PSY 1: Psychology 1 - Study Guide
PSY 1: Psychology 1 - Study Guide PSY 1
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Psychology Midterm Study Guide 10242012 INTRODUCTORY LESSON Types of Psychology Cognitive Psychology Thinking principles of how we problem solve Physiological Psychology Psychophysics Sensation and Perception Quantitative Math Psychology Math models for predicting behavior Animal Experimental Psychology Human Experimental Psychology Neuropsychology Relationship of brain injury to behavior thinking personality Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Different kinds of traits we exhibit in life Genetics Culture Social Psychology Evolutionary Psychology Industrial Psychology Productivity and efficiency in an operation why is the error rate so high in the assembly line How do we improve teamwork Consumer Psychology Study what makes consumer buy things Psychology of advertisements and sales Clinical Psychology Counseling Psychology Educational and School Psychology Braininthevat problem Keep someone alive while working the brain outside of the body 10242012 HISTORY AND RESEARCH MODELS MindBody or mindbrain problem Is the brain also the mind Dualism Monism Monism physical and mental are one Idealism all is thought Materialism all is physical Most scientists are materialists Dualism physical and mental are different mind is seperate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body lnteractionism Psychophysical parallelism Free will vs Determinism Determinism the idea that everything that happens has a cause or determinant that one could observe or measure out of your control Free will the belief that behavior is caused by a person39s independent decisions Nature vs Nurture heredity environment issue How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment Why do most little boys spend more time than little girls with toy guns and trucks and less time with dolls Is it because of biological differences or because of the way parents rear their sons and daughters Is it your genetics that maes you who you are or is it your envoronment Deductive vs Inductive Methods 10242012 The inductive method usually called the scientific method is the deductive method quotturned upside downquot The deductive method starts with a few true statements axioms with the goal of proving many true statements theorems that logically follow from them The inductive method starts with many observations of nature with the goal of finding a few powerful statements about how nature works lals and theories In the deductive method logic is the authority If a statement follows logically from the axioms of the system it must be true In the scientific method observation of nature is the authority If an idea conflicts with what happens in nature the idea must be changed orabandoned Burden of Proof the obligation to present evidence to support one39s claim the burden of proof is on anyone who makes a claim that should be demonstrable if it is true A claim that some objects fall or some people have psychic powers should be demonstrable if true A claim that every object fas cannot be demonstrated so the burden of proof is on someone who doubts it Falsifiability of Hypotheses A well formed theory is falsifiable Stated in such clear recise tems tha we can see what evidence would count against it Replicability of Findings Replicable results are those that anyone can obtain at least approximately by following the same procedures and scientists insist on replicable results Parsimonious Explanation When given a choice among explanations that seem to fit the facts we prefer the one whose asusmptions are fewer simpler or more consistent with other wellestablished theones If someone shows you what appears to be a perpetual motion machine look carefully for a hidden battery or other power source that is a simple parsimonious explanation Even if you don39t find a hidden power source it is vastly more likely that you overlooked 10242012 Devaluation of Anecdotal Evidence People also exaggerate the coincidences that occur and sometimes misremember them We could evaluate anecdotal evidence only if people recorded their hunches and dreams before the predicted events and then determined how many unlikely predictions actually came to pass Experimenter bias the tendency of an experimenter unintentionally in most cases to distort or misperceive the results of an experiment based on the expected outcome Demand Characteristics cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to find To minimize demand characteristics many experimenters take steps to conceal the purpose of the experiment A double blind study also serves the purpose If two groups share the same expectations but behave differently because of a treatment then the differences are not due to their expectations quotBlindsquot on observers and participants blind observer an observer who records data without knowing the researcher39s predictions In a sinclleblind studv either the observer or the participants are unaware of which participants received which treatment In a double blind studv both the observer and the participants are unaware Of course the experimenter who organized the study would need to keep records of which participants received which procedure A study in which everyone loses track of the procedure is known jokingly as triple blind Placebos a pill with no known pharmacological effects Naturalistic Observations definition A careful examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions 10242012 Case histories definition A thorough description of the person including abilities and disabilities medical condition life history unusual experiences and whatever else seems relevant Correlational studies a procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them For example investigators have observed correlations between people39s height and weight Similarly one can find a correlation between scores on personality tests and how many friends someone has Correlation vs Causation a correlation tells us how strongly two variables are related to each other Causation means that one variable causes a change in another variable Experiment definition Studies in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable An experiment is an attempt to measure how changes in one variable affect one or more other variables Experimental and Control Conditions Experimental condition group that recieves the treatment that an experiment is designed to test Control condition the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment Dependent Variables the item that an experimenter measures to determine how it was affected for example how many questions people answer correctly or how rapidly they respond to signals If the procedure causes different groups to behave differently you can think of the independent variable as the cause and the dependent variable as the effect Independent Variables In an experiment the item that the experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the dependent variable 10242012 Purpose of Descriptive vs lnferential Statistics inferential statistics which are statements about a large population based on an inference from a small sample are attempts to deduce the properties of a large population based on the results from a small sample of that population descriptive statistics which are mathematical summaries of results 10242012 NEUROSCIENCE Cerebrovascular Accident CVA Thromboticembolic stroke Ruptured aneurysms Hemorrhagic stroke Electroencephalography EEG uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain electrical activity provide data on a miisecond by miisecond basis so they measure the brain39s reactions to lights sounds and other events However because they record from the surface of the scalp they provide little precision about the location of the activity Hindbrain wfunctions Pons and Medulla Protective reflexes Infant pathological reflexes Orienting reflexes Cardiovascular respiratory digestive reflexes Cerebellum Old inner cerebellum balance linked to semicircular canals of ears and trochlear nerve that moves the eyeballs New outer cerebellum rapid automatic movements timing of movements and thoughts 10242012 Midbrain wfunctions Midbrain reticular formation General arousal Sleep wake cycles Pain perception Superior colliculi left and right Visual targeting saccades saccadic movements Inferior colliculi left and right Auditory targeting Forebrain wfunctions Biggest part of the brain its wrinkled its only 2 inch thick if you stretch it out it is one square meter Basal forebrain hypothalamus amp thalamus Hypothalamusz controls of Pituitary gland gtgt thyroid adrenals bone growth Automatic nervous system Control of hunger thirst body temp and induction of fever pyrogens Sexual orientation 10242012 Reward and punishment Thaamus sensory relay station Old Cortex sits above thalamus and hypothalamus Above the thalamus and hypothalamus Shell structures Limbic system Complex reaction patterns 4 f s feeding fighting fleeing copulation Basal ganglia responsible for making movements smooth Background postural axial movements twisting movements of the body Regulation of foregroundbackground thinking breakdown gtgt OCD Responsible for making eye movements smooth Parkinson s disease involves basal ganglia Resting tremor Rigidity face begins to be less expressive Slowed movements Confusion Huntington s chorea Involuntary movements Impaired speechswallowing Staggering gait Depression irritability Short term memory loss New Cortex Neocortexsurrounds the old cortex 10242012 Complex perception recognizing grandma Strategic movements saying I know I need to buy a toothbrush today so I m going to get it on the way to class to save time Higher intellectual functions doing math Social Machiavellian intelligence language relationships to people Has 4 lobes Frontal most deveoped part of neocortex Importance in movement Strategic thinking very crucial Social cognition Short term memory Languagemusic production Prefrontal area above the eyeballs amp front part of frontal cortex esponsible for strategizing control of behavior fully matured at age 30 Last area o develop in children Parietal above occipital lobe complex visualtouch perception R body sense neglect syndrome L arithmetic LR sense Gerstman syndromes Temporal under the temples long term memory hippocampus 10242012 language comprehension facial expression identification amygdala sometimes violent outbursts Occipital bony crest in back of head Vision pattern recognition grasping the world Has cells on how to manipulate the world and figure out what it is Autonomic Nervous System w branches closely associated with the spinal cord controls the internal organs such as the heart The term autonomic means involuntary or automatic in the sense that we have little voluntary control of it A sudden loud noise increases your heart rate but you can39t decide to increase your heart rate in the same way that you could decide to wave your hand Has 2 parts The sympathetic nervous system controlled by a chain of cells lying just outside the spinal cord increases heart rate breathing rate sweating and other processes that are important for vigorous fight or flight activities It inhibits digestion sexual arousal and other activities not important to an emergency situation The parasympathetic nervous system controlled by cells at the top and bottom levels of the spinal cord decreases heart rate increases digestive activities and in general promotes activities of the body that take place during rest Limbic system wfunctions 4 F s feeding fighting fleeing fucking Reticular Formation wfunctions Pain 10242012 Sleep wake cycle General arousal Orienting Response Protective amp Pathological reflexes Infant amp Pathological reflexes Patellar thumb sucking Reflex Rapid automatic responses to stimuli Saccades vs Smooth tracking eye movements Saccades is opposite of smooth movements Corpus callosum a set of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex Phrenology Study of the brain by measuring it Psuedoscience quotBinding problemquot 10242012 question of how seperate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object Parkinson39s disease Resting tremor Rigidity Slowed Movements Confusion Effects of prefrontal damage and prefrontal lobotomy Similar ore and post IQ Reduced bahavioral sponteniety Loss of strategic thinking Psedudepression Pseudopsychopathy Language areas of brain Language is controlled by left hemisphere of brain Nonfluent Broca39s and fluent Wernicke39s aphasias Broca a condition characterized by difficulties in language production Serious language impairment occurs only if the damage extends well outside Broca39s area but that area seems to be central The person speaks slowly and inarticulately and is no better with writing or typing Someone with Broca39s aphasia is especially impaired with using and understanding grammatical devices such as prepositions conjunctions word endings and complex sentences For example one person who was asked about a dental appointment slowly mumbled Yes Monday Dad and Dick Wednesday nine o39clock 10 o39clock doctors and teeth Wernickes a condition marked by impaired recall of nouns and impaired comprehension of language despite the ability to speak fluently and grammatically 10242012 Nonfluent brocas apahasia Borken speech but comprehensive intact Cookie jarfalloverchairwater empty Fluent wernickes apasia Word salad but comprehentsion missing Neglect syndrome a tendency to ignore the left side of the body the left side of the world or the left side of objects Damage in the left hemisphere seldom yields neglect of the right side Hemispheric lateralization Brain is split into 2 hemispheres and each hemisphere is responsible for different tasks Lobes of neocortex w functions Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital Convolutions wrinkles in neocortex and explanation More surface area for the neurons to attcach to Reduces distance bewteen neurons Contralateral control w rationale 10242012 Left side controls right side Right side controls left side Fish example Effects of splitbrain preparation Split brain patients have the corpus callosum out Some reasons why is for epilepsy patients Left sidelanguage area When a picture is presented in the left visulal field the info is sent to the right Neurotransmitters w examples a chemical that activates receptors on other neurons Acetylcholine is one of the common neurotransmitters in the nervous system released when muscles contract Dopamine Epinephirne Seratonin GABA Glutamate Endorphins Neuron consists of 3 parts Cell body soma 10242012 contains the nucleus of the cell Axon a single long thin straight fiber with branches near its tip Some vertebrate axons are covered with my an insulating sheath that speeds up the transmission of impulses along an axon an axon transmits information to other cells and the dendrites or cell body receives that information Axons are specialized to convey information over long distances such as from the skin to the spinal cord axons convey information by a combination of electrical and chemical processes called an action potential When the axon is not stimulated its membrane has a resting potential Dendrites from a Greek word meaning tree are widely branching structures that receive input from other neurons recieves neurons on post synaptic neuron Axon terminals terminal buttons On presynaptic neuron Synapse The specialized junction between one neuron and another A neuron releases a chemical that either excites or inhibits the next neuron That is the chemical makes the next neuron either more or less likely to produce an action potential Synapses regulate everything your nervous system accomplishes Pre and post Synaptic Membranes 10242012 make up the synapse Resting potential An electrical polarization across the membrane or covering of an axon Negative inside Positive outside Action potential an excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength no matter how far it must travel When the axon is not stimulated its membrane has a resting potential an electrical polarization across the membrane or covering of an axon Typically the inside has a charge of about 7O millivolts relative to the outside It gets this value from the negatively charged proteins inside the axon In addition a mechanism called the sodium potassium pump pushes sodium ions out of the axon while pulling potassium ions in Consequently sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon and potassium ions are more concentrated inside An action potential starts in either of two ways First many axons produce spontaneous activity Second input from other neurons can excite a neuron39s membrane In either case if the excitation reaches the threshold of the axon variable but typically about 55 millivolts the result is to open briefly some gates or channels at the start of the axon Through those gates sodium and potassium ions can flow Sodium ions which are highly concentrated outside the membrane rush into the cell attracted by the negative charge inside The influx of positively charged sodium ions is the action potential As the positive charge enters the axon at one point it stimulates the next point along the axon which then starts opening sodium channels and repeating the process After the sodium gates have been open for a few milliseconds they snap shut However the potassium gates remain open Potassium does not flow out as rapidly as sodium flowed in but it continues longer The potassium ions carry a positive charge so their exit drives the inside of the axon back to its resting potential Glial cells glia and functions 10242012 The nervous system also contains other kinds of cells called gia GLEE uh which support the neurons in many ways such as by insulating them synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons and removing waste products The glia are smaller but more numerous than neurons Myelin sheaths Blood brain barrier Possibly a slow second signal system calcium waves running in parallel and interacting wit neurons Neurotrophic functions Neurotransmitter reuptakequotAllornonequot law Neurotrnsmitters that get left behind on the synapse and goes back to whre it came from Presynaptic side will reuptake the neurotransmitters after its Fires or not Postsynaptic receptors the neuron on the receiving end of the synapse Common classes of drugs and their brain effects Aspirin blocks substance P and causes analgesia Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine SSRI blocks reuptake of seratonin Amygdala and Emotion A subcortical structure deep within the temporal lobe responds strongly to emotional s ua ons People with damage to the amygdala are slow to process emotional information such as facial expressions and descriptions of emotional situations In contrast people with an easily aroused amygdala tend to be shy and fearful throughout their lives Personality changes in TLEtemporal lobe epilepsy Attach too much meaing to small details MM and religiosity 10242012 Meanign machinery ppl wiht tle who have a chronically oevractive amygdala machinery that attchess significance to events Major endocrine glands and functions Testes Adrenal glands Thyroid hormones SLEEP DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS Sleepwake cycle Governed by an internal 25hour circadian rhythm Tuned internally to 24 hours by the sun Circadian and ultradian rhythms Circadian rhythms A ryhthm of activity and activity lasting about a day Ultradian rhythms REM periods alternate with NREM period in 90100 ultradian rhythm Melatonin A sleep related neurotransmitter Sleep is triggered by the release of melatonin form the pineal gland REM vs NREM sleep dual sleep NREM Sleep Stage 1 Transition between wakefulness and clear sleep Stage 2 1 st bonafide sleep stage point of no return Stage 34 delta Deepest most restful type of sleep 10242012 10242012 Physiological relaxation Slow rolling eye movements Mundane talking dreams Growth hormone secretions Deficient thermoregulation REM Sleep No stages Associateed with vivid dreams paradoxical light and deep sleep heightened physiological activitysexual tissue erect to keep them healthy Human REM periods alternate with NREM period according to a 90100 minute ultradian rhythm REM Sleep throughout the night Last longer as the night progresses Can be exhausting EEG similar to waking state Heightened physiological activity Rapid jerky desynchronous eye movements Erection of sexual tissue Vivid visual dreams Reduced by nearly all drugsmedications Striate muscle tone greatly reduced cept for birds 10242012 REM without atonia Sleep paralysis Functions of rapid eye movements and REM period sexual responses Your eyes move alot and sexual organs get flushed with blood to preserve function Repairrestoration vs energy conservation and other theories of Sleep Antipredator adaptation sleep forces us to be quiet at certain times of the day Restorative sleep helps us recover something depleted during wakefulness Facilitates learning sleep especially REM might help us consolidate memories ThermoreguIatory Sleep alternating REM with NREM sleep keeps us from overheating and helps conserve energy No theory about sleep works very well Dreaming in REM vs NREM sleep Findings about dream content We dream in both REM and Sow Wave sleep REM seep dream reports tend to describe more visual and active dreams Dream time is real time no dream condensation Few dreams are bizarre most reflect current life preoccupations The themes of one s dreams vary little year after year Dreams contain more 10242012 bad outcomes than good ones negative emotions than positive ones aggressive interactions than friendly ones homicides in dreams occur in 2 out of 100 dream characters a rate which far exceeds rea ife homicide rates Dreams have no known function Children Tend to have fantastic rather than realistic dreams which begin about ages 89 dream about animals more than people are more likely to be victims than aggressors Men tend to dream more about other men 70 whereas women dream 5050 about men and women Sex dreams are uncommon are beset with conflict and often involve people that dreamers are not attracted to Aggression in men s dreams tends to be physical whereas in women s dreams it is relational just as in waking life Women dream often about weddings which don t go well and among new mothers about their babies often with the infant endangered Activationsynthesis vs neurocognitive theories of dreaming What creates the dream Some think it comes straight from the brain Sleep and aging People sleep less as they get older and the proportion of time in REM sleep decreases Overall sleep gets lighter and wakefulness gets seepier Aging is often accompanied by chronic sleep deprivation due to illness pain breathing problems frequent need to urinate 10242012 Sleep paralysis Persistance of REM reated atonfa after awakening Sensations of being trapped or pressure on the chest Reported in many cultures may be frequent among blacks devil riding your back Sometimes only partial awakening at first Intrusion of dream imagery into waking life hypnopompic or awakening hallucinations that seem real May give rise to experience of alien abductions or bedroom ghosts If associated with narcolepsy stmulant treatment is sometimes effective otherwise anti Airway obstructive apnea fail to breathe for a minute or more and then wake up gasping for breath They may lie in bed for 8 to 10 hours but sleep less than half that time During the following day they feel sleepy and may have headaches Night terrors causes someone to awaken screaming and sweating with a racing heart rate sometimes flailing with the arms and pounding the walls Night terrors occur during stage 3 or stage 4 sleep not REM and their dream content if any is usually simple such as a single image Sleepwalking talking and other parasmonias Sow wave sleep Enuressis bedwetting now treated benignly with patience and medication Bruxism teeth grinding Head banging rocking Sleepwalking seep taking sleep sex 10242012 Sleep terror REM Sleep Isolated sleep paralysis when not associated with narcolepsy REM sleep bahavior disorder Violent thrashing yelling jumping out of bed Dreams are usually recalled May be injurious to bed partners Associated with withdrawal from alcohol or sedatives Can be early sign of other disorders Parkingsons dementia NarcolepsyProvigil modafinil People with narcolepsy experience sudden attacks of extreme sleepiness in the middle of the day hey also experience sudden attacks of muscle weakness or paralysis and occasional dreamlike experiences while awake hese symptoms can be interpreted as a sudden intrusion of REM sleep into the waking period of the day Effects of sleep deprivation Missing 1 night s sleep results in sleepiness and slight cognitive and motor impairment Missing 2 or more nights sleep causes progressive cognitive and motor impairment Microsleeps begin to intrude upon wakefulness Seep deprived people always underestimate their deficits Does not cause lasting mental illness Can alleviate depression temporarily or trigger mania Compromises immune function and increases risk of many illnesses REM rebound on resuming sleep 10242012 more REM sleep BUT sleep deprivation refers to one s habitual sleep times Some individuals never sleep Ingredients of good sleep hygiene Time from night and cause sleep inertia caffeine power naps not caffeine alone Chronic constant moderate exercise No after dinner exercise Minimal stimulant use Constant sleep wake up times can t catch up on sleep and no weekend seep ins oversleeping makes you seep drunk Minimal noise Darkness Stillness Constant diet Seep anxiety cycles cause and prevention Hypnosis Hypnosis can produce relaxation concentration and changes in behavior some of which persist after the end of the hypnotic state One wel estabished effect of hypnosis is to inhibit pain Some people can undergo medical or dental surgery with only hypnosis and no anesthesia The benefits of hypnosis are most easily demonstrated for acute sudden pains but hypnosis can help with chronic pains too Hypnosis is particularly helpful for people who react unfavorably to anesthetic drugs and those who have developed a tolerance for painkilling opiates What hypnosis can and cannot do Effects of hypnosis on memory hypnotized people are highly suggestible When given a suggestion such as you will remember more than you told us before hypnotized people report more information some of it correct and most of it incorrect with increased confidence in both the correct and the incorrect 10242012 Many other studies have produced similar conclusions Hypnosis sometimes increases the number of correct items recalled but it also increases the number of incorrect items recalled People who have been hypnotized continue to report both the correct and incorrect items with high confidence long after the hypnotic session Curiously although hypnosis is unreliable for enhancing memory a posthypnotic suggestion can cause people to forget something Not a memory enhancer Not a control mechanism Classes and examples of psychoactive drugs Stimulants cocaine coffee Depressant nicotine Halllucinogens 10242012 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Psychophysics the quantitative branch of the study of perception examining the relations between observed stimuli and responses and the reasons for those relations psycho mind physic nature Thresholds Limen absolute difference Absolute limen the weakest stimulus that can be detected reliably intensity at which a given individual detects a stimulus 50 of the time Under threshhod subliminal Over threshod supraliminal Difference limen the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that can be detected reliably Detection discrimination recognition scaling Detection is anything there Discrimination are these things different Recognition what is it Scaling how much of it is there Sensory coding Perception of senses Subliminal perception and effectiveness the idea that stimuli sometimes influence our behavior even when they are presented so faintly or briefly that we do not perceive them consciously 10242012 Many years ago claims were made that subliminal messages could control people39s buying habits For example a theater owner might insert a single frame EAT POPCORN in the middle of a film Customers who were not aware of the message could not resist it so they would flock to the concession stand to buy popcorn Many tests of this hypothesis found little or no effect and the advertiser eventually admitted he had no evidence Ppl sggested that rock n roll music had subliminal satanic messages backwards not true Types of retinal cells and functions Cones and rods Cones are color Rods are for seeing in dim light and black and white Fovea the central area of the human retina is adapted for highly detailed vision the fovea has the greatest density of receptors Blind spot The retinal area where the optic nerve exits That part of the retina has no room for receptors because the exiting axons take up all the space Also blood vessels enter the eye at this point Ordinarily you are unaware of your blind spot Trichromatic theory that color vision depends on the response rates of three types of cones It is called trichromatic because it states that our receptors respond to three primary colors One type is most sensitive to short wavelengths which we generally see as blue medium wavelengths green long wavelengths red 10242012 The trichromatic theory does not easily explain these afterimages Opponentprocess theory We perceive color in terms of paired opposites red versus green yellow versus blue and white versus black Experiences of one color after the removal of another are called negative afterimages Retinex theory we perceive color when the cerebral cortex compares various retinal patterns Retinex is a combination of the words retina and cortex The cerebral cortex compares the patterns of light coming from different areas and synthesizes a color perception for each area As Figure 416 emphasizes we should not call short waveength light blue or long wavelength light red A gray square can look blue in one context and yellow in another The color is something our brain constructs not a property of the light itself The retinex theory adds the final touch noting that the cerebral cortex compares color information from various parts of the visual field Nature of quotcolorblindnessquot color vision is a function of our eyes and brains and not just of the light itself The older term colorblindness is misleading because very few people are totally unable to distinguish colors About 8 of men and less than 1 of women have difficulty distinguishing red from green The cause is a recessive gene on the X chromosome Because men have only one X chromosome they need just one gene to become red green color deficient Women need two such genes to develop the condition because they have two X chromosomes Red green color deficient people have only two kinds of cones the shortwavelength cone and either the longwavelength or the medium waveength cone Pitch and frequency Loudness and amplitude Pitch is a perception closely related to frequency We perceive a highfrequency sound wave as high pitched and a lowfrequency sound as low pitched Loudness is a perception that depends on the amplitude of sound waves that is their intensity 10242012 the greater the amplitude of a sound the louder it sounds Because loudness is a psychological experience however other factors influence it also For example someone who speaks rapidly seems louder than someone speaking slowly at the same amplitude Conduction vs nerve deafness The other type of hearing loss is nerve deafness which results from damage to the cochlea the hair cells or the auditory nerve Nerve deafness can result from disease heredity or exposure to loud noises Surgery cannot correct nerve deafness One kind of hearing loss is conduction deafness which results when the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea Place theory frequency theory volley principle Freduencv Principle identification of pitch by the frequency of action potentials in neurons along the basilar membrane of the cochlea synchronized with the frequency of sound waves Place Principle identification of pitch by determining which auditory neurons coming from which part of the basilar membrane are most active Vollev Principle identification of pitch by groups of hair cells responding to each vibration by producing an action potential Methods of sound localization Inferior coliculli Vestibular system and structures involved The vestibular system tells us about the movement of the head and its position with respect to gravity It enables us to keep our eyes fixated on an object while the rest of the body is in motion 10242012 The vestibular system is composed of three semicircular canals oriented in three separate directions and two otolith organs Figure 423b The semicircular canals are lined with hair cells and filled with a jellylike substance When the body accelerates in any direction the jellylike substance in the corresponding semicircular canal pushes against the hair cells which send messages to the brain The otolith organs shown in Figure 423b also contain hair cells Figure 423c which lie next to the otoliths calcium carbonate particles Depending on which way the head tilts the particles excite different sets of hair cells The otolith organs report the direction of gravity and therefore which way is up Gate theory of pain the idea that pain messages must pass through a gate presumably in the spinal cord that can block the messages That is other kinds of input close the gate preventing pain messages from advancing to the brain For example if you injure yourself rubbing the surrounding skin sends inhibitory messages to the spinal cord closing the pain gates Pleasant or distracting events also send inhibitory messages The gate can also enhance the pain messages For example inflamed skin eg after sunburn increases sensitivity of the spinal cord neurons so that almost any stimulation becomes painful In short the activities of the rest of the nervous system facilitate and inhibit pain messages You visit a physician because of severe pain but as soon as the physician tells you the problem is nothing to worry about the pain starts to subside Have you ever had such an experience Placebo A pill that has no known effect Neurotransmitters involved in pain Endorphins Several medications also reduce pain All pains release the neurotransmitter glutamate and intense pain also releases a neurotransmitter called substance P Mice that lack substance P receptors react to all painful stimuli as if they were mild Endorphins 10242012 neurotransmitters that inhibit the release of substance P and thereby weaken pain sensations The term endorphin is a combination of the terms endogenous self produced and morphine Phantom limb When an amputated limb still feels like it is there Olfaction The sense of smell is known as olfaction The olfactory receptors located on the mucous membrane in the rear air passages of the nose detect the presence of certain airborne molecules Chemically olfactory receptors are much like synaptic receptors The axons of the olfactory receptors form the olfactory tract which extends to the olfactory bulbs at the base of the brain Pheromones Chemicals they release into the environment Brennan amp Zufall 2006 For example a female dog in her fertile and sexually responsive time of year emits pheromones that attract every male dog in the neighborhood Pheromones act on the vomeronasal organ a set of receptors near but separate from the standard olfactory receptors Menstrual synchrony young women who are in frequent contact such as roommates in a college dormitory tend to synchronize their menstrual cycles probably as a result of pheromones they secrete Signal detection theory the study of people39s tendencies to make hits correct rejections misses and false alarms The theory originated in engineering where it applies to such matters as detecting radio signals in the presence of noise Suppose someone reports a stimulus present on 80 of the trials when it is actually present That statistic is meaningless unless we also know how often the person said it was present when it was not If the person also reported it present on 80 of trials when it was absent then the person is just guessing and not really detecting anything at all Gestalt approach 10242012 a field that focuses on our ability to perceive overall patterns Feature detectors represent a bottom up process in which tiny elements combine to produce larger items triangle However perception also includes a top down process in which you apply your experience and expectations to interpret what each item must be in context the cat Perceptual constancies our tendency to perceive objects as keeping their shape size and color despite certain distortions in the light pattern reaching our retinas Motion detection induced movement What do we perceive when an object is stationary and the background moves In that unusual case we incorrectly perceive the object as moving against a stationary background a phenomenon called induced movement a form of apparent movement as opposed to real movement stroboscopic movement You have already read about the waterfall illusion page 127 another example of apparent movement Yet another is stroboscopic movement an illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary images phi effect With proper timing between the lights you experience an illusion of the light moving back and forth between the two locations known as the Lhi effect Some signs in front of restaurants or motels use this effect The light appears to move smoothly and gradually through intermediate positions where it never occurred Depth perception retinal disparity the difference in the apparent position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas Try this Hold a finger at arm39s length Focus on it with one eye and then the other Note that the apparent position of your finger shifts with respect to the background Now hold your finger closer to your face and repeat The apparent position of your finger shifts even more The amount of discrepancy between the two eyes is one way to gauge distance ocular convergence 10242012 the degree to which they turn in to focus on a close object Figure 451 When you focus on a distant object your eyes look in almost parallel directions When you focus on something close your eyes turn in and you sense the tension of your eye muscles The more the muscles pull the closer the object must be binocular cues Retinal disparity and convergence are called binocular cues because they depend on both eyes monocular cues eg motion parallax enable someone to judge depth and distance with just one eye or when both eyes see the same image a nearby object produces a larger image than a distant one This cue helps only for objects of known size Anomalous Motion and explanation When the eye moves to make up for hte blind spot 10242012 CONDITIONING AND LEARNING Associationism theory that all consciousness is the result of the combination in accordance with the law of association of certain simple and ultimate elements derived from sense experiences associating somethign with somehting else Hab ua on A repeated sound produced less and less effect We say that the infant became habituated to the sound Habituation is decreased response to a repeated stimulus Tabula rasa doctrine w rationale The mind before it receives the impressions gained from experience The unformed featureless mind in the philosophy of John Locke Philosophy esp in the philosophy of Locke the mind in its uninformed original state I Pavlov Russian physiologist Lectures on the function of the principal digestive glands 1897 Lectures on conditioned reflexes 1926 Esophageal and gastric fistulae Tubes he put into the dogs CS US UR CR 2 basic kinds of reflexes Wired ln Reflexes eg salivation gag orienting limb withdrawal occur unconditionally unconditional reflexes US UR Psychic Reflexes Appear after specific experiences occur conditionally conditional reflexes 08 CR Unconditioned stimulus USC Unconditioned response UCR Conditioned stimulus CS Conditioned response CR Ex UCSfood UCRsalivation CSbell CRsalivtion Formation of conditioned reflex Unconditioned reflex salivation to food Conditioned reflex salivation to bell Bulimia and classical conditioning CSfull stomach after binge USfinger down throat1JRnausea CSfull stomach after binge CRnausea purging 10242012 10242012 PostTraumatic Stress Disorder and classical conditioning CS weapon sounds USbast URintense fear CSjackhammer CRintense fear Little Albert study rationale and reinterpretation trying to condition little albert by scaring him little albert had a disease Aversion therapy Associating a food with illness is conditioned taste aversion Training pplt 0 stop smoking by shocking them Systematic desensitization SHOWED GAY MEN PORN AND WENEVER THEY GOT AN ERECTION THEY SHOCKED THE PENIS TO TURN THEM STRAIGHT E L Thorndike Studied cats Responsible for repetitive learning Operant conditioning Puzzlebox experiments w rationale When Thorndike wanted to train a cat to push a pole or pull a string he simply put the cat in a puzzle box and waited Skinner wanted to train rats to push levers and pigeons to peck at keys Cat got better at it 10242012 Law of Effect Each stimulus has a consequence B F Skinner Guy that did rats in the cages Electricity on the floor and go thru the pain to get food or water Operant conditioning 4 types Behavior and consequence outcome Positive reinforcement reward training Positive punishment Negative reinforcement Remove a stimulus to increase the behavior Student sitting in a math calss hates math so he acts out n calss and gets not sent to the principles office Negative punishment Removing a pleasnt stimulus to reduce behavior add ticket to decrease speeding Positive gt present apleasnt or unpleasnt stimulus Negative gt remove a ABC s of operant conditioning Aantecedent stimulus Behavior Consequence Reinforcement vs punishment 10242012 a reinforcer is an event that follows a response and increases the later probability or frequency of that response From a theoretical standpoint we would like to predict what would be a reinforcer and what would not We might guess that reinforcers are biologically useful to the individual but many are not For example saccharin a sweet but biologically useless chemical can be a reinforcer For many people alcohol and tobacco are stronger reinforcers than vitaminrich vegetables So biological usefulness doesn39t define reinforcement In contrast to a reinforcer a punishment decreases the probability of a response Shaping for establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it To shape a rat to press a lever you might begin by reinforcing the rat for standing up a common behavior in rats After a few reinforcements the rat stands up more frequently Schedules of reinforcement 4types fixed ratios reinforecement always ocuurs withing a set of responses fixed interval bases on amount of time elapsed variable ratio of resposes or amount variable interval varies with time Operant extinction In operant conditioning extinction occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements For example you were once in the habit of asking your roommate to join you for supper The last few times you asked your roommate said no so you stop asking In classical conditioning extinction is achieved by presenting the CS without the UCS In operant conditioning the procedure is response without reinforcement Special cases of learning conditioned taste aversions go on rollercoaster after eating and feel bad and have an aversion to the food birdsong learning when a bird gves a warnign call to signal theres a predator social learning imitation vicarious reinforcement and punishment learnign from other people Children learnign languages by watching adults speaking 10242012 10242012 MEMORY Ebbinghaus amp CVC sconsoanntvowelconsonant Studied memory The psychologist who studied memory using nonsense syllables the learning curve and the forgetting curve Asked ppl to remember lsits of words and found out that ppl differed graetly how how muc they remembered Invented the CVC combination Ex BAB BOP GOX He would give ppl long lists of thes and asked them to remember them quotForgetting curvequot and decay if he asks ppl to remember the lists right away he would get the most amount remembered but if he waited 5 mins that amount would decrease And it would hang at about 10 for a week or so it shows that ppl are goign to forget almost all of what they memorized within 5 mins Starts out ery fast then it plateous Nature of iconic memory sensory store You see someone and you dont remember sensory registers lasts only a few seconds partly a conswquence of rate of recovery of sensory receptors from stimulation after image Characteristics of working shortterm memory Holds only a few items 57 typically Last only a very short period 30 Requires sustained attention 10242012 Very vulnerable to distraction Circulating Verbal STM often tested using memory span Aided by chunking Taking a series of letters and breaking htem into chunks that re easier to remember Best seen as scratchpad or working memory Organizes information for consolidation into LTM Characteristics of LTM Capacity limits are unknown Includes both intentional and incidental memory with intentional memory more effective Incidental memory is weak lntertional Lasting memories occur only after age 3 or 4 childhood amnesia Some kinds of memories can last a lifetime permastore especially if they are we earned kept fresh with new related learning frequently rehearsed Are reconstructed not replayed exactly susceptible to motivated distortion 10242012 gaps are filled by confabulation Types of LTM Incidental vs intentional Incidental happen to remember Intentional trying to remember Explicit vs implicit Implicitindirect you know u remember a Procedural vs declarative Procedural motor movements of playing piano implicit Declarative 11 explicit Semantic understandign teh rules of the game why you play it facts Episodic events that happen in your life events Semantic vs episodic Memory types Motor how you work a can opener how well you play piano Verbal studied the most giving directions Tactile how things feel or touch Autonomic sensationm you get in autonomic nervous system imagine fingernails on chalkboard 10242012 Levels of processing principle Iconic memory STM LTM concept that the number and types of associations established during learning determine the ease of later retrieval of a memory Encoding specificity principle The way you remembered it is the best form of retrieval EX studied with red bull will remember more if take test hopped up on caffeine Mnemonic devices Any memory aid that relies on encoding each item in a special way Some mnemonic devices are simple such as Every Good Boy Does Fine to remember the notes EGBDF on the treble clef in music Primacy and recency effects Primacy Tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well Recency The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence Permastore Memory thats retained and can last a lifetime Process of memory reconstruction 10242012 If you store a book on a library shelf you can retrieve the book intact and the same as when you put it there Human memory isn39t the same When you try to retrieve a memory of some experience you will start with the details that you remember clearly and reconstruct the rest to fill in the gaps During an original experience we construct a memory When we try to retrieve that memory we reconstruct an account based partly on surviving memories and partly on our expectations of what must have happened For example you might recall studying in the library three nights ago With a little effort you might remember where you sat what you were reading who sat next to you and where you went for a snack afterward If you aren39t quite sure you fill in the gaps with what usually happens during an evening at the library Within weeks you gradually forget that evening and if you try to remember it you will rely more and more on what must have happened omitting more and more details False memory effect False memories can be made from leading questions court 10242012 Hindsight bias the tendency to mold our recollection of the past to fit how vents later turned out Something happens and we then say I knew that was going to happen Types of memory interference proactive interference acting forward in time old stuff gets in the way of new stuff The new materials increase forgetting of the old materials through retroactive interference acting backward in time New stuff gets in the way of old studd Interference is a major cause of forgetting You forget where you parked your car because of proactive interference from all the previous times you parked your car You forget last week39s French vocabulary list because of retroactive interference from this week39s list Childhood retrograde anterograde amnesias Anterograde forget everything from trauma forward Reduced ability to form new memories those predating the injury are often preserved Occurs in some cases of temporal lobe damage Seen in Korsakoff s syndrome Often differe ce in declarative vs Procedural memory recollections vs Habits Retrograde forget everything from trauma and back Reduced ability to remember experiences prior to the injury etc new memories can be formed Frequently seen with use of electroconvulsive Korsakoff39s syndrome 10242012 a condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1 thiamine usually as a result of chronic alcoholism This deficiency leads to widespread loss or shrinkage of neurons especially in the prefrontal cortex Patients suffer apathy confusion and amnesia If given a list of words to remember they forget those at the beginning of the list before they reach the end and soon forget those at the end also are attempts to fill in the gaps in their memory Most confabulations include out of date information Types of clustering Grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters Serial clustering Semantic clustering Cued recall enhancement you receive significant hints about the material For example a photograph of the children in your second grade class Figure 73 or a list of their initials will help you remember Recognition enhancement someone chooses the correct item among several options multiple choice tests Digitspan task Combination of working memory and attention Vulnerable to distraction Forward memory span Numbers are read aloud and each time afterwards the number series increase Backwards memory span Numbers are read aloud and you have to repeat the sequence backwards 10242012 Geons and quotimpossible figuresquot Geons the basic building blocks of all objects we recognize we recognize objects by first noticing the component geons Impossible figures ie never ending staircase Not composed of geons we recognize Prototype vs semantic theories of meaning Prototype idea that you have an idea of what a computer lokos like and you think that somethign is a computer becuase it rates higher in a computer likeness than a book for example Ppls prototype of a dgo is different Spreading activation Thinking about one of the concepts shown in his figure will activate or prime the concepts linked to it through a process called spreading activation For example if you hear flower you are primed to think of rose violet and other flowers If you also hear red the combination of flower and red primes you to think of rose You would recognize that word more easily than usual if it were flashed briefly on a screen or spoken very softly Stroop effect and automatization Stroop The tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink Mental rotation and map imagescanning If you look at something and try to describe what it would look like from a different angle you probably say you answered the question by imagining a mental rotation of the object Studies Change blindness 10242012 the failure to detect changes in parts of a scene blind to change Attentional blink During a brief time after perceiving one stimulus it is difficult to attend to something else Your attention is on sosmething for a moment and its hard to focus on something else for that brief moment Nature of expertise 10 years of doing something makes you an expert Algorithms and heuristics We solve problems by means of algorithms and heuristics A mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis is called an algorithm Heuristics are strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess A person with a beard is most likely to be older than a person without a beard Representativeness heuristic the assumption that an item that resembles members of some category is probably also in that category If something looks like a duck waddles like a duck and quacks like a duck chances are it39s a duck Baserate information In general to decide whether something belongs in one category or another you should consider the baserate information that is how common the two categories are Psychologists have interviewed 30 engineers and 70 lawyers One of them Jack is a 45yearold married man with four children He is generally conservative cautious and ambitious He shows no interest in political and social issues and spends most of his free time on home carpentry sailing and solving mathematical puzzles What is the probability that Jack is one of the 30 engineers in the sample of 100 10242012 Most people estimate a rather high probability perhaps 80 or 90quoto because the description sounds more like engineers than lawyers That estimate isn39t wrong as we do not know the true probability The key point is that if some people are told the sample included 30 engineers and 70 lawyers and others are told it included 70 engineers and 30 lawyers both groups make about the same estimate for Jack Certainly the base rate information should have some influence How common 2 categories are Availability heuristic The tendency to assume that if we easily think of examples of a category then that category must be common During the months after the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 people thought frequently about airplane disasters and most Americans avoided air travel They traveled by car instead although the risk of a fatal crash is far greater in cars than in airplanes Overconfidence On difficult questions like this most people are overconfident of their answers For example when they say they are 90 confident they are actually correct far less than 90 of the time Confirmation bias accepting a hypothesis and then looking for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities 10242012 TA SECTIONS Facilitated Communication FC assistance in communication with autism It DOES NOT work Experiments to test FC Clever Hans Hans was a horse who was taught how to do math Wilhelm von Osten toured his horse to show it around It would ask him questions and the horse would answer with the number of taps Every believed and eventually became skeptical A German psychologist found that Clever Hans only knew the answer when Wilhelm knew the answer Visual cues and Wilhelm knowing the answer was critical ldeomotor Effect Purported types of ESP Psychic reading Psychic healing heal w mind Telepathy communicating through the mind Clairvoyance being able to perceive objects in dff Dimensions seeing whats in the box before opening it Precognition looking in the future Psychokinesis moving things with your mind Scientific status of ESP Signs and symptoms of common mental disorders 10242012 Brain changes in Schizophrenia ADHD Basics of treatment for Depression Depressions us associated with many changes in the brain Temporary loss of gray matter unmyelinated nerve fibers in the neocortex Reduced levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin dopamine norepinephrine in certain brain areas Psychotherapy andor medication can reverse these changes Antidepressants Many antidepressant medicines selectively block the reuptake or serotonin as a consequence these SSR s increase the activity of serotonin using neurons in the brainstem and limbic system Some common SSR s include Lexapro Prozac Paxil Celexa Zoloft The most Widely used antidepressant block the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine These SNRS s include Cymbalta and Effexor All antidepressant medication also restores lost gray matter probably by triggering the production of neurotrophic factors in the brain Mania Anxiety OCD Schizophrenia Mania Racing thoughts quick speech insomnia rapid mood shifts A history of both depressions and manic disorderbipoar disorder The cause is unknown but it probably involves unstable calcium metabolism at pre synaptic membranes possibly due to excessive activity of the enzyme protein kinase C PKC Treatment for mania is medication only and uses mood stabilizers that probably inhibit PKC Topamax Depakote Lamictal 10242012 Lithium carbonate People with bipolar disorder often take mood stabilizers and antidepressant medication if untreated suicide rate in bipolar disorders is high Anxiety disorders Many differen kinds but all involve excessive anxiety apprehensiveness panic attacks over activity of sympathetic nervous system high heart rate and blood pressure rapid breathing Rush of blood tot eh muscles Medication treatment of anxiety Regulated int eh brain by 2 main neurotransmitters both inhibit anxiety GABA Seratonin Many drugs immediately reduce anxiety by mimicking GABA These are all addcitive and additive Ethylalcohol ETOH booze beer whiskey Benzodiazepines Antidepressants that increase serotonin also reduce anxiety over ong term Generalized anxiety purest type Constant worrying Worrying is hard to control difficult tot think about anything else OCD 10242012 Obsessions invasive thoughts Doubting Exactnesssymmetry Contaminationgerms Compulsions actions that are hard to resist Checking Washing Counting Arranging Usually for the compulsions are attempts to handle the obsessions OCD involves serotonin abnormalities in the basal ganglia and prefrontal areas of the brain Antidepressant medications that boost serotonin usually an SSRI like Lexapro or Prozac can controls OCD signs and symptoms Psychotherapy can also help control OCD especially Thought stopping Response prevention Schizophrenia Common signs and symptoms Odd behavior and speech Social withdrawal Psychosis losing touch with reality Paranoia Delusions false beliefs Hallucinations false perceptions mainly auditory ones hearing voices 10242012 Neurodevelopmental disorder May begin in the utero with mis wiring of the brain Risk factors include Genetics Mother s exposure to viruses Damage to baby during birth Having an older father The brains of people with schizophrenia show greater shrinkage than normal Indicates a loss of gray matter in the brain especially in areas involving attention movement and memory changes are visible by adolescence and sweep rapidly over the brain People with schizophrenia show Increased levels of dopamine in there basal ganglia Reduced levels of serotonin in the frontal areas Treatment for schizophrenia involves antipsychotic medications that reduce dopamine action Increase serotonin action probably by reuptake inhibition Antipsychotic medications include Ambilify Resperdal and Zyprexa Medication partly controls the signs and symptoms but in most cases schizophrenia is still progressive and disabling ADHD Difficulty focusing on tasks Fidgeting and squirming Distractibility and forgetfulness 10242012 Blurting butting in or constantly interrupting others ADHD is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence but is a lifetime disorder in adulthood the impulses tend to fade but the focus problems persists People with ADHD shows 35 year delays in the development of certain brain areas especially the prefrontal area These areas are involved with attention and impulsive control Treatment for ADHD Stimulant medications to boost functioning in the underdeveloped brain areas Common meds Ritalin Concerta Adderall They are dopamine andor norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors which increase neurotransmitter activity in the synapse These are all amphetamine derivatives normally addictive usually non addictive for ADHD treatment Behavior management for schoolwork Consistent daily scheduling Breaking up tasks into small chunks with immediate reinforcement or time out Minimizing distractions
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