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UCONN / Psychology / PSY 2110 / What is the meaning of paraphilia in psychology?

What is the meaning of paraphilia in psychology?

What is the meaning of paraphilia in psychology?

Description

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Human Sexuality
Professor: Seth kalichman
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: PSYC 2110
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 study guide
Description: Exam 3 study guide
Uploaded: 03/19/2016
9 Pages 48 Views 5 Unlocks
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PSYC 2110 Exam 3 Study Guide


What is the meaning of paraphilia in psychology?



Key:

Terms

Concepts  

Ideas/notes to remember

Hedonism - family/subset of values saying if it feels right to you just do it

• Deviation: term used to describe sexual practices or beliefs that did not fit within the norm ∙ has a negative connotation and vagueness

• Variation: newer term used in place of "deviation"

• Paraphilia: term describing sexual attraction/behavior not considered normal or accepted ∙ translated to "a love beside" - meaning away from the norm We also discuss several other topics like How many unsafe abortions happen a year?

∙ especially pathological

∙ controversy whether certain sexual abnormalities (paraphilias) are considered mental  illness


What is the meaning of variation in psychology?



• Sexual standards in Western culture 

∙ 1) the Heterosexual standard

o heterosexism - idea that people are or should be attracted to members of the  opposite gender

o Attraction and sexual desires for the opposite gender

o implies anti-gay relationships

∙ 2) The Coital standard

o coitus = sexual intercourse between a man and woman Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main beliefs of atheism?
Don't forget about the age old question of Which large yellow flower is used in the making of cooking oil?

o sex is the most important sexual act

o foreplay (sexual activity in early stages of sexual arousal that leads to sex that  is orgasm-oriented) is considered preparation for sex


What are the sexual standards in western culture?



We also discuss several other topics like How is rhetoric understood, theorized, and practiced?

o recently oral sex has become more accepted which diminishes this standard ∙ 3) The Orgasmic standard

o assumption that orgasm should be reached at climax of sexual interaction o especially prevalent among males (now more so with females as well)

∙ 4) The 2-person standard

o sex is for 2 people

o idea that masturbation is a substitute for sex between 2 people

o sex with more than 2 people (at one time) considered "kinky"

∙ 5) The Romantic standard

o Idea that romantic love includes sexual activity and that sex without love is  empty

∙ 6) The Safe sex standard

o Most recent standard set in Western culture

o Developed during HIV/AIDS threat We also discuss several other topics like What is the traditional land management practice?

o People engaging in sexual acts are assumed to be taking precautions against  unwanted pregnancies, STDs etc.

o warns against risky sexual interactions and that they should be avoided

o importance of condom use

Global sexual rights 

∙ World Association for Sexual Health made a Universal Declaration of Sexual Rights o non-enforceable set of guidelines Don't forget about the age old question of What would cause your triglyercides to surge?

1. Right to sexual freedom: individuals can express their full sexual potential  excluding any forms of sexual coercion, exploitation, and abuse at any time.

2. Right to sexual autonomy, sexual integrity, and safety of the sexual body: ability to  make decisions about one's sexual life involving one's own personal and social  ethics. includes control and enjoyment of one's own body free from torture,  

mutilation, and any violence.

3. Right to sexual privacy: right to make individual decisions/behaviors about  intimacy as long as they do not intrude on other's sexual rights.

4. Right to sexual equity: freedom from discrimination because of sex, gender, sexual  orientation, age, race, social class, religion, or physical and emotional disability. 5. Right to sexual pleasure: including autoeroticism. sexual pleasure is a source of  physical, psychological, intellectual, and spiritual well-being

6. Right to emotional sexual expression: more than just erotic pleasure or sexual  acts. individuals have right to express their sexuality through communication,  touch, emotional expression and love

7. Right to sexually associate freely: meaning possibility to choose to marry, divorce,  or establish other responsible sexual associations

8. Right to make free and responsible reproductive choices: includes right decide  whether or not to have children, the number and spacing of children, and the right  to full access to mean of fertility regulation

9. Right to sexual information based upon scientific inquiry: sexual information  shouldn't be biased and should be scientifically ethical and should be equally  dispersed among societal classes.

10. Right to comprehensive sexuality education: lifelong process and should involve  all social institutions

11. Right to sexual health care: should be available for prevention and treatment of all  sexual concerns, problems, and disorders

Ethnocentricity: tendency of members of a certain culture to assume their values are the  correct/right ones compared to other cultures  

Ford and Beach did anthropological study Patterns of Sexual Behavior

∙ found that no one culture can represent them all

∙ Erotocentricity 

o type of ethnocentricity that leads us to assume that our own cultural/individual  values/standards/activities are the best and the correct form

Types of Normalcy and methods of defining normal 

1. Statistical normalcy

i. measures sexual normalcy based on frequency and extent it is widespread in a  certain population

ii. Majority = normal

iii. widespread behavior of masturbation considered normal after learning of it's  widespreadness  

2. Normalcy by expert opinion

i. High education and expert level knowledge is referred to when considering what  is normal

ii. controversial on whether this is an accurate or arbitrary form of determining  normalcy

3. Moral Normalcy

i. Religious standards deemed important in and by a society often decide what is  normal for morality

ii. Standards are often influence the law

iii. most behaviors that are considered morally acceptable are considered normal 4. A Continuum of Normalcy

i. in Western societies, more acceptance of situational morality, perception of reality  and nonjudgementalness  

ii. increases ability to look at sexual attraction and activities in relative terms iii. considers many individual and situational factors

iv. asks what is safe, healthy, respectful of other's beliefs  

Homosexual 

∙ term that implies more than occasional sexual behaviors

∙ heterosexual as a term is far less of a powerful label

∙ label mostly concerning sexual behaviors and may not include affectional preferences - someone who may prefer to have sex with their same gender may never do so and  someone who enjoys heterosexual acts may engage in a same gender sexual act

∙ some people want to stop using this term as it has negative connotations, is usually only  used for males and is very vague 

Bisexual 

∙ term used to reference people who relate sexually and affectionally to males and females ∙ can describe both sexual identity and behavior

∙ bisexual person may continuously be attracted to both sexes or switch

∙ can be negatively viewed by both homosexual and heterosexual people

Transvestite 

∙ term used for a male dressing in female clothing

Difficult to define an entire individual by one label

Sexual Individuality

∙ inner sexual relations are not always consistent with outward expression of sexual  behavior

∙ our personal sexuality is as personal as a fingerprint

Origins of sexual orientation/preferred sexual activities

1. Overemphasis on parent's role

2. Largely developed at adolescence, even without sexual activity and usually continue into  adulthood

3. Patterns of sexual feelings and responses in children/young people is too complex to find a  specific root

4. Biological bases for development of sexual orientation and preference for certain activities that  are later influenced by social factors and psychological factors.

5. Social networks (people you are regularly associated with) largely shape individual attitudes of  sex

6. Likely no sexual instinct that guides normal sexual behavior. diversity of sexual individuality  shows that there is no single representative human sexuality

Fritz Klein (1990)  

∙ made sexual orientation grid showing components of sexual orientation and identity  that are both related and independent

∙ 7 factors to be considered in the past, present and ideal when describing a person's  sexual orientation or identity

o sexual attraction

o sexual behavior

o sexual fantasies

o emotional preference

o social preference

o self-identification

o lifestyle

Cluster analysis

∙ used to find patterns in a mass

∙ 3 categories (attitudinal groups) with subcategories

1. Traditional: religious beliefs always guide their sexual behavior. Divided based on  availability of abortions

1. Conservative

2. Pro-choice

2. Relational: almost half the population, sex should be part of loving relationship  but not necessarily only for marriage  

1. Religious

2. Conventional

3. Contemporary Religious

3. Recreational: don't feel that sex and love have to be connected

1. Pro-life: oppose same gender sex and abortion

2. Libertarian: not guided by any religious belief and are considered most  

accepting on all the attitudinal items

more educated people tended away from the conservative end

groups are strongly associated with certain sexual behaviors

Homophobia 

∙ irrational fear of lesbian and gay people or strong negative feelings to or about them ∙ men tend on average to be more homophobic, especially towards gay men as opposed to  women

∙ College campuses are very good at providing a safe space for homosexual individuals  Biphobia - negative feelings and misunderstanding of bisexual people

∙ most common form is idea that bisexuality isn't real

biphobia and homophobia can be internalized (confusion about one's own sexuality) or externalized  (name calling etc.)

Transphobia - negative feelings towards transgender individuals

Sexuality as a moral and ethical issue

∙ moral values: the beliefs associated with ethical issues

Ethics

1) Legalistic ethics: adherence to divinely established laws

∙ natural laws dictate right and wrong

∙ religious texts dictate what is right and wrong

2) Moral relativism and situation ethics

∙ situation ethics - views every choice as one made within a unique collection of  considerations and conditions

∙ more responsibility on individual to make certain decisions  

Hedonistic and ascetic traditions

∙ two ends of the spectrum

∙ Hedonists: says that pleasure is the most important (above religion etc.), can get  complicated  

∙ Asceticism: part in some religious and spiritual traditions. characterized by celibacy.  goal to "rise above physical pleasures" that teaches denial of sexual pleasure

Holistic belief systems

∙ hedonistic and asceticism might not be mutually exclusive

∙ seek united perspective  

Spirituality, religion and sex

1. the principle of noncoercion: people shouldn't be forced into sexual expression 2. the principle of nondeceit: people shouldn't go through sexual expression based on  fraud or deception

3. the principle of treatment of people: people are not to be used solely for another's  satisfaction

4. the principle of respect for beliefs: respecting sexual beliefs of other people

Sexuality and Disability Groups

∙ Sexuality of disabled people should not be ignored

∙ intellectual or developmental disabled people's sexual needs are often ignored ∙ Especially hearing or visually impaired people

Spinal cord injuries (SCI)

∙ can lower sensations

∙ paraplegic: only legs are paralyzed

∙ quadriplegic: if legs and arms are paralyzed

∙ can have sexual stimulation in genitals

Even terminally ill patients may be able to experience sexual pleasure with open communication Facilitated sex: aided sexual activity for people who are not able to masturbate due to physical  disabilities  

Women generally use less powerful language or specific words when speaking about sex or sexual  organs

Myths about communication - and why they're wrong

∙ you need a strong opinion on everything - you can think and waver!

∙ being a good conversationalist being no breaks in conversation - silence can allow  intimacy!

∙ it's best to plan out conversation topics - relationship is based on dishonesty and  manipulation!

∙ the right line will get your partner to have sex - prerehearsing isn't a good idea ∙ only logical and rational thoughts are healthy communication - emotional reactions are  important especially with close relationships

Sexual games

∙ relationships are very individualized  

∙ Power games

o one partner who feels vulnerable may try to appear dominant during sex o one partner tries to ruin a sexual encounter for the other

∙ Relationship games

o unresolved emotional problems may influence sexual encounters

o partner who has been left in the past may do things just to see if the new  partner will stay

∙ Communication games

o pushing for the immediate resolution to a problem when one partner isn't quite  okay with it yet

Effective communication

∙ Ground rules

o 1) consider your level of commitment in the relationship

▪ honest communication takes energy

o 2) know your values

▪ while staying open to your partner's values

o 3) understand cultural differences

▪ words expressions etc for sexual issues

▪ what each partner is comfortable with

o 4) equality between partners

o 5) build trust

o 6) pick the right time/place for talking

▪ some atmospheres encourage superficial conversation or games

Avoid snap judgments and generalizations ("always/never")

Actually listen instead of appearing to listen but planning what you'll say next  Empathy - Empathize - listen for feelings and recall similar emotions

∙ empathy can help combat defensiveness  

Importance of openness and authenticity

Ask for clarification

∙ don't make assumptions

Don't let silence scare you

Hurtful things must also be shared regardless of feeling like you don't want to hurt the other person

Have positive thoughts about yourself

Differences in communication between men and women

∙ women talk about feelings and problems and see discussion as a way to work on them  and men may see it as wallowing in complaints

When a quarrels leads to impasses

∙ approach with sense of mutuality

∙ face problem as "we"

∙ important to recognize that people and their perspectives are different  

∙ each partner should explain their side: "I-messages"

o means taking responsibility for communication between you and your partner o shift to mutuality occurs when couples finally feel like they're working together Maintaining loving relationship

∙ more positive than negative moments - about 5:1

∙ volatile/heated arguements and passionate reconciliations can exist in a lasting  relationship

∙ emtional inexpression doesn't mean a couple won't last

∙ confront issues early in the relationship - openly express anger

∙ no dif in how men and women express themselves

∙ positive feelings about the start of the relationship may lead to lasting longer ∙

∙ large doses of warmth and affection can offset negative effects of anger

∙ hostile-detached husband and wife is the worst

∙ other 2 situations: validating and conflict-avoiding

Risks of sex

∙ 1- using external standards to model your own sexuality

∙ 2- not being vulnerable/letting yourself accept the risks of a loving relationship o depending on the partner too much can take away power

∙ 3- being in a situation where you feel you have to do something sexual you aren't  comfortable with

∙ 4- thinking you can change your partner or they will change for you

Love

∙ 3 global transformations that affect loving relationships

o 1) increasing beliefs in equality of genders, ethnic groups etc. means breaking  from social constrictions

o 2) belief in the pursuit of happiness as a good goal

o 3) idea that life can be changed for the better and improving sexual aspects can  helps that

Human emotion-motivation systems associated with love

∙ 1- Lust: ensures reproduction of a species

∙ 2- Attraction: strengthened attention to a partner, aka romantic love, craving for  emotional connection, evolutionarily saves energy by focusing on one mate

∙ 3- Attachment: the calm/content feelings of being with a loved one, for  coupling/parenting, "making the nest"

Infatuation = falling in love

Being in love = more attachment/commitment

Stages of love

1. Initial falling in love: see the positive in the other person

2. romantic love is associated with certain responses to a loved ones presence or absence  3. obsessive thinking about the loved one - "intrusive thinking"

4. emotional closeness and desire to sacrifice for the other

5. reorder priorities/schedule to make time for loved one

6. greater desire for emotional intimacy than sexual intimacy

7. emotions and feelings are involuntary and maybe unwanted

8. romantic attraction ends  

Sternberg's triangular theory of love 

∙ Robert Sternberg

o Yale researcher who studied the dynamics of loving relationships

o 3 components of love

o 1) intimacy: emotional closeness  

o 2) Passion: motivational component of love, may lose it's force

o 3) Commitment: cognitive side of love, all components eventually level off o graphs on page 228 that predict happiness in a relationship

Brain circuitry 

∙ oxytocin - chemical in brain that has to do with physical intimacy and sexual satisfaction ∙ pheromones - human chemicals the scent of which may cause an attraction or  behavioral change in other individuals

∙ endorphins- secretions from the brain that are natural pain killers

Intimacy 

∙ Sensual touching

o good sensations that don't have to lead to sexual interactions

∙ Relaxation

Reproduction, Reproductive Technology and birthing

Fertilized egg starts to divide in fallopian tube

Fertilization

∙ Fertilin - chemical in head of sperm, enzyme that degrades/penetrates the outer coating  of the egg and helps sperm to adhere to that egg

∙ Zona Pellucida - outer coating that the sperm must penetrate through  

∙ eggs give off chemical that kills other sperm

o egg can't be fertilized by more than one sperm

∙ Exocytosis - once this happens you have a fertilized egg called -->

∙ Zygote - has 46 chromosomes

∙ Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

∙ chromosomes pair up because DNA looks for strands that are complementary Fetal development

∙ implantation of the embryo

∙ cell division begins

∙ morula - no longer called a zygote

∙ blastocyst is at five days post fertilization

o what implants into uterus into endometrium which is highly vascularized and  draws nourishment from mothers blood supply

∙ ectopic pregnancy

o can go to term depending on location

∙ once blastocyst implants it's now called the embryo

∙ fertilization can occur then implantation doesn't

∙ Extraembryonic membranes and placenta

o amnion where the transfer of material happen between the mother and the  fetus

▪ their blood never mixes

▪ oxygen more concentration in mothers blood then goes into fetus's  

blood

▪ CO2 more concentrated in embryo then goes to mother

o umbilical cord

o chorion

o placenta

o villi

o fetus

▪ after 2 months of development

Cephalo to caudal and proximal to distal

Fetal technology and medicine

∙ Fetal imaging

∙ prenatal chromosomal testing techniques

o can test for chromosomal abnormalities

o amionic test still doesn't mix bloods

o especially done when mother is older and chromosomal defects potentially  increase

o eggs that ahve been in the ovary longer have greater risk of problems when they  divide

Oxytocin is a hypothalamic- pituitary hormones

∙ released in early sexual response phases

∙ triggers birth process

∙ induces labor is the injection of oxytocin

∙ causes smooth muscle contractions - labor

∙ labor is contracting of myometrium (uterine walls) to push the fetus out

∙ dialation is the cervix opening during labor to allow the fetus to come out Afterbirth

∙ placenta

∙ typically there is a procedure done to remove it

episiotomy

∙ opening of the vagina is flexible and can typically allow for passage of the baby ∙ avoid tearing which is harder to repair

∙ cut to allow expansion

Cesarean section

∙ done to avoid problems with delivery

∙ reduce risk of transmission of HIV from mother to baby

Issues associated with pregnancy:

Preeclampsia - high pressure associated with pregnancy  

Premature birth

Rh incompatability

Infertility and Sexuality

∙ failure of a successful pregnancy after a year or more of intercourse without  contraception

∙ women: scarring in fallopian tubes from pelvic inflammatory tubes

∙ endometriosis may be other source of infertility

o fertilized egg cant implant

∙ men: most common source of infertility is low sperm count

o epididymitis - blockages of fine tubes

o chlamydia - infection can get into epididimis

o heavy alcohol and cigarette use can lower sperm count

∙ temporary uterine transplant

o taken out after birth because its a high risk organ for rejection

o artificial insemination

▪ way to correct infertility

▪ can carry fertilized egg for someone else

▪ eggs can be harvested and fertilized from some she knows or not

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