment to their  employees more rare nowadays o changes in job market  rapidly changing technologies­ no need for worker skill  manufacturing is more scarce  college education and specialization is often needed now  Now YA need to know that they may have multiple employers,  change their lines of work, or need to obtain additional education.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.