Exam 1 study guide weeks 1-5
Exam 1 study guide weeks 1-5 SOCI 101S - 02
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SOCI 101S - 02
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Huguet on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 101S - 02 at University of Montana taught by Staff Staff (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Sociology 101 study guide Exam 1 Sociology scientific study of social forces what goes on between people study of society social interactions at all social levels Pattern sum of things that are recurring form a tendency consistent in the area being studied generalizing specific things does not mean majority Inductive Method infer a pattern from individual instances of a phenomenon Deductive Method opposite of inductive pattern to specific instance usually starts as a guess using the pattern come up with a hypothesis for individual instances Synchronicallv snapshot of a certain society view on a pattern at a certain time eX 1950s traditional family Dad works Mom at home with kids in 2014 only 10 of families fit into the pattern displayed in that snapshot Longitudinal Study study over time ex changes in the family from 1950s traditional to the family setup now Pattern versus Homogeneity homogeneity means it is not simple a pattern of most people but it is all people Correlation relationship 0 Positive correlation The two variables increase together or decrease together eXthe amount of fat increases as the amount of food consumed increases 0 Negative correlation The two variables increase and decrease in the opposite direction of each other ex the higher the temperature gets the less snow will be found Polygamy 0 Two types 0 Polygyny multiple wives many reasons esp more kids 0 Polyandry Multiple husbands usually for economic basis 0 Most dominant pattern in the entire world is Polygamy polygyny 0 Sororal polygyny is multiple wives and the wives are sisters Benefits of this pecking order is already established 0 Serial monogamy marry over and over lot of divorces too usually Kinship and descent o Bilateral 2 sides Kinship o Mothers family AND fathers family are considered kin 0 Unilateral one side Unilineal one line I Rules 0 Siblings are in the same kin group 0 Father and children are in the same kin group 0 Mother is not with the father and children 0 Matrilineal I Rules 0 Mother and children are in the same kin group 0 Father is not with the father and children Exogamy must marry outside of your social group kin Endogamy Must marry inside of your social group kin Child preference patterns Typically in world woman will leave everything behind after marriage thus males are more desired American little preference sometimes want male Ratio more men than women in many cultures 0 High rate of men to women leads to bare branches aka men not continuing their bloodlines Infanticide infant death 0 Can be Indirect girls are disadvantaged from birth boys treated better get more food love nurturing 0 According to the UN more than 100 million girls are missing aka died early I Infanticide femicide if female infants I Sexselective abortion choosing to abort a child based on its sex One child policy in China 0 Has prevented 400 million births o Hukou is the household registration extra children are usually left unregistered to avoid fines this causes the extra children to not have health insurance education etc 0 300000 officials hired to enforce the one child policy 0 Some extra restrictions can include I Women getting IUDs I Men getting a vasectomy 0 Changing if both parents were the only child in their family they may have two kids Religion and gender Religion depicts women as lesser beings God generally seen as MALE o Reinforce Patriarchy o Gods messengers usually seen as male 0 Females appear in religion in a story told by a man or as a concern of a man 0 Propaganda encourages life as a wife and mother discourages and life other than that leads to unhappiness o Patriarchy sexist ideology economic political cultural and legal structures that breed gender inequality 0 After the birth of a child Temple deems women unfit to enter it for a short amount of time time determined by the gender of the child 0 Son 7 days 0 Daughter 14 days Bible Compilation of many types of literature it s not the scriptures themselves that lead to inequality but the way they are interpreted o Literally the book is the word of god directly 0 Allegorically the book is stories to learn lessons from 0 Historically the book is a re ection of the time it was written in 0 Can be interpreted individually or as a combination of the three 0 Conservative and fundamentalist strains of a religion are the ones that tend towards inequality they tend to interpret readings literally 0 Liberal strains are more likely to interpret readings allegorically or historically 0 Women are often kept separate from men while practicing their religion Political patterns of inequality 0 In NO country do women have the same political power as men 0 Even in Matrilineal descent men hold more positions of power 0 Women in positions of power tend to vote more liberal and have more concern for families children healthcare and education 0 UN estimates that to effect main policies women need to represent 30 of any voting body 0 Gender wage gap difference in pay between women and men despite no difference in schooling or experience 0 Congress is exempt from laws that prevent different pay based on sex 0 Glass ceiling the idea that women can move up in their career to a certain point but despite being able to see the options to move up further they will not be able to Situational behavior 0 People will behave differently in different situations whether it is subconscious or conscious o Pygmalion effect expectations affect the situation Divinationtechniques to gain knowledge of present or future symbo anything that represents something else or holds meaning also called a signifier symbol system set of interdependent and interrelated elements that function together If you change one element it will affect the meaning of the rest They are arbitrary Ex chess pieces languages math music clothing food Things that can be symbolical objects letters numbers shapes body language social space colors directions actions pictures Symbols can be subjective or objective subjective different meaning to different people obj ective measurable countable exact Always meaning the same thing Symbols The symbol and what it is signifying do not need to relate to each other Multivocality multiple meaning for one symbol Example the moon can mean birth and death 0 Multiple meanings can be within cultures 0 Multiple meanings can be different meanings between different cultures Unification of opposition a few of the meanings represented by a single symbol can be opposites eX Red life and birth anger and joy Condensation some symbols can represent everything that exists such as a circle or the infinity circle Social space Space can be a part of nonverbal communication The Moon The professor LOVES the moon Inexhaustible in its own regeneration Associated with water tides morning dew Associated with fertility The body as a symbol Above is positive and is associated with o Heavens stars god Aristotle says nature grows UPward in its strive for perfection Get UP in the morning Start of something new Stand UP for something versus standing down UPgrade means to improve OOOOO 0 Higher status or upper class 0 Move UP the social ladder o Belowdown is negative and is associated with o Lowly o Impoverished o Depressed 0 Hell is below 0 Right is positive and is associated with White Good Conscious Solar Logic Correct morally and judicially Strong Active Sacred right side of body is arranged toward any shrine Circumambulation in India walking around someone or something always clockwise so that your right side faces inward Also in Tibet around the home of the Dalai Lama called Potala Place 0 M 0 Left is negative and is associated with Black Bad Unconscious Lunar Emotion Weak Evil Inactive Witchcraft I Witchs cry out of the left eye I Most witches are female Profane Slave Protocol while eating left hand limp in lap is etiquette Associated with sematicallv ambiguous things things that cannot be put into one of the two categories inside of the body or outside of the body because they can be both eX bodily uids 0 Wipe with your left hand in some cultures 0 female 0 Forward is positive and is associated with o Illuminated OOOOOOOOOO 000000000 0000 Form Order Superior rank Known 0 leader 0000 0 Behind is negative and is associated with 0 Slow Inept Inactive Formless Slave Unknown Disordered Follower OOOOOOO Study methods 1 ParticipantObservation a Participate and observe at the same time b Need to watch out for Front stage behavior people act differently generally what is considered best behavior while someone is watching them c If you participate at all you affect and in uence the group 2 Complete participant a If you participate at all you affect and in uence the group b Watch out for front stage behavior c It is possible that you will not get the truth 3 Complete observer a People do not know that you are observing them b You miss out on subjective data why things are being saiddone jokes ect Hypothesi An educated guess about a relationship between 2 or more variables must be testable Experimental groups each group has a different type of the variable being changed 0 Control group group without the stimulus or independent variable Treatment variable another term for the independent variable Good study must control for keep the same extraneous variable keep out any other possible variables or things that could affect the study Replicability ability to replicate the study exactly Operationalize the variables define exactly and determine how to measure Need to be able to determine which variable is causal and which is being effected The Hajj is the annual religious journey to Mecca for Islamic members hopefully at least once in a lifetime Placebo fake drug sometimes sugar pill Single blind study subjects in the study do not know what group they are in thus mentality cannot affect the outcome Double blind study single blind study plus those interacting with the participants do not know which group everyone is in this eliminates the possibility of the administrators treating participants differently based on group placement Functionalism 0 Views society as an organism o Functionally interrelated parts 0 Problems 0 If everything is perfect you wouldn t ever change 0 Upholds the status quo 0 Very conservative o poverty is good should be kept as part of society note there are some benefits to having a lower class eX people to worker more menial jobs Systems theory 0 Set of 2 or more interdependent and interrelated elements that function together System 0 Closed system a lot of effort goes in to keeping what is inside the system IN and what is outside OUT high boundary maintenance EX Amish 0 Open system only a small amount of effort goes in to keeping what is inside the system IN and what is outside OUT low boundary maintenance Con ict theory 0 Con ict is everywhere 0 Many forms physical disagreements competition 0 Many reasons resources power 0 Looks at who benefits from a particular pattern and at whose expense identify dominant and subordinate groups 0 Karl Marx 0 Used a dialectic model of viewing society I Thesis any idea I Antithesis any idea will call up its opposite idea I Synthesis out of all con ict comes a new better idea Symbolic interactionism 0 Focus on symbols and how people think construct meaning 0 Definitions of the situation how you view a situation determines what it means to you o if we de ne something as real it is real in its consequences The Amish are very closer to each other nature and god They resist progress and stay humble in the difficult work they do Without much assistance
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