133B: Cognitive Development - Study Guide
133B: Cognitive Development - Study Guide 133B
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Saturday October 18, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 133B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Sandhofer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Development in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/18/14
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PSYCH 133B Pattern of brain development Neuron birth 9 6 20 weeks prenatal peaks 23 weeks prenatal Neuron migration Neuron differentiation 9 ourishes up to 23 years peaks in childhood through adolescence Dendrites and axons grow Brain development Synaptogenesis birth of connections o Results in trillions of connections o Many of these are unneeded I 6 month old babies have almost twice as many synapses in visual cortex as adults but cannot see as well 9 don39t need more connections only need the right connections Pruning connections are cut 0 Process by which the synapses that are important are kept and those that are unimportant are thrown away Synaptogenesis Most neurons are formed before birth but there aren39t many synapses Input from environment is important from brain growth o Experience and environment forms the right synapses and prunes efficiently Occurs by the second year of life 83 of dendritic growth connections between synapses occurs after birth After birth development is the refinement of neuronal connections maturity of the neurons and increasing complexity of dendrite connections Neurons and synapses must be linked properly to develop skills abilities Infancy and childhood 9 cerebral cortex overproduces synapses o Competition for survival of the fittest synapses o Experience shapes and solidifies synapses Pruning Pruning leads to a loss of up to 10 volume of gray matter in the cortex Weight of brain is maintained due to increased myelination 2 Types of Synapse Development 1 Experience expectant development overproduce synapses and prune with experience Experience leads to less synapses Tied to criticalsensitive periods o If you39re not getting the right kind of input during a specific part of development you won39t have a certain skill ie visual Organizes brain to process info and behaviors typical to all humans o Sensory processes o Parental attachment o Eye hand coordination o Language capacity 2 Experience dependent development Synapses based on experience Experience leads to more synapses Not necessary for typical development and survival Individual differences between humans based on individual experience o Playing an instrument reading chess Movie The Secret Life of the Brain 9 Wider than the Sky Follow along questions Neural cell migration what is it and why does it happen o Evidence that young neurons have an idea about where they39re migrated to and recognize their position within the brain 9 travels with it39s neighbors and copies actions I Transplanted neuron does not copy actions 9 this means that before migration neurons have a set destiny 0 Why does experience matter for newborn babies How are they attempting to help preemie babies by changing their experience o Brain cells wiring depends on experience dynamic process o Many preemies end up having learning and decision making issues 9 some think this is due to the nature of the ICU vs the womb I Brain faces more challenges than it would in the womb I Hypersensitivity and over stimulation 0 Carefully attuned environment allows for better management in future What does Use it or lose it mean 0 If connections in the brain are not used they are lost through pruning What happened in the Ferret study 0 Rewired eyes to auditory cortex if they could make visual inputs go here would the hearing cortex come to have the same circuits and connections that mark the visual cortex I Yes nurture is more important I No nature is more important o Rewired cortex auditory cortex gets a similar design to the visual cortex characteristic I Worse vision I Environment changes the brain but cannot overrule genetics Piaget39s Theory Mental structures created by active experience with the world Rich observations and descriptions of thinking at different ages 0 Breadth o Thought provoking observations to support his theory Continuity and discontinuity 0 Dealt with this issue well 0 Continuous development see a child everyday 9 looks exactly the same 0 Discontinuous see a child every 6 months 9 looks different 0 Development can be both Believed that children are 0 Constructivists constructing their own knowledge 0 Intrinsically motivated to learn What changes with development 0 Schemes organized patterns concepts I Early infancy 9 motor action patterns re exes 393 Re exes beginning of all knowledge 393 Grasping re ex hold onto an object 9 eventually can control it and drop things 393 Dropping scheme 6 mo baby does this rigidly 12 mo baby has more deliberate and creative scheme gentle drop vs throwing Scheme exercised over time gradual improvement I Believed babies act these schemes repeatedly until they access more information and can modify them I Schemes get more advanced with age How does cognitive change happen through the lifetime 0 Adaptation building schemes with direct contact with the environment I Assimilation 393 Interpret world in terms of current schemes 393 A child seeing a horse for the first time and exclaiming dog 9 assimilating new information to existing schemes I Accommodation 393 Adjusting old schemes current thinking doesn39t capture the environment 393 Revise dog scheme according I Equilibration 393 Assimilation and accommodation work together 9 every interchange with environment we interpret info with our current schemes then modify our schemes to better fit experience 393 Equilibrium what39s in the environment is the same as how you think Assimilate more than accommodating 393 Disequilibrium rapid cognitive change because what39s in the environment is not the same as how you think Accommodating more than assimilating 393 Back and forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium 0 Organization building schemes without contact with the environment I Takes place internally I Building new structures and they get rearranged in the cognitive system Stages 0 Invariant and universal I Always appears in a fixed order cannot skip a stage I Stages assumed to describe the cognitive development of children everywhere regardless of their experiences 0 Sensorimotor stage I Understands the world thru senses and actions Preoperational stage I Understands the world thru language and mental images 0 Concrete Operational stage I Understands world thru logical thinking and categories 0 0 Formal operational stage I Understands the world thru hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning Piaget39s Stage Theory Sensorimotor stage 02 years Substage 1 birth 1 mo 0 Modify re exes 0 Apply re exive behaviors indiscriminately I Babies suck on any stimulus near mouth in the exact same way 9 modify this re ex to make it more adaptive 393 Feeding time improves Substage 2 14 mo 0 Organize re exes o Integrates actions I Adaptations made are oriented toward the infant39s own body I Making a movement with a surprising effect try to do it over and over again Substage 3 48 mo 0 Repetition of actions resulting in pleasurable or interesting results I Time where baby begins to get interested in the outside world and how their actions affect it 0 Object permanence 9 Substage 4 I Work on building this during this stage once they have built object permanence they automatically move into Substage 4 I The idea that objects exist even when they39re out of sight 9 obtained with exploring the environment Substage 4 812 mo o Begin searching intentional goal directed behavior I Before schemes had random hit or miss quality I Now not necessarily accidental I Begin to search for hidden objects 9 tells us that they now have a mental representation memory of objects o Fragile mental representations o ANotB Error 9 Substage 5 I Make error if object is hidden in multiple locations I Object hidden in A multiple times once baby is comfortable finding toy in location A hide toy in front of the baby in location B and the child continues to search in location A I Fragile mental representations not fully developed memories lead to this error I Once they stop making this error they move into Substage 5 Substage 5 1218 mo 0 Active exploration of potential use of objects I Leads to a more advanced understanding of objects Substage 6 1824 mo o Enduring mental representations can solve problems through symbolic means not just trial and error behavior o Deferred imitation 9 preoperational stage I Imitation after some delay able to interpret an event later on I Once children are able to do that they move into the pre operational stage Piaget39s Explanation of the ANotB Error Babies fail this because they lack strong concept of object permanence 810 mo an object is the sensing and acting upon it o Location and search itself is part of the object Babies over 12 mo succeed at this task because they39re able to form an abstract mental representation of the object memory Preoperational stage 27 yrs Development in o Symbolic representation thought is not yet logical o Begin to use symbols to represent the world language pretend play o Drawings look like they actually represent things instead of just scribbles with no symbolic elements Weaknesses in o Egocentrism unaware of other perspectives and believe everyone else perceives things and feels the same way that they do I The 3 mountain task 393 Child seated at one end of the table other person at the other end of the table 393 What they child can see from their perspective is different from what the other person can see I Taking other people39s perspectives o Centration I Balance scale study Case 1992 U 2 things matter how much weight is on each side distance from the center 393 Will focus on weight and never change response even though they39re wrong every time I Focus on one aspect of a situation and ignore all other important features Concrete operational stage 0 712 years Conservation problems 0 Phase 1 I Child sees 2 objects agrees objects are identical in quantity or number dimension of interest 0 Phase 2 I One object is transformed but the dimension of interest is not altered o Phase 3 I Child is asked whether the dimension of interest is still equal o Children in preoperational stage will say it39s different but in this concrete operational stage they will say it39s the same Formal operational stage 12 Piaget thinks this stage is not universal not everyone will get to this stage Develop capacity for abstract scientific thinking Characteristics 0 Hypothetical thinking imagine what would happen if I Truth justice morality I Understand multiple perspectives to many different problems I Being able to understand things that aren39t true o Systematic reasoning of all possible outcomes I Scientific method Pendulum problem o What factors in uence the amount of time it takes the pendulum to swing through a complete arc I Important length of pendulum string weight height I Most children begin with thinking the weight is important different ages approach testing this hypothesis differently o Concrete operations unsystematic I Can39t really draw a clear conclusion o Formal operations systematic experiments I Realize that only the length of the string matters I They compare on each variable to figure this out very systematic experimentation Deductive reasoning problem o Given rules rules are true o Asked what would happen o Children before this stage will not be able to answer the hypothetical question hitting a glass with a feather will not make it break in real life but with the hypothetical rules it would break What Piaget Left Positives o Good overview of children39s thinking at different points o Broad spectrum of development and ages o Fascinating observations Negatives o Stage model depicts children39s thinking as being more consistent than it is o Infants and children are more competent than Piaget recognized Understates the contribution of the social world o Vague about cognitive processes 0 CORE KNOWLEDGE THEORIES Thinking about things Piaget39s object permanence infants younger than 8 months don39t search for objects that they cant see Infants as young as 6 months may think about some aspects of invisible objects o Infants reach for objects in the dark that they were previously trained to reach for with either hands together or hands apart depending on how large the objects 9 they must remember some sort of information stored about the object size Core knowledge 1990s researchers found a lot of early competence Core knowledge theories CKT of cognitive development Principles 0 Focus on areas recognizing people that have been important throughout evolution o Children are more advanced in their thinking than Piaget suggested 0 Domain specificity knowledge is specific to certain domains and does not transfer to other domains 0 Children39s informal theories children actively organize their understanding into informal theories related to important domains like people animals and objects How does newborn thinking develop into adolescent thinking CKT infants have innate knowledge in a few important domains such as number obj ects Innate knowledge helps infants make sense of new knowledge in the environment Universal all infants are born with the same knowledge but differs later depending on individual experience How do we know what knowledge is core knowledge 0 1 Infants show early competency o Violation of expectancy paradigm young infants express surprise at events obj ects that violate their expectancy Measured through looking time increases I Surprise longer looking time 393 Knowledge is being violated some expectancy about the world is violated 0 Research of Renee Baillargeon and colleagues focused on determining whether infants have different responses to possible and to impossible events Testing Object permanence 0 Possible vs impossible events I Phase A screen moves back and forth continuously I Phase B place object behind screen so when the screen rotates it hits the object I Phase C impossible event place object and screen moves through it I Suggests that babies understand something about object permanence 393 Know that objects cant just disappear 393 Should look longer for phase c 0 Magic shows from video I Babies that are only a few weeks older don39t show violation of expectancy unless tricked that there is only 1 object moving through space or that the box is oating because finger is not touching it Information Processing Theories Features 0 Processes involved in children39s thinking 0 Process occurs over time change over time o Metaphor of a computational system hardware vs software I Hardware myelination neural pathways I Software input from environment Children as active problem solvers 0 When children see a problem they want to solve it I Determine goal 9 obstacles 9 strategy 9 goal Children become better at planning with age 0 Solving problems with multiple steps sometimes its best to postpone acting and planorganize first 0 Grocery study I How much did children scan aisles of store before shopping trip I How far did the cart travel once they start shopping I Younger children run from place to place looking for each item I Older children have shorter routes faster and planned more in advance I Demonstrates that as children get older they become better at planning IPTs give precise descriptions of how change occurs Developmental Issues 0 1 Basic processes I Encoding representing things outside in the world mentally I Speed of processing 0 2 Strategies change improve with age I Rehearsal I Selective attention I Utilization deficiency 393 Show this initially when you first use a new strategy you don39t improve as much as when you later use the strategy 9 strategies improve with time use Initially requires more effort learning to drive With practice it becomes more automatic 0 3 Content knowledge I Scripts general representations of what might occur in a certain situation 393 Can help children anticipate and remember events 393 Important for figuring out what happens next 0 These cognitive processes work together to produce cognitive growth I Improvement in one area leads to improvement in all of the other areas Children as computational devices Emphasis on process Knowledge accumulates over time Constructs 0 Memory Attention Strategies Goals Representations Operations OOOOO Traditional Information Processing on A not B Babies fail at this task because they have limitations of these basic cognitive processes memory attention planning 810 mo babies have trouble remembering a new location or inhibiting a location that has been successful before babies older than 12 months succeed at the task because they have more computational resources Information Processing Selection Theories Connectionist theories Neural network approach The simultaneous activity of neurons interconnected processing units 0 Strong and weak connections 0 Weights that lead to a solution get stronger weights that don39t work get weaker Sequential and parallel processing o Parallel things that occur at the same time Connectionist Network on A not B This error arises from competition between latent memory traces for A and active memory traces for B 810 mo fail because the latent memories of A win over the active memory of B babies older than 12 months succeed because they are better at actively maintaining memory traces and updating them Input layer what is in the baby39s environment 0 Some is important some isn39t important at all I 3 different locations I 3 Different covers to look underneath I 2 different toys o Over time baby learns that the location is what matters I Location A becomes stronger and stronger as it yields the correct results I Latent memory for location A grows stronger over time responses become less error prone until the object is switched I Once switched this connection to A is really difficult to lose 9 A not B error due to strong weight between location A and the toy Output layer analogous to the baby39s behavior Middle layer hidden layer 0 Does the computational work o The brain of the network Information Processing Selection Theories Dynamic System Theories Child as a system varied aspects of a child function as a single integrated whole Emphasis on low level processes ie perception memory attention motor activity acting in time o Adds in the motor activity because everything matters the whole system matters Constructs trajectories attractors Dynamic Systems Theories on A not B The error attending and reaching at time 1 in uences attending and reaching at time T1 o The error has nothing to do with things like object permanence Error not about conceptual understanding people can make this error at any age o Imagine you driving the same route everyday and one day you need to deviate from the route one day I Even though you know the place you wanted to go exists you forget to stop because you have built up a habit I This is similar to driving to Location A over and over again and forgetting to go to Location B I Built up motor habit which causes you to make this error Study 0 No toy o 2 locations with lids child could look into the containers o First trial baby can lift up either lid experimenter lifts up lid and waves it in the air to increase likelihood that the baby will lift that lid I Does this 6 times until the baby has built the habit to reach for a certain lid o Once baby builds up strong habit they lift up the other lid and waves it in the air I Increases likelihood to reach for the other lid but it s hard to overcome the habit of reaching for the other lid I This happens due to the built up motor habit of reaching for the first lid o If baby does something different before reaching for the second lid they are much less likely to make the error I Breaking the habit leads to loss of the error I Everything matters Overlapping Waves Theories Focus on the variability of children s thinking More Strategy 4 5quot3t99Y 1 Strategy 5 Strategy 2 3 D gt3 1 Strategy 3 Less Younger Older A99 For any one problem you may have more than one strategy for solving it o Your use of these strategies changes over time o Better strategies replace the old strategies older strategies are still at your disposal but they may be used rarely o Strategies that are more efficient are the ones you use more as you get older Sociocultural Theories of Cognitive Development Cognitive development occurs during interpersonal contact through interaction with parents siblings teachers and playmates Guided participation knowledgeable individuals guide child learning is an important sociocultural process 0 Often occurs in situations where there is a practical goal learning results as a byproduct of the activity Cognitive development involves use of cultural tools symbol systems language artifacts skills and values o Cultural context matters Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky portrayed children as social beings intertwined with other people who were eager to help them learn and gain skills o Different from Piaget who believed the child was more like a scientist figuring things out by themselves thought everything was universal o Vygotsky believed that things are not universal you learn things that are important for your culture Sociocultural Principles of Cognitive Development Children are social beings shaped by their cultural contexts o They also shape their cultural contexts Children are both learners and teachers o Allows children to be socialized into their culture and to pass culture onto others Children are products of their culture 0 Abacus example I Popular tool in East Asian countries I Children who were abacus experts would excel at mental arithmetic problems even when an abacus wasn39t present I Mental image of an abacus I Predictable errors based on misreading the beads on the abacus I This strategy is available for use for this culture but cultures that didn39t learn about this do not have this strategy at their disposal Cognitive change originates in social interaction Sociocultural Theories How Does Cognitive Change Occur Intersubj ectivity 0 Foundation of human cognitive development o The mutual understanding that people share o Effective communication requires participants to focus on the same topic and the other person39s reaction to what is being communicated essential for teaching and learning o Darwin Muir face study I 23 mo infant show better attention interest when mother responds to them rather than when their mother does things independent of them I When mother looks at baby with frozen face the baby does not pay any attention to her Ioint attention o Attentionally focus on a common reference in the external environment o Somewhere between 915 mo infants increasingly look at the same object as their social partners I Monitor changes of social partner Social referencing O Tendency to look toward a social partner for how to react when there is an unfamiliarthreatening event Social scaffolding O 0 More competent people provide temporary frameworks that lead children to higher order thinking One form of guided participation When you build things you put up scaffolds to work high above the ground at a time when the building cannot support that This tends to be the way parents interact with their children naturally Early on children might need a lot of scaffolding but as they get older they can do more and more without help 9 remove the scaffolding as the child acquires more skill I The greater the quality of the scaffolding the better the child39s learning I The quality of scaffolding improves as a person gains experience mother usually better at teaching than a brother Help children learn strategies for completing things in the future Zone of proximal development the range between what children can do unsupported and what they can do with optimal social support Too hard will get lost E 3 9 E U H O B gt 3 Too easy won39t learn anything new Ageexperience o Level of difficulty should change depending on the child s age and experience o Zone right above what they can do unsupported is the zone for development Study 3 and 5 yr olds gtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Looked at how parents scaffolding changed with age Children had to place things into the appropriate rooms of a dollhouse o Plate should go in kitchen etc Solved this problem with their parents Parents of 3 yr olds focused on concrete goals o let s put the stove in the kitchen I Very directed very specific Parents of 5 yr olds focused on more abstract goals o first let39s find all the things for the kitchen I different level of scaffolding Kind of social support the child received changed with the ages and abilities of the children Cross cultural differences in experiences Apprenticeship o Weaving cooking I In some cultures children are integrated into the daily activities of adult life I This is less likely to be the case for children in the US 9 unusual to see children at work with adults I You begin doing activities like these with a supervisor who helps you and as you become more proficient you begin to be able to do the task by yourself I Conversation scaffolds parts of cognitive development El Formal schooling Asking them things we already know the answer to 0 Impact on children 9 learn how to think abstractly I Luria El Russia post communist revolution school vs not school Looked at communities with schools vs those without schools Asked these types of questions to adults and children How are spectacles and a water glass alike How are a saw and a hammer alike People who had been to school answer these correctly people who had not been to school thought these questions were ridiculous and did not think they were alike School allows you to practice abstract thinking allows you to understand that things that aren39t alike on the surface can share abstract qualities I Differences in formal schooling experiences El Childhood39s life lessons apan meritocracy social class matters less than education belief that a child that fails is the fault of the teacher 0 Prepared for schooling from preschool o apanese parents feel that the focus on the child39s learning is still their responsibility when school begins NY daycare makes for an easy transition to schooling o Teachers are more important than parents in teaching their children Russia no transition to schooling abrupt change to waking up early Bakahunter gatherers 0 Play and work merge o Informal observation of others China 0 History of famine rural need for working for food rather than books 393 Piaget would think that differences in schooling experiences would not matter Language as a psychological tool Linguistic regulation of behavior o Private speech talking to yourself Language and thought o If thought is in part in uenced by language then the language you learn should in uence how you think Language as a mediating system o Child can construct a mental image based on language Spatial Cues and Language study Dutch vs Australian aboriginal speakers Absolute strategy rearrange objects based on absolute directions o Aboriginal speakers more likely to do this strategy Relative strategy rearrange objects relative to oneself 0 Dutch and English speakers more likely to do relative strategy This may be due to language differences Lucy study Yucatec vs English speakers In English shape is very important for an object In Yucatec Mayan material is important for labeling objects What you see as being similar might come from the language you speak Theories The cognitive theories have contradictory features Why not create a unified grand theory We incorporate insights from all 4 theories to help us understand children in different ways and in different settings Use the theories that make the most sense to you
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