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HSC 180 Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Caitlyn Ruotanen

HSC 180 Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide HSC 180

Marketplace > Ball State University > Health Sciences > HSC 180 > HSC 180 Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide
Caitlyn Ruotanen
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This is a detailed completion of the HSC 180 study guide for the Spring 2016 Final that Professor Otiam gave us. (24 pages)
Principles of Community Health
Emmanuel Otaala Otiam
Study Guide
community, Public, health, HSC
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Ruotanen on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSC 180 at Ball State University taught by Emmanuel Otaala Otiam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Principles of Community Health in Health Sciences at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 03/19/16
HSC 180 Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide 1. THE DEFINITIONS OF TERMINOLOGIES USED IN INSURANCE—POLICY, PREMIUM, CO-PAY, COST-SHARING, DEDUCTIBLE, FIXED INDEMNITY, ETC. • Policy- A written agreement between a private insurance company (or the government) and an individual or group of individuals to pay for certain health care costs during a certain time period, in return for a set amount of money called a premium. • Premium- a set amount of money paid regularly in return for insurance coverage • Premium = Actuarially fair premium + Loading fee • Co-pay- Is a form of co-insurance, associated with managed care programs, negotiated in advance and which the patient pays for certain services; usually about $15 - $20 for office visit, or prescription, etc • Cost-sharing- • • Deductible- The amount of expenses that the insured must incur in out of pocket payments before the insurance begins to pay for covered services • Fixed Indemnity- Is the maximum amount an insurer will pay for a certain service. E.g $2,000 for orthodontia. Anything above this amount is paid by the insured. • Co-insurance- A percentage of “the usual, customary, and reasonable” charge for covered services paid by the insured; usually about 20% • Exclusion: Specified health conditions excluded from coverage. • Pre-existing condition: Is a medical condition that had been diagnosed or treated usually within the 6 months before the date the health insurance policy came into effect. 2. THE DEFINITION OF RADIATION, HAZARD, ETC • Radiation- Process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves • Heat, sounds, visible light are long-wavelength, low-energy radiation • High-energy ionizing radiation • Can cause sickness, permanent damage • From Natural Sources • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sun • Skin cancer– melanomas, basal and squamous cell carcinomas • ABCD rule for melanomas • A—Asymmetry • B—Border irregularity • C—color(non-uniform pigmentation) • D—Diameter greater than 6 mm • From Human-made sources • Those associated with medical and dental procedures (X-rays, nuclear medicine diagnoses, radiation therapy), consumer products (smoke detectors, TVs, computer screens) and nuclear energy and weaponry • Environmental hazards: Are factors or conditions in the environment that increase the risk of human injury, disease or death. • Natural Hazards – naturally occurring phenomenon or event that produces or releases energy in amounts that exceed human endurance, causing injury, disease, or death (natural disasters) • Terrorism- calculated use of violence or threat of violence against civilians to attain goals that are political or religious in nature • Sociological hazard- Affects entire societies • Psychological hazard- Produces fear, stress, hysteria 3. HOW COMMON OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES ARE ACQUIRE: PNEUMOCONIOSIS, BYSSINOSIS, ASBESTOSIS, SILICOSIS • Occupational Respiratory disorders • Pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of mineral dust • Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (Black lung disease) • Asbestosis: acute or chronic lung disease caused by deposition of asbestos fibers in lungs • malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer • Silicosis: workers in mines and stone quarries, abrasive blasting operations, glass manufacture due to inhalation of crystalline silica. • Byssinosis: due to inhalation of dust from cotton, leading to brown lung disease • 4. EXAMPLES OF ALLOPATHIC MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS • Allopathic providers- use a system of medical practice in which specific remedies/drugs/medications are used to treat illnesses, Doctors of Medicine (MDs) • Some allopathic provider examples: • Anesthesiologist – specializing in the administration of anesthesia • Cardiologist- specializing in the treatment of heart disorders • Dermatologist – specializing in the treatment of skin disorders • Neurologist – specializing in disorders related to the brain and nervous system • Oncologist – specializing in the treatment of cancer • Pathologist – specializing in tissue diseases • Pediatrician – specializing in children’s health care • Surgeon – performs operations • Non-allopathic provider examples: Chiropractors, acupuncturists, naturopaths, herbalists, and homeopaths (those who use small doses of herbs, minerals, and even poisons for therapy). 5. THREE STRATEGIES FOR INJURY PREVENTION • Education – process of changing people’s health-directed behavior • Regulation – enacting and enforcing laws to control conduct • Automatic protection – modifying products or environments to reduce risk • Litigation – seeking justice for injury through courts • Prevention and Control Tactics Based on the Model: • Prevent accumulation of energy producing agent • Prevent inappropriate release of excess energy • Placing barrier between host and agent • Separate host from potentially dangerous sources of energy • Other tactics: • Injury control education • Improvement in community response to emergencies (e.g Knowledge of CPR) • Having superior paramedical personnel for emergency response 6. A COMPARISON OF PREVALENCE OF INJURY BETWEEN FEMALES AND MALES • Suicide rate for men four times that for women • Suicide rates for elder men are highest for any population subgroup • Highest risk for homicide and suicide involving firearms are teenage boys and young men • 10.3% of women and 6.4% of men reported being emotionally abused in the past 12 months by a significant other • Males more likely to be involved in fatal unintentional injuries • Work Injuries: • • Interpersonal violence- more acts committed by males • Males, blacks, and young people experience highest rates of violent victimization • Women more likely to be sexually assaulted 7. FREQUENCY OF USE OF NON-ALLOPATHIC PROVIDERS • Approximately 38% (83 million) of adults and 11% (8.5 million) of children in U.S. reported using CAM (complementary/alternative medicine) in the past year. • Adults made more than 354 million visits to CAM practitioners. 8. PREVALENCE OF DISABLING INJURIES AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS • • Teenagers most likely to experience nonfatal injuries at higher than average rate. 9. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNS, ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS AND BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES AS METHODS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE PREVENTION. • Environmental designs: Physically separating workers from customers • Administrative controls: Staff policies (e.g having more staff) • Behavior strategies: Training employees in non-violence and conflict resolution 10.WHAT IS MEANT BY SOME HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS BEING DEPENDENT AND OTHERS INDEPENDENT? • Independent Providers- Specialized education and legal authority to treat any health problem or disease • Categorized as Allopathic, osteopathic and Non-allopathic providers • Dependent providers- are state-licensed to practice medicine under the supervision of a physician through what is known as, “delegated autonomy;” in other words, PAs (Physician Assistants) practice autonomously with regard to the duties delegated to them by a supervising physician and within the scope of practice as defined by state law, the PA’s education and experience, and facility policy. While the scope of practice may slightly vary across the states, PAs require some degree of physician supervision in all fifty states. 11.CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE KILLED IN MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS (MVAS). • Majority of those killed are: • Drivers, Passengers, Motorcycle riders, Pedestrians, and Pedal- cyclists • Factors contributing to MVAs: • Distracted driving e.g looking at something other than the road, hearing something not related to driving, manipulating something other than the steering wheel, and thinking about something other than driving • Impaired driving—esp alcohol and drugs • Speeding—leads to over 10,000 deaths each year • Vehicle safety issues (airbags, antilock brakes, crumple zones, strengthened side walls, roof support) • Alcohol and other drugs are risk factors • Involved in high amount of motor vehicle crashes • Related to speeding, seat belt use, and other behaviors • 12.COMPARE AND CONTRAST FATALITIES, NONFATAL OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES, AND ILLNESSES IN SERVICE-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES AND GOODS- PRODUCING INDUSTRIES. • Global trends: • Global workforce is about 3 billion, 85% are in developing countries working under hazardous conditions. • Each year, globally: • ~317 million nonfatal occupational injuries (~1 million injuries/day) • 321,000 fatal injuries (~1,000 deaths/day) • Each year there are 160 million occupational disease/illnesses (440,000 sicken/ day from workplace exposure). • 2.02 million workers die each year from occupational diseases (5,500 workers die / day). • 1.25 trillion dollars are lost every year due to direct and indirect costs of occupational injuries and disease • United States: • Fewer than 11 workers die each day in U.S. (~3.5 cases/ 100,000 workers) from injury sustained at work • Fatalities have declined significantly over past 85 years, although still higher than for other developed nations • More workplace injuries reported than illness • Economic cost due to deaths and injuries in 2011 was $ 188.9 in the US. • Prevalence: • Recent trends in workplace injuries and illness • Decline in number of workplace injuries and illnesses reported in private industry since 1992 • Goods-producing industries higher rate of nonfatal injury than service-producing • Highest – agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting • Highest service-producing industries– education and health care • • Fatal work-related injuries: • Transportation-related incidents are the leading cause of fatal work-related injuries • Industries with highest rates of fatal occupational injuries • Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and hunting, Mining, Transportation and warehousing, and Construction • Fatal occupational injuries by industry • Commercial fishing single most dangerous occupation, followed by logging and piloting • Mining second highest fatality rate • Nonfatal Work-Related Injuries: • In 2011, nearly 3 million injuries and illnesses in private industry; 821,000 injuries reported in state and local gov’t workers • Males account for majority of treatment • Disabling injuries and illnesses: resulting in disability for more than the day the injury occurred. • Non-fatal occupational injuries by industry • Goods-producing industries have higher rates than service-producing industries • Among goods-producing, agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting had the highest incidents in 2011. • Occupational Illnesses and Disorders: • Illness more difficult to acquire data on than injury • Difficult to link occupational exposure to the illness because some conditions are slow to develop and difficult to associate with the workplace • Types: • Musculoskeletal disorders: muscles, bones , tendons, supporting vasculature • Skin diseases and disorders: Allergic, Irritant dermatitis • Noise-induced hearing loss: any noise above 85 db repeatedly can lead to hearing loss • Respiratory disorders • Pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of mineral dust • Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (Black lung disease) • Asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer • Silicosis: workers in mines and stone quarries, abrasive blasting operations, glass manufacture due to inhalation of crystalline silica. • Byssinosis: due to inhalation of dust from cotton, leading to brown lung disease • Poisonings • Agricultural workers ( pesticides) • Infections • Health care industry (Post exposure to body fluids/blood e.g needle stick injuries—viruses, bacteria e.g TB • Exposure to hazardous drugs • Exposure to anti-cancer drugs, radiation 13.FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR FOOD BORNE OUTBREAKS • Foodborne disease outbreak- two or more cases of similar illness resulting from ingestion of common food (CDC Defn) • Leading factors • Inadequate cooking temperatures (meat 145 F, poultry 165 F); 0 improper holding temperatures (bacterial outbreaks) (hot > 0 0 140 F, cold < 40 F) • Unsanitary practices /hand washing (norovirus outbreaks) • Drinking raw /unpasteurized milk (bacterial outbreak) • Contaminated equipment or obtaining food from unsafe sources (e.g shell fish polluted waters). • Causes: Norovirus is the commonest cause of FBDO, followed by salmonella • Coordinated efforts of Federal, state, and local governments needed to protect the public from foodborne diseases • Foodborne disease active surveillance program/FoodNet-- (Federal, under CDC in collaboration with USDA’s food Safety and Inspection and FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition); 14.EFFECTS OF PERCOLATION OF LAND-FILLS • Leachates are liquids that form when water mixes with wastes and removes soluble constituents from them by percolation. • (Percolation is the process of a liquid slowly passing through a filter.) • These liquids seep into the soil and could contaminate the groundwater beneath them. • The EPA suggests that all landfills will eventually leak. 15.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEDICARE, MEDICAID, CHIP, ACA IN TERMS OF BENEFICIARIES • Government health insurance plans only available to select groups • Medicare—for older persons 65 years of age or older; PWDs (people with disabilities), people with permanent kidney failure • Aged 65+: • If they or their spouse are eligible for Social Security payments And • Have made payroll tax contributions for 10+ years • Note: those who are over 65 but not eligible can purchase Medicare coverage • Under age 65 with permanent disabilities: (1972) • Who receive Social Security Disability Insurance (with a 2-year waiting period) Or • Who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (with no waiting period) • Medicaid—for low-income Americans • Two criteria: • 1. Financial criterion: • Income less than a specified % of federal poverty level, FPL • E.g. Indiana 2014: 208% FPL (pregnant women); • E.g. Indiana 2012: 210% FPL (childless adults) – pending proposal for 2014 • Varies across states And • 2. In one of the “categorically eligible” groups : • Children • Parents with dependent children • Pregnant women • People with severe disabilities • Seniors • States cannot limit enrollment or establish a waiting list for these eligible • Variations: • Non-disabled adults without dependent children are categorically excluded from Medicaid by federal law, unless • The state has a waiver, or • Uses state-only dollars to cover them • Expanded plans (beyond federal minimum standards): • Children • “Medically needy”: those who are categorically eligible but exceed Medicaid’s financial criteria • Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)- • Targets low-income children who are ineligible for Medicaid • Affordable Care Act (ACA)- • Must be U.S. citizen or legal resident 16.PREVALENCE OF FIRES • More occur November to April (fire places, wood burning stoves and electric kerosene space heaters) • Fires & burns (3,223) 17.% CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT MSW (MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE) • Over 95% of solid waste traced to agriculture, mining and gas and oil production, industry; <5% MSW • Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): • Solid waste from home or office, Each one creates 4.3 pounds MSW /day • Paper, food scraps, rubber and textiles, plastics, wood, etc • • In the United States… • 4.5 lbs of MSW per person per day (70% more than in 1960) • 38% paper, 12% yard waste, 11% food waste, 11% plastic • 2X as much MSW per person as other industrialized nations • 5-10X more MSW per person as in developing nations 18.Occurrence of poisoning. • Types of unintentional injuries: • Motor vehicle crashes (28%) • Poisonings (27%) • Falls (22%) • Other types of unintentional injuries • Poisoning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths • Unintentional ingestion of fatal doses of medicines and drugs • Consumption of toxic foods • Exposure to toxic substances in the workplace or elsewhere • Most poisonings occur in the home 19.PREVALENCE OF UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS. • Violence and unintentional injuries are common problems for young adults • Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children and ages 1-44 • Injury-Related Visits to E.D.s by Age and Sex, 2010: • 20.POISONING PREVALENCE IN DIFFERENT PLACES • Most poisonings occur in the home • Pesticide poisoning common among children and farm workers • Lead found in soil, household dust, air, paint • Children at greatest risk of poisoning • CDC Drug-Poisoning map: • 21.DIFFERENTIATE AMONG CHILD ABUSE, CHILD NEGLECT, FAMILY VIOLENCE • Child maltreatment: an act or failure to act that results in physical abuse, neglect, medical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or presents an imminent risk of serious harm • Child abuse- the intentional physical, emotional, verbal, or sexual mistreatment of a minor. • Child neglect- the failure of a parent or guardian to care for or otherwise provide the necessary subsistence for a child. • Family violence- use of physical force by one family member against another, with intent to hurt, injure, or cause death. • Includes maltreatment of children, intimate partner violence, sibling violence, and violence towards elder family members. • 1 in 6 homicides is the result of family violence 22.THE DIFFERENT ACTS THAT PROTECT OUR WATERS • Clean Water Act (CWA) • Navigable waters of U.S. must be “fishable and swimmable” by 1983 • Eliminate all pollution discharge to waters by 1985 • Refuse Act of 1899 • Prohibited dumping refuse into ‘navigable water’ • Federal Water and Pollution Control Act of 1948 • Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958 • consider wildlife in water projects • National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 • 1. Declare national environmental policies and goals • 2. Establish action—forcing provisions for federal agencies to enforce those policies and goals • 3. Establish a Council on Environmental Quality (Executive Office) • Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 • control of oil pollution; work to eliminate acid mine drainage, pollution of Great Lakes • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund) * • Clean up hazardous waste sites • Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to CERCLA of 1984 • regulates underground storage tanks * • Water Quality Act of 1987 • national policy for controlling nonpoint sources of water pollution • Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 • EPA authorized to set standards and oversight of all public water systems • Risk-based water quality standards, consumer awareness 23.THE GROUPS VULNERABLE TO VIOLENCE. • Males, blacks, and young people experience highest rates of violent victimization • Interpersonal violence disproportionately affects those frustrated, hopeless, jobless, living in poverty, with low-self esteem • More acts committed by males • Perpetrators more likely to have been abused or neglected as children or exposed to violence • Highest risk for homicide and suicide involving firearms are teenage boys and young men • Risk factors for workplace violence: • Contact with the public • Working around money or valuables • Working alone or in small numbers • Working late at night or during early morning hours • Jobs with higher risk: • Taxicab drivers, Jobs in liquor stores, Detective and protective services, Guarding valuable property, working in community-based setting. 24.THE AGE GROUP VULNERABLE TO INTENTIONAL INJURIES • Highest rates in males & females 15-24 years old age group. 25.LEVELS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND WHAT HAPPENS DURING EACH STAGE (PRIMARY, SECONDARY, ETC) • Rural and suburban areas – septic tank • Urban areas – wastewater treatment plants • Primary treatment – physical process (sedimentation) • Secondary treatment – biological process (decomposition by water-borne microorganisms) • Tertiary treatment - Chlorination, disinfection, then aeration (to de-chlorinate) • SEE IMAGE BELOW FOR FURTHER DETAIL ON PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY • 26.INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT: WHAT ARE THEIR PREFERENCES? • Involves source reduction, product reuse and recycling, and disposal. • • Solution: reducing solid wastes • Refuse - to buy items that we really don’t need. • Reduce - consume less. • Repurpose - use something for another purpose instead of throwing it away. • Reuse - rely more on items that can be reused. • Recycle - paper, glass, cans, plastics…and buy items made from recycled materials. 27.TRENDS IN WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS • Four causes of water safety supply deterioration: population growth, chemical manufacturing, reckless land use practices, and mismanagement and irresponsible disposal of hazardous wastes • Drinking water outbreaks have declined in recent years, but recreational has increased • Waterborne diseases- Infections spread through water supplies • Cholera (bathing or drinking water or contaminated food)… associated with heavy rainfall (climate change?); also linked to sea-surface temperatures • Cryptosporidiosis (associated with untreated surface waters in swimming or wading pools) 28.WHAT EACH PART OF MEDICARE REPRESENTS • Part A—Hospital Insurance (HI) • Coverage: inpatient hospital stays, skilled nursing facility stays, home health visits, hospice care • Mandatory • has deductible & co-insurance • Part B – Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) • Coverage: Physician visits, outpatient services, preventive services, home visits • Those in part A automatically enrolled unless decline; • has deductible & co-insurance • Part C – Managed care Plans (Medicare HMO or PPO) • Coverage: Beneficiaries enroll in private health plans and receive all (or more) Medicare-covered benefits • Offered by private insurance companies; • Not available in all parts of U.S. • Part D – Prescription drug plans • Coverage: outpatient prescription drug • 1. Standard benefit (defined by Medicare) • 2. Actuarially equivalent benefit (alternatives equal in value) • 3. Enhanced benefit • Optional; run by insurance companies; • monthly premiums; • large number of plan available; • complex to navigate • Uses DRGs (Diagnostic Related Group)—leading to “Quicker and Sicker” 29.OCCURRENCES OF UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES AND DEATHS • Unintentional injuries cause nearly two-thirds of all injury-related deaths in the U.S. • Types of unintentional injuries • Motor vehicle crashes (28%) • Poisonings (27%) • Falls (22%) • Other types of unintentional injuries 30.PREVALENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AMONG DIFFERENT RACES • Poverty and race: • Those living in low income counties have higher occupational death rates. • With this, minorities tend to experience more occupational injuries 31.RISK FACTORS FOR INTENTIONAL AND UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES • Individual and social factors contribute to violence: • Community context (unsafe environments) • Social factors (social and cultural norms) • Religious beliefs and differences (extremism) • Political differences (civil unrest) • Breakdown in the criminal justice system (repeat offences due to early release from prison, lenient sentences) • Stress (reactiveness) • Alcohol may be most important factor contributing to injuries • Also see #6, #19, and #23 32.DIFFERENT TYPES OF MANAGED CARE AND WHAT THEY REPRESENT—HMOS, PPOS, EPOS, IPAS • Preferred provider organization (PPO) – an organization that buys fixed-rate health services from providers and sells them to consumers. • Exclusive provider organization (EPO) – an organization that is like a PPO, but with fewer providers and stronger financial incentives. • Health maintenance organization (HMO) – groups that supply prepaid comprehensive health care with an emphasis on prevention • Closed-panel HMO • Open-panel HMO • Mixed model HMO • Staff model HMO • Independent practice associations (IPAs) – legal entities separate from the HMO that are physician organizations composed of community-based independent physicians in solo or group practices that provide services to HMO members. 33.TYPES OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AND WHAT THEY REPRESENT • Categories of workplace violence: • Criminal intent (Type I)—85% of workplace homicides • Customer/client (Type II)—3% of work-related homicides • Worker-on-worker (Type III)—7% of workplace homicides • Personal relationship (Type IV)—2% of workplace homicidesr 34.UNINTENTIONAL PREVENTION APPROACHES AND WHAT IS INVOLVED IN EACH OF THEM • Prevention and Control Tactics Based on the Model: • Prevent accumulation of energy producing agent • Prevent inappropriate release of excess energy • Placing barrier between host and agent • Separate host from potentially dangerous sources of energy • Other tactics: • Injury control education • Improvement in community response to emergencies e.g Knowledge of CPR • Having superior paramedical personnel for emergency response • Community Approaches to Prevention of Unintentional Injuries: • Education – process of changing people’s health-directed behavior • Regulation – enacting and enforcing laws to control conduct • Automatic protection – modifying products or environments to reduce risk • Litigation – seeking justice for injury through courts • Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace: • Four fundamental tasks • Anticipation: Foresight to envision future adverse events or take action to prevent them; • Recognition: Involves surveillance and monitoring the workforce for injuries or illnesses; • Evaluation: Assessment of data collected during recognition and monitoring • Control: Changes in production process, or changes in the work environment to make it safer; improvement in PPEs, and Education and training 35.OCCURRENCES OF LEAD POISONING • Major sources of lead emissions have historically been motor vehicles • When lead was removed from gasoline, emissions decreased by 94% • Today, highest levels of lead are found near lead smelters and other industrial sources • Often contaminate well water • Lead found in soil, household dust, air, paint • Children at greatest risk of poisoning • Lead absorption – intestine (50% kids, 10% adults) • Toxic Effects: • primarily the peripheral and central nervous system • hematological effects / blood cells • metabolism of vit D and calcium • causes reproductive toxicity 36.COMPARISON OF WORK-RELATED DEATHS AMONG URBAN AND RURAL STATES • Geographic differences in workplace injuries: • • Within states, work-related deaths are higher in rural areas than in more urban areas. 37.DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION AT WORKSITES • Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions. • Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Disorders: • Requires vigilance of employer and employee • Agent-host-environment model is applicable • Examples of activities: • Identification and evaluation of agents • Standard setting for the handling of and exposure to causative agents • Engineering controls to provide safe working area • Environmental monitoring • Medical screenings • Use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) 38.TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT IN RELATION TO SEASONS. • Seasonality to work-related deaths • Injury death rates from machinery, falling objects, electric current, and explosions are highest during summer due to increase in farming and construction work 39.PURPOSE OF THE SUPERFUND AND THE ACT THAT RELATES TO IT. • 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) • Known as Superfund program (Passed in response to Love Canal). • Designed to have polluters pay for hazardous waste cleanup. • 70% of the cleanup costs have come from the polluters • Remainder came from a trust fund financed until 1995 by taxes on chemical raw materials and oil. • Since 1995, Superfund has primarily been funded by taxpayers


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