Midterm I Review
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Date Created: 10/18/14
Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I 1 Chapter 1 The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology a Gross Anatomy also called macroscopic anatomy it investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the naked eye such as the intestines stomach brain heart and kidneys Gross anatomy often involves dissection and there are many ways to approaching gross anatomy i Systemic Anatomy studies the anatomy of each functional body system 1 ex The reproductive system ii Regional Anatomy examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit 1 Ex When you study the armpit region you also study the blood vessels underneath the tissues around it etc iii Surface Anatomy focuses on both the superficial anatomic markings and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them 1 When executing CPR you have to know what39s going on underneath the skin in order to treat the above iv Comparative Anatomy this is when you compare a certain body part to the respective body part of other animals v Embryology discipline concerned with developmental changes from conception to birth Microscopic Anatomy examines individual structures that cannot be observed by the naked eye For the most part scientists just prepare individual cells or thin slices of some part of the body and examine these specimens under the microscope i Cytology study of body cells and their internal structure ii Histology study of tissues Radiographic Anatomy investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures such as ultrasound MRI or X ray Physiology study of the function of the body parts i Cardiovascular physiology examines the functioning of the heart blood vessels and blood ii Neurophysiology examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system iii Respiratory Physiology iv Pathophysiology investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I e Characteristics of Life i Organization All organisms exhibit a complex structure and order ii Metabolism All organisms engage in metabolism which is defined as the sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur within the body 1 Anabolism in which small molecules are joined to form larger molecules 2 Catabolism in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules 3 Examples of metabolic reactions include using the cell s own energy to perform certain functions and contracting muscles to move the body or body organs iii Growth and Development During their lifetime organisms assimilate materials from their environment and often exhibit increased size growth and increased specialization as related to form and function development iv Responsiveness All organisms exhibit responsiveness which is the ability to sense and react to stimuli v Regulation An organism must be able to adjust or direct internal bodily function in the face of environmental changes 1 Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a consistent internal environment More on homeostasis on bullet K vi Reproduction All organisms produce new cells for growth maintenance and repair The somatic body cells divide by a process called mitosis and the sex Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I cells gametes divide by a process called meiosis The sex cells under the right conditions have the ability to develop into a new living organism f Feedback Mechanisms i Positive feedback mechanisms Positive feedback is when a system or actions increases output Note Don39t be misled by the term positive because sometimes you can be trying to increase a negative reaction All that matters is that you39re increasing the output ii Negative Feedback Mechanisms Negative feedback is when a system or action decreases output g Anatomical regions of the body Pages 1315 h Body Planes and Sections Pages 13 15 i Orientation and Directional Terms Pages 13 15 j Body Cavities and Membranes i Axial Region 1 Contains the head neck and trunk 2 It forms the main vertical axis of the body ii Appendicular Region 1 Composed of the upper and lower limbs which attach to the axial region iii Posterior Aspect 1 Contains cavities that are completely encased in bone and are physically and developmentally different from the ventral cavity 2 The Posterior is divided into 2 enclosed cavities a Cranial Cavity formed by the bones of the cranium This cavity houses the brain b Vertebral Canal formed by the bones of the vertebral column which houses the spinal cord iv Ventral Cavity 1 Larger anteriorly placed cavity in the body Unlike the Posterior Aspect the cavities are not encased by bone 2 Also contains 2 other cavities a Thoracic Cavity i Contains 2 important organs heart and lungs ii Skip to bullet number V for more information b Abdominopelvic Cavity i Lots of information on this just skip down to bullet VI to learn more 3 Ventral Cavity is lined with serous membranes a membrane continuous layer of cells b Serous membranes are composed of 2 layers Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I i A parietal layer that typically lines the internal surface of the body wall ii And a visceral layer that covers the external surface of the organs within that cavity iii Between the parietal and visceral cavities there is a potential space which is called the serous cavity This is where the serous membrane secretes serous fluid Serous fluid is important because it has the consistency of oil and serves as a lubricant In your body the organs aren t set in place indefinitely They39re constantly moving around and shifting which causes friction Serous fluid helps reduce that friction so that the organs can run more smoothly v Thoracic Cavity 1 The median space in the thoracic cavity is called the mediastinum It contains the heart thymus esophagus trachea and major blood vessels that connect to the heart Within the mediastinum the heart is enclosed by 2 layers of serous membrane called the serous pericardium The outer most membrane is the parietal pericardium and the inside one is called the visceral pericardium The parietal pericardium forms the sac around the heart and the visceral pericardium forms the external layer of the heart The pericardial cavity is the space between the 2 layers of serous membrane and it contains serous fluid The right and left hand sides of the thoracic cavity house the lungs which are also lined with a 2 layered serous membrane called pleura As usual the outer layer is called the parietal pleura and the inner layer is called the visceral layer The outside forms a sac around the lungs and the inside is the external layer of the lungs Between the two of them is a lot of space that39s called the pleural cavity and this cavity is filled with serous fluid vi Abdominopelvic Cavity 1 This cavity can be divided into 2 smaller cavities by a horizontal plane at the level of the superior aspects of the hip bones The abdominal cavity is superior to this plane and the pelvic cavity is below this line where it is wedged between your two hip bones The abdominal cavity contains most of the digestive organs as well as the kidneys and most of the ureters The pelvic cavity contains the distal part of the large intestine and the internal reproductive organs Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I 6 k Homeostasis The peritoneum is the two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity The outer layer is called the parietal peritoneum and the inner layer is called the visceral peritoneum The outside lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity and the inner layer covers the majority of the organs being held in that cavity Between the 2 there is an empty space which is spoiler alert is called the peritoneal cavity and it contains serous fluid And if this wasn39t organized enough there are 9 compartments that the abdominopelvic cavity is divided into The regions are actually divided like a tic tactoe board a perfect They39re called the abdominopelvic regions a The umbilical region is the middle region and is named for the umbilicus or navel that lies in its center b The epigastric region is the top middle region c The hypogastric region lies directly below the umbilical region The left and right hypochondriac regions are on either side of the epigastric region e The left and right iliac regions are on either side of the hypogastric region Another way that people divide the abdominopelvic area is by separating it into 4 different quadrants a Right Upper Quadrant RUQ b Right Lower Quadrant RLQ c Left Upper Quadrant LUQ d Left Lower Quadrant LLQ i The body maintains homeostasis by utilizing homeostatic control systems 3 components are associated with each homeostatic system The receptor control center and the effector 1 Receptor body structure that detects changes in a variable which is either a substance or process that is regulated A receptor typically consists of sensory nerves These nerves may be in the skin internal organs of the body or specialized organs such as the eyes nose or tongue The change in variable is generally called a stimulus Control Center structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes though the effector Basically it s the process center The control center is usually a part of the nervous system brain or spinal cord or an endocrine gland thyroid gland A homeostatic system involving the nervous system provides a relatively fast response to any stimuli A homeostatic system involving the endocrine system Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I usually means a more sustained and long lasting response over several hours through the continuous release of hormones The control center sometimes has the same structure as a receptor because it both detects a stimulus and creates a response for it 3 Effector the structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus Most body structures can act as effectors in the sense that they can all do something to change a situation 4 Homeostatic systems occur through a feedback loop that includes the following steps a A stimulus b Detection of a stimulus c Control Center receives information if and only if it s a separate structure than the receptor d Integration of the input by the control center and initiation of a change through effectors e return of homeostasis by the actions of effectors 5 Homeostatic Systems can be sorted into 2 groups positive feedback groups or negative feedback groups It just depends on whether you39re trying to increase the stimuli or maintain the stimuli in a certain range called a set point by pushing back against the stimuli 2 Chapter 2 Atoms Ions and Molecules a Matter anything that has mass and volume all matter is composed of atoms b Atom i The smallest particle that exhibits the chemical properties of an element ii Composed of 3 subatomic particles proton neutron and electron iii Neutrons and Protons are located in the nucleus and electrons float in the electron cloud iv Neutrons have a neutral charge protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge v You will always have the same number of protons and electrons because you need to balance out the charges Neutrons vary and that39s when you have isotopes vi Atomic Mass Neutrons Protons vii No one fucking cares c Element 92 naturally occurring ones All of them are organized into the periodic table And honestly after having 4 science classes a week and being in the public education system for the past 13 years at least of your life you should know what an element is If you don t just go jump off a bridge of something now Anatomy and Physiology Midterm I d Radioisotopes Some isotopes are referred to as radioisotopes because they contain an excess number of neutrons These radioisotopes usually lose nuclear components in the form of high energy radiation that includes alpha particles beta particles and gamma rays as they decay or break down into a more stable isotope The time it takes for half the radioisotope to decay is its physical halflife Biological halflife is how long it takes half the substance to be eliminated from the body e Osmolarity Osmolality and Osmols Another means of expressing concentration is with Osmols osm which reflects whether a substance either dissolves or dissolves and dissociates when placed into a solution It is the unit of measurement for the number of particles in solution The term osmole is generally used to reflect the extent a solution is able to alter water movement through osmosis If a solute dissolves but does not disassociate then osmolarity 1 osmole However if the solute both dissolves and disassociates then there is a change in the number of particles after the solute is a solution A one molar 1M solution of NaC disassociates to form 1M of Na and 1M of Cl Therefore the osmoles of those 2 elements adds up to 2osm in the solution Osmolarity is the number of particles in a 1 liter solution Osmolality is the number of particles in 1 kilogram of water Osmolality is the more accurate measure of osmotic movement of water in the body but it is difficult to measure While osmolarity is just a close approximation to osmolality it is often preferred over osmolarity for the same reasons that molarity is preferred over molality
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