Infant Cognitive Development I & II
Infant Cognitive Development I & II CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Infant Cognitive Development I amp ll September 29 2015 1 Physical Growth There are changes in body size amp development amp in the muscles amp bones as well as in the brain Size amp shape US babies lengths roughly double amp their weights increase 5 or 6 times during the rst 2 years of life The Musculoskeletal System As babies grow the babies amp muscles needed to support their increasing bulk amp mobility undergo corresponding growth The bones in the hand amp wrist are among the rst to ossify They harden by the end of the rst year making it easier for a baby to grasp objects pick them up amp play with them Factors affect motor development Brain maturation Capabilities of body Desire to explore 2 With practice their ne motor coordination gradually improves although there are marked individual differences in the rapidity amp vigor of their reaching movements At about 5 months of age infants can gauge when an object is beyond their reach amp they no longer attempt to reach for it As their reaching 7 grasping become better coordinated amp more precise babies exploration of object become more re ned 3 Motor development Baby can participate more fully in such daily activities as feeding amp dressing The baby can get into drawers cupboards amp other spaces that may contain dangerous object Cognitive development Discover things by manipulating objects once they can coordinate their reaching amp grosping Mobility allows for much broader territory for exploring Social Development Elicit more responses from caregiver Joint attention 4 Infants may reach for an object but fail to close their hands around it usually because they close their hands too soon Then around 3 months of age babies begin to gain voluntary control over their movements so reaching amp grasping occur in the proper sequence As babies gain control over their hands different objects invite different kinds of exploration banging shaking squeezing amp throwing All of these actions provide the baby with knowledge about the properties of the physical world Perceptual motor exploration is an allimportant way to nd out about the environment amp to gain control over it 5 No Beginning crawlers have DP but no fear of heights Visual Cliff experiments Campos Factors Experiments fallsnever falls Parent warnings Social Referencing looking to caregiver for information 6 Infants cognitive abilities Aquiver knowledge through motor behaviors Guided by sensory perception Acting on the world around them Recall mobile kicking study Main limitation no mental representation acc To Piaget until approaching the end of the Sensorimotor Stage Piaget s Sensorimotor Stage 1 01 12 months Exercising re exive schemas involuntary rooting sucking grasping looking 2 1 12 4 months Primary circular reactions Reception of actions that are pleasurable 3 48 months Secondary circular reactions dawning awareness of relation of own action actions environment extended actions that produce interesting changes in the environment 4 812 months Coordination of secondary circular reactions Combing schemas to achieve a desired effect earliest form of problem solving 5 1218 months Tertiary circular reactions Deliberate variation of problemsolving means experimentation to see what the consequences will be 6 1824 months Beginning of symbolic representation images amp words come to stand for familiar objects invention of new means of problem solving through symbolic combinations 7 Challenges May have underestimated infant s knowledge Tasks sometimes required more than cognitive ability or a different cognitive ability Object permanence with the toy on top of the cloth Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight lnfants less than 8 months fail to search for toy hidden under cloth 8 In the environment of 39Toy under the cloth infants under 8 months of age fail to search for the toy they seems do not understand the objects continue to exist when out of sight But recall from other experiment infants look longer at something they perceive to be impossible which researcher found is weird An alternative test of object permanence Baillargon 1986 Habituation Event Car runs down track behind screen Possible Event Block is placed out of car s path Impossible Event Block is placed in car s path Results Both 65 amp 8 months old look longer at the impossible event Conclusion Maybe infants do understand that objects continue to exist when out of sight 9 Dynamic systems approach Insufficient perceptualmotor coordination Different for infants to overcome motor memory of success at location A eg riding a bike eg Doing something which are different from what you use to do 10 lnfants understand physical laws lnfants understand support They understand contact is necessary Understand causation Understand cause amp effect Causal event one square bumping into another object object moved delay between pumping amp movement Results looked longer at noncausal event Conclusion lnfants have some understanding of cause amp effect 11 Toy birds vs Toy airplanes 9 to 11 months old respond to toy birds amp airplanes as members of different categories despite the perceptual similarities the toy birds all had outstretched wings amp looked like the airplanes Babies 9 to 11 months old respond to them as members of diferent categories despite their perceptual similarity 12 Reasoning about number Can infants distinguish 2 vs 3 objects Starkey 1992 Subjects 69 months olds Test event All babies saw 2 objects on rst trial then 3 objects on nexttnal Results If habituated to 2 objects looked longer at 3 objects If habituated to 3 objects looked longer at 2 objects 13 Carolyn Rovee Collier amp her colleagues have demonstrated that infants memory increases rapidly during the rst year of life The researches trained babies between ages 2 amp 6 months of age to kick in order to make an overhead mobile move The researches found that 2 montholds started kicking immediately following a 24 hour delay but seem to forget the procedure if the delay lasted 3 days Memory for the task was better in 3 month old amp better yet in 6 month olds who remembered their training 2 weeks later but not 3 weeks later Researches believe that the improvement in infant memory is a continuous process that does not involve any new principles of learning or remembering Young infants move from relying on implicit memory which allows them to recognize what they have experience before to acquiring the ability to use explicit memory which allows them to recall absent objects amp events without any clear reminder 14 It is not the case that 1 yearolds have better sustain attention than the 2 year olds Rather 1 year olds need more time to process the information Research indicates that with increasing age there is a decrease in the amount of time that babies speed looking at simple patterns of gures
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