Nutrition Exam 2 Review
Nutrition Exam 2 Review NTDT 10003
Popular in Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates composed of 39 Carbon hydrogen and oxygen 39 Compounds made of single sugars or multiple sugars What are the two categories of CHO 39 Simple and complex 39 Simple IDnaturally occurring sugars in fruit milk added sugars honey corn syrup and table sugar 39 Complex Dljstarch and fiber What are monosaccharides Name and describe the 3 monosaccharides discussed in class 39 Single sugars Glucose building block of CHO Fructose found in fruits and honey sweet Galactose seldom occurs in nature usually in lactose What are disaccharides Name and describe the 3 disaccharides discussed in class 39 Two sugars Dljtwo monosaccharides joined together 0 Sucrose glucose and fructose I Table sugar 0 Lactose glucose and galactose I From digestion of starch I Found in malt beverages O Maltose glucose and glucose I Milk sugar What is lactose intolerance What causes it How is it treated What happens to our ability to digest lactose as we age 39 When someone lacks the enzyme lactase or is not making enough of it to support the lactose 1ntake Lactase is an enzyme that splits lactose during digestion Nausea bloating abdominal pain diarrhea gas Can develop in sick or malnourished persons Could be genetichereditary 39 It is treated by avoiding milk products and replacing them with smart options soy milk almond milk lactate a milk with enzymes in it 39 Our ability to digest lactose as we age decreases harder to digest many people lose the ability to digest lactose during or after childhood What are polysaccharides Name and describe the polysaccharides discussed in class 39 A polysaccharide is a complex CHO poly saccharide many sugar Up to 3000 glucose units in each molecule of starch Long chains typically of glucose 0 Starch and dietary fiber starchy foods IDplant foods I Insoluble fiberssoluble fibers I Dextrins cellulose hemicellulose pectins gums mucilages some hemicelluloses I Potatoes legumes corn wheat rye and other grains I Whole grains legumes fruits veggies brown rice seeds oat products barley etc Identify the parts of a wheat kernel and what function each part serves 39 Wheat kernel whole grain Whole grain most nutrient dense 39 Whole wheat whole grain just different grain barley wheat etc 0 Germ I Nutrientrich part of grain that grows into plant I Have vitamins and minerals O Endosperm I Soft inside portion that contains starch and protein provides energy 0 Bran I Fibrous protective coating around the kernel 0 Husk chaff I Outer inedible covering of a grain Dljremoved in whole grain products 0 Bran layers What is enrichment When is it used What nutrients are added back to refined products 39 Refined process in which foods are removed of their coarse products Enriched B vitamins thiamin ribo avin niacin folic acid and iron are added to refined grains grain products Forti ed foods nutrients added to prevent deficiency or reduce risk of chronic disease Enrichment act of 1942 initiative to lower the rates of vitamin and mineral deficiencies at the time 0 Required some processors to replace some of the nutrients lost in the milling process 0 Twenty three different nutrients are lost with the removal of the wheat germ and wheat bran What is the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber What health benefits do you get from each Note the difference between how fiber is processed in your body compared to other carbohydrates ex does it provide calories after digestion Do not memorize specific food sources of insoluble and soluble ber does not provide energy because bonds cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes INSOLUBLE 0 Does not dissolve in water 0 Holds water in colon Dljincreases bulk O Stimulates muscles of GI tract 0 Cellulose hemicellulose lignin 0 Wheat bran brown rice green beans nuts rice seeds skinspeels many veggies 39 SOLUBLE dissolve or swell in water 0 Cholesterol lowering 0 Improved blood glucose control 0 Pectins and gums O Barley broccoli carrots corn fruits legumes oat bran oats potatoes rye HEALTH BENEFITS O Obesity Dljreplaces calories from fat prolongs eating time bc chewiness of food 0 Digestive tract disorders Dljprovides bulk and aids intestinal motility I Constipation diverticulosis hemorrhoids O Colon cancer Dljspeeds time through intestines and protects against prolonged exposure to carcinogens O DiabetesDElmay improve blood sugar tolerance by delaying glucose absorption 0 Heart disease Dljmay lower blood cholesterol by slowing absorption of cholesterol and binding bile Digestion order of digestive process enzymes discussed in class fate of CHO Figure 43 39 Digestive System body system composed of organs and glands associated with the 1ngestlon and process1ng of food for absorptlon of nutr1ents 1nto the body Digestion process by which foods are broken down into smaller absorbable products Absorption passage of nutrients of substances into cells or tissues Digestion continued 1 to 4 hours after a meal all starch is digested and absorbed and circulates through cells as glucose 1 Carbohydrate digestion in the Luth Dljsalivary glands secrete a watery uid in the mouth to moisten food enzyme begins to break down starch into smaller polysaccharides and maltose 2 Pancreas produces carbohydrate digesting enzymes and releases them through common bile duct into small intestine Dljenzymes split polysaccharides into disaccharides Dljenzymes on surface of cells of small intestine break down into simple sugars monosaccharaides 3 Absorption of monosaccharaides takes place in small intestine 4 Simple sugars are absorbed into blood and travel to livi l liver regulates amount of glucose circulating in the M a liver converts all monosaccharides to glucose 5 Fiber passes intact through the digestive tract through the large intestine and is eventually excreted some fiber is digested by bacteria in the large intestine What is glycogen What do we use it for Where is it stored 39 Glycogen is a polysaccharide made of many chains of glucose If there is more glucose in the blood than the cells need the liver and muscles can make and store glycogen Muscles 23 of glycogen stores use during exercise Liver 13 of glycogen stores maintains blood glucose levels Once the body s energy needs are met and glvc02en stores are full CHO are converted to fat Identify and describe the action of the hormones used to control blood glucose levels 39 Insulin hormone released from the pancreas in response to high glucose levels assists in remov1ng glucose from blood lu lagtan hormone released from the pancreas that signals the liver to release glucose in t e 00 High blood glucoseDDextra glucose converts to glycogen or body fat Low blood glucose D glucose released from glycogen stores What are the differences between Prediabetes Type 1 Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes 39 Diabetes 126 mgdL or higher 39 PreDiabetes 100125 mgdL 0 BG levels higher than normal but not in diabetes range 0 Long term damage likely occurring 0 Can prevent progression to type to DM Type 1 0 Type 2 0 Risk factors family history over age 45 overweight inactive high blood pressure abnormal cholesteroltriglycerides prediabetes history of diabetes during pregnancy 39 Gestational Review Diabetes Classification handout How do we diagnose diabetes What is insulin resistance How does Type 2 diabetes change over time 39 Testing Dljfasting test casual test 13 Insulin resistance Dljcondition in which the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively Dljglucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells D leads to type 2 DB or pre DB Over time it may damage many of the body s systems What are the main complications from uncontrolled diabetes 39 Eye disease Kidney disease Nerve disease 0 O 0 Foot ulcers 0 Amputations O Bladder and stomach problems 39 Sexual problems 0 Erectile dysfunction 0 Impotence and female sexual disfunction Describe the artificial sweeteners discussed in class including brand name Table 411 39 1879 first artificial sweetener discovered 5 sweeteners approved in US 0 AcesulfameK O Aspartame equal nutra sweet I Composed of 2 amino acids phenylanlanine and aspartic acid broken down and digested in body I Over 200 studies show safety but people born with phenylketonuria need to avoid aspartame I FDA approved for pregnant women I FDA acceptable daily intake 50 mgkg of body weight 0 Neotame DD8000 times sweeter O Saccharin sweet 11 low I Oldest artificial sweetener I Studies showed bladder cancer in rats given the amount of saccharin equal to 850 cans of soft drinks a day no link shown in humans 0 Sucralose splenda ID600 times sweeter I Manufactured by replacing 3 hydroxyl groups OH on the sugar molecule with chlorine I The chlorine atoms are exceptionally stable and prevent sucralose from being metabolized for energy 0 Stevia truvia herbal sweetener not approved as food additive I Herb in chrysanthemum family I Extract approved by FDA in 2008 whole leaf has not been approved What are the 3 main classifications of lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols Phospholipids and sterols make up 5 of lipids in our diets What are the functions of fat in the body What are the functions of fat in foods BODY Concentrated form of calories Serves as an energy reserve Major component of cell membranes Insulate the body Provide padding and protection to vital organs Nourishes skin and hair FOODS Provides calories Provides satiety Feeling of fullness or satisfaction after meals Carry fatsoluble vitamins and essential fatty acids Contribute aroma and avor Fat soluble vitamins A D E and K Dljable to live and dissolve in fats Fat substitutes difficult to find one that will replicate similar smells and tastes etc What is the structure of a triglyceride 0 What 0 Glycerol 3 fatty acids triglyceride 95 of fats in our food are in this structure Glycerol DEB carbons in each carbon there is a fatty acid attached 3 fatty acids are fatty acids What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid Chains of carbon and hydrogen Contain an acid group COOH Chain length number of carbon atoms hooked together Short chain soluble in water Long chain insoluble in water Saturation the number of hydrogen atoms in a fatty acid Anywhere between 4 and 24 carbons More than 1012 carbons we start to see the fat and water separate Dljimpact how fats work in our food and how we digest it There is no pure oil that is only one t pe of fat rather combinations of fats Saturated fatty acid full loaded w1th ydrogen atoms 39 indicates single bond 39 indicates double bond Unsaturated fatty acid 39 monounsaturated 1 point of unsaturation polyunsaturated 2 or more points of unsaturation CC is a point of unsaturation Name and describe the 2 essential fatty acids What are the health benefits of omega3 FA 39 The human body can synthesize all the fatty acids it needs from CHO PRO and fat except two Linoleic acid omega 6 O PUFA O Abundant in vegetable oils Linolenic acid omega 3 O PUFA Abundant in fish oils ax seeds 2 types of omega 3 EPA and DHA lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides slower clotforming rates enhanced defenses against cancer 000000 reduced in ammation in arthritis and asthma sufferers What role does the degree of saturationunsaturation play on foods What do food manufacturers do to alter this 39 Amount of unsaturated FA in a fat affects the temperature at which fat melts O Unsaturated more liquid 0 Saturated more solid Points of unsaturation are weak can be attacked by oxygen and turn rancid Can treat hydrogenation Add hydrogen to points of unsaturation Lose health benefits of unsaturation Can create trans fats Many food manufacturers didn t like adding oil to their foods Dljexpire quicker and taste different Double bonds are weak spots What makes phospholipids different than other fats Name and describe the common phospholipids discussed in class 39 Have a water soluble head and fat soluble tail 39 Lecithin acts as an emulsi er allows fat to suspend in water Lecithin is a natural compound Dljadded to foods to keep things from separating ranch and water What makes cholesterol different from other fats What are the functions of cholesterol It is only found in animal foods Large molecules with multiple ring structures Also made in the body Incorporated in cell membranes Makes bile Makes sex hormones Made into vitamin D Deposited in artery walls leading to plaque buildup and heart disease Digestion where it takes place enzymes discussed in class Figure 54 1 Mouth some hard fats begin to melt 2 Stomach churning action mixes fat with stomach acid lipase breaks apart a small amount of fat 3 Liver makes bile stored in gallbladder released into small intestine emulsifies fat with digestive juices 4 Pancreas produces pancreatic lipase which enters small intestine no bile in stomach not a lot of digestion there three different layers of muscle in stomach lljchum food Chylomicron O Comes from the actual fat we eat Very low density lipoproteins VLDL O Carries fat packaged or made by the liver to various body tissues 0 Fat in our body that we made too much protein etc 0 Leftover VLDL becomes LDL bad Low density lipoproteins LDL O Carries cholesterol to body cells High density lipoproteins HDL O Carries cholesterol in the blood back to the liver for recycling or disposal O HhappyDL Dljmade in our liver and is healthy for us Describe the process of plaque formation in the arteries as discussed in class What factors can cause injury to the arteries 39 Elevated blood cholesterol heart disease Atherosclerosis narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of a cholesterol containing plaque LDL cholesterol bad deposits cholesterol in the arteries 39 HDL cholesterol good reduce risk for heart attack by taking cholesterol out of the arteries What is LPL lipoprotein lipase What does it do 39 One fat cell 39 LPL is an enzyme Whose purpose is to fill cells back up With fat LPL gets triggered When we consume fat What are the American Heart Association dietary recommendations for fatcholesterol 39 Total fat 30 or less of total calories Saturated fat and trans fat 10 of total calories 39 PUFA up to 10 of total calories 39 MUFA up to 20 of total calories Dietary cholesterol less than 300 mgday on avg Name and describe the fat substitute discussed in class No single fat substitute has been developed that performs all the functions of fat Used to lower calories Found in dairy products frozen desserts baked foods cake and cookie mixes frostings Developed from protein carbohydrate fat Fat based oleanolestra 0 Synthetic fat 0 Made of sucrose and Fas 0 Provide 0 call gram 0 Interferes With absorption of fat soluble vitamins Dljlarge amounts abdominal cramping diarrhea Proteins What 0 are proteins made of What is different about them than CHO or fat Compounds composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen atoms Some also contains sulfur atoms Roles that proteins play in the body are far more varied than CHO or fat Arranged as strands of amino acids Protein eaten in excess is stored as fat All enzymes are proteins Egg White is used as standard against all other proteins What structures make up an amino acid How many are there What are essential AA Do not memorize the names of the individual amino acids building blocks of protein contain amine group nitrogen containing group acid group and chemical side chain 20 amino acids With 20 different side chains make up most of proteins of living tissues side chains vary in complexity from a single H atom to a complex ring structure Essential AA the body cannot make these 9 amino acids are essential Nonessential AA the body can make them When it has nitrogen from amine group and backbone fragments from CH0 and fat How are proteins made What type of bonds forms What happens to protein production When an AA is missing Protein synthesis condensation of two AA to form a dipeptide Dipeptide 2 amino acids Tripeptide 3 Poly 4 Name and describe the functions of body proteins 20 of our total body weight is protein enzymes antibodies 0 large proteins that are produced by one type of immune cell in response to invasion of the body by unfamiliar molecules 0 can develop an immunity to that antigen hormones 0 do not catalyze reactions directly but act as messengers that respond to maintain a normal body environment blood glucose transport vehicles 0 moves nutrients and other molecules in and out of cells oxygen carriers growth and maintenance Dljnew body tissues are made of proteins during growth loss of tissue hair and nails skin etc enzymes DALL ENZYMES are proteins Work as catalysts to help chemical reactions take place Fluid balance Dljto remain alive a cell must contain a constant amount of uid proteins attract water Protein helps with cell integrity Acidbase balance Energy source 0 Used when insufficient CH0 and fat 0 Energy deficiency is always accompanied by protein deficiency Digestion where it takes place enzymes what happens to the protein along the way Figure 61 majority of digestion occurs in small intestine 1 In the mouth chewing crushes and softens proteinrich foods and mixes them with saliva 2 Stomach acid uncoils protein strands and activates stomach enzymesdenatures the protein hydrochloric acid in our stomach that uncoils proteins 0 pepsin breaks the protein strands into dipeptides tripeptides and polypeptides O a mucous coating on the stomach wall protects the stomach s own proteins from the harsh stomach acid and proteindigesting enzymes 3 Small intestine the fragments of protein are split into free amino acids dipeptides and tripeptides with the help of enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine O enzymes on the surface of the small intestinal cells break these peptides into amino acids and they are absorbed through the microvilli of the small intestine into the blood proteases enzymes from pancreas and small intestine peptidases enzymes on the surface of small intestine 21 denaturation change in shape of protein brought on by heat alcohol acids bases salts or other agents Dljfirst step in protein breakdown How do we determine the quality of protein What standards do we use 1 Should supply at least the 9 essential AA 2 Should supply enough other AA to make the N available for the synthesis of nonessential AA the cell may need 3 Should be accompanied by enough food energy from CH0 and fat to prevent sacrifice of 1ts own AA for energy f our goal is to retain the protein and retain the amino acids we do not want to eliminate 1t protein sparing Dljnot using protein for energy but instead saving it to make enzymes etc complete proteins contain all essential AA in the right proportion relative to need an1mal and soy prote1n incomplete proteins lack or low in 1 or more essential AA limiting AA essential AA in shortest supply limits body s ability to make pro biological value assessed by determining how well a given food or mixture supports nitrogen retention reference protein egg white protein the standard for which other proteins are compared to determine quality What are complimentary proteins 2 or more food proteins whose AA assortments provide all of the essential AA 0 ex Peanut butter sandwich Recommended intakes be able to calculate the RDA for protein Veget O DRI committee 1035 total calories Recommended protein allowance RDA 8 kg of desirable body wt per day RDA Calculations Step one find desirable weight for a person s height Step two change pounds to kg divide by 22 Step three multiply kg by 8 gkg arian diets pros and cons Know the types of vegetarian diets Table 62 Goals obtain neither too few nor too many calories Obtain adequate quantities of complete protein Obtain the needed vitamins and minerals Pros vegetarian protein foods are higher in fiber richer in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat compared to meats If done correctly lower rates of heart disease cancer diabetes and obesity More likely to be at desirable weight lower cholesterol levels and lower blood pressure Types 39 Semivegetarian 0 Some but not all animal products 39 Lactovegetarian 0 Milk and milk products are included 0 Meat poultry seafood and eggs are excluded 39 Lactoovovegetarian 0 Milk and milk products and eggs included 0 Meat poultry seafood excluded Ovovegetarian 0 Eggs are included 0 Milk milk products meat seafood excluded 39 Strict vegetarianvegan o All animal foods excluded 39 Macrobiotic diet 0 Extremely restrictive diet based on metaphysical beliefs and consisting mostly of legumes Whole grains and certain vegetables
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