Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide
Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide COMM370010
Popular in Theories of Mass Communication
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views.
Reviews for Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/03/15
Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide THE BASICS Theory set of related propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena specifying relationships among concepts What do humans do with theories 0 O O 0 Understand why things happen Reduce uncertainty Explain Predict how connections between phenomena can be expected to in uence each other Why are they even important 0 Industries use them want to know how people react to mass communication The general population uses them either intentionally or unintentionally people learn certain things lessons from mass communication The government uses them want to see how mass communication in uences people s views Naive theory theories that have not been proven by science or scientific theory These are instead based on 0000 Intuition based on your personal values Authority based on people with power in uence over you Tradition tenacity based on long held beliefs Naive observation based on seeing something work once and thinking that s how it works every time Errors in naive observation 0 Inadequate sample you need a big enough sample to generalize for the whole population Inadequate attention observing and seeing what you want to see Overgeneralization can t generalize based on what happens to one group Bias in observation personal beliefs get in the way Illogical reasoning assuming something that doesn t follow logic for the sake of finding a connection between events Premature closure just accepting an observation and moving on without thinking it through Why is Science Better Systematic methods have been proven and are not haphazard Rational based on reasonable assumptions conclusions Selfcorrecting theories are continually tested for repeatability Cumulative builds on theories that came before Empirical normally quantifiable Public true science is not done for the individual Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Tools of Science IMPORTANT SECTION DON T CONFUSE THESE Concepts an abstract idea used to connect related observations 0 Ex love number color 9 can t show present to someone Constructs combination of concepts created for a specific situation 0 Ex romance and behavior are two concepts 9 Romantic Behavior construct Operational definitions behavior and procedures used to measure a concept 0 Ex a punch measures aggression Variables phenomenon that varies and can be measured 0 Ex number of punches MASS COMMUNICATION How Theories Can Differ Ontology what is knowable nature of reality being 0 Determining what items exist or potentially exist Epistemology how knowledge is created and expanded o Focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge 0 Creation of new knowledge 0 Includes skepticism about what we know Axiology proper role of values in research and theory building 0 Science of human values this is what in uences our perception decisions and eventually actions 0 Basically it s why we do what we do Communication Theory Categories Postpositivism based on empirical observation guided by scientific method 0 From hard sciences knowledge can only be gained through observable phenomena 0 Follows positivism in theory but with the added factor that observations are not necessarily constant between people Cultural theory study of understanding especially by interpreting action and text 0 Goal is to understand how and why behavior occurs in social world Critical theory seeks change in dominant social order 0 Goal is not to explain or predict social world or even understand it 0 Goal is to gain knowledge of the social world in order to change it 0 These theorists see media as a tool of those in power and analyze how they used media to control and restrict how people see the social world Normative theory explains how a media system should operate to conform to a set of ideal social values 0 Sets standards for social interactions Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Propaganda Propaganda is the control of an opinion using significant symbols 0 This can be done by manipulating human actions or beliefs through songs visuals etc 0 Typically this is done in the best interest of the persuader not the target audience they re trying to convince them of their view Magic bullet theory audience members who are isolated from one another were more susceptible to in uence from the propaganda o This is because they can t really talk it out with other people to figure out what they really like about the propaganda Inoculation theory by exposing someone to small doses of opposing arguments people will become more comfortable arguing their point of View 0 This helps them to develop the necessary skills to defend their point of view so they won t be swayed by propaganda campaigns Children and the Media Payne Fund Studies 1920s and 30s 0 Examined effects of movies on children in uence on their emotions attitudes values etc Sex and violence 0 Children deemed more impressionable fear that children will imitate violence because of their inclination to imitate what they see MASS COMMUNICATION MODELS Model consciously simplified theoretical representation of a concept of some aspect in the real world either in words or a diagram Two basic kinds 0 Structural model visual representation of something s structure I Ex model of an atom 9 electrons neutrons nucleus etc 0 Model of a process visual process of how something occurs I Ex Aristotle s model of communication examines how a speaker communicates a message Invention 9 Arrangement 9 Style 9 Delivery of Message Purposes of Models 0 To organize o Predictive o Heuristic can be learning devices 0 Measurement Limitations of models 0 Simplistic sometimes oversimplifying concepts 0 Often incomplete Shannon Weaver Model Based on information theory a theory of signal transmission Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Start with an information source group of people with a given purpose Purpose must be translated into some kind of code through the use of an encoder Pass through some sort of Feedback channel voice written etc 4 4 39 0 However there is potential for noise in ShannonWeaver Model the transmission I Noise something that blocks the transmission of the encoded message in some way I Physical noise loud car drives by as you re talking I Semantic noise other s knowledge level or communication skills stop them from getting the message ex distraction language barriers wrong emphasis in message attitudes towards sender message Next message enters a decoder to allow the receiver to understand it 0 Ex getting an email in Arabic you can physically see the message but you can t understand it without a decoder Finally someone must be at the other end to act as a receiver of the message 0 You receive some kind of feedback through different signals from the receiver ex head nods verbal confirmation etc Feedback travels back to the source to complete the cycle Quick Notes on Information Theory Signal is what actually travels Channel is how the signal travels Channel capacity is the channel s ability to transmit the info well 0 Channels have an upper limit you can t give TMI GROUPS AND MASS COMMUNICATION People are social beings we seek groups There are three basic kinds of groups Primary groups long standing intimate face to face relations 0 Ex sports team fraternity sorority Reference group group you identify with and base yourself against but are not necessarily a member of 0 Ex before joining a frat you may dress or act like members in it to later become a member Causal groups one time group of people who did not know each other before they were brought together Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide 0 EX people you re with on an airplane Groups Effects Muzafer Sherif first to study in uence of groups on conformity he studied norms shared rules standards within a group o Autokinetic Light Effect Study I Participants placed in completely dark room I Suddenly light it turned on perceived as moving when it isn t really because of how it came out of nowhere I Participants would say how far it moved and all formed their own individual standards I Their standards alone versus in groups were different I In groups people would change their estimates and group norms formed 0 Conclusion groups have effects on perception Soloman E Asch studied group dynamics group effects on declarations how groups in uenced individual s will opinions etc 0 Wanted a less ambiguous test than Sherif s light study 0 Created line study one card with one line another with three 0 Second card had letters corresponding to different letters A 0 Individuals got the correct letter 35 of the time o Asch then put some of his own people into the study and told them to give the wrong answers I More than 3A of people gave wrong answers once they were put into these groups I This was so they would avoid standing out from the group I This happened in both large and small groups 0 When at least one other person another scientist gave the right answer people would respond correctly with their own intuition Kurt Lewin considered the founder of group dynamics 0 Studied group effects on persuasion 0 Did the study on getting housewives to change their meat buying habits I Lecture group would receive oral sessions about prep nutrition etc about the new meat product I Group discussion group would talk amongst themselves about recipes reception to the meals etc I Women in group discussions were found to be more likely to change their buying habits Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Other Group In uences Group polarization tendency of people to make more extreme decisions than normal when they are in a group Social loafing people make less effort in groups because they assume everyone else will do enough 0 This occurs too because individual contributions to a group are not necessarily evaluated as heavily as the final group contributions Groupthink reaching a consensus based only on avoiding con ict among group members 0 Avoiding embarrassment judgement from others upsetting the group balance 0 Put your opinions to the side to keep the peace Why Do These Group In uences Happen Social Comparison Theory idea that there is a drive within individuals to look at outside images to evaluate our own ideas and opinions 0 We do this out of fear of isolation don t want to feel separated cast out from the group Theory of Idiosyncrasy Credit a credit is the positive perceptions of a person earned from others within a group 0 Earn credits by showing confidence and helping achieve group goals 0 You can build up credit so that any nonconformity later can be more easily forgiven Implications for Mass Communication Social Identification Theory defining a social group as two or more individuals with common social identification or perceiving themselves to be members of the same group 0 Doesn t have to be physical can happen through self evaluation Mass media gives ideal group attitudes which push people to think the media s idea of the best way for a group to act is the right way Media depict groups in con ict over issues people see certain points of view and either side with one group or conform their ideas to fit one side s norms Group opinion norms can get exaggerated because media tends to interview the most extreme members of these groups Bandwagon Effects Propaganda device that attempts to shift public opinion occurs when people join a certain group to avoid being outcast or outside of norms Why does this occur 0 Pressures to conform to norms maintain membership 0 anitive dissonance uncomfortable tension that comes from having two con icting thoughts at the same time 0 Spiral of silence opinions in the minority are not shared Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide I Spiral occurs because one person won t share opinion because media won t cover it so others won t speak up to avoid isolation and so on Erie County Voting Study 1940 Different groups of voters chosen to vote at different times to see which events in uenced their decisions Interpersonal discussions were found to be more in uential than media They found opinion leaders people who were more exposed to election info from newspapers radio and magazines These opinion leaders spread their views to the followers who turned to them for guidance This became known as twostep ow mass media 9 opinion leaders 9 followers Why Was Two Step Flow a Good Model Healthy view of people in democracy people get views of other individuals rather than straight from the media Opinion leaders act as filters for information from the media Caused society to shift from isolated mass audience to networks of interconnected people Criticisms of Two Step Flow Mass media can directly reach people Opinion leaders may have opinion leaders of their own besides media n step ow the model is an oversimplification More often it s opinion sharing not opinion giving DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS Diffusion spread of information throughout society system Innovation new and or improved idea practice or product Primary theorist Everett Rogers Dvorak Keyboard Placement of keys made it easier to type faster and with less fatigue But it didn t successfully diffuse into society 9 there was no perceived need for it in society How can needs be created perceived 0 Through advertisements or period or crisis challenge Characteristics of Innovations These affect how quickly new ideas products are adopted into society Relative advantagg degree to which innovation is perceived as better than what is already in place Compatibility degree to which innovation is perceived to be consistent with our values needs past experiences etc Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Complexity how difficult an innovation is to understand or use 0 If highly complex diffusion into society is unlikely Trialabilitg how easy it is to experiment with a product able to get multiple uses to practice with it Observability how visible results of results of an innovation are Stages of Innovation Decision Process Step 1 Knowledge 0 We have to be exposed to the innovation and have some understanding of how it works Step 2 Persuasion 0 Need to form an attitude about the innovation ideally positive Step 3 Decision 0 Choose to accept or reject integration of innovation Step 4 Implementation 0 If you accept innovation need to get it and use it in everyday life Step 5 Confirmation 0 Did you make the right choice 0 If yes 9 keep using it Go you 0 If no 9 change your mind and reject the innovation Difference from Two Step Flow Used in an attempt to describe new ideas technologies rather than opinions abstract concepts Diffusion of innovation is a multi step process Homophilg how alike pairs of individuals are sharing socioeconomic background religion etc two step ow Heterophily how different pairs of individuals are diffusion of innovations Change agent professional who attempts to persuade you to adopt the innovation 0 Often heterophilous from their clients which is why they often have to change their views to adopt it MEDIAMORPHOSIS Mediamorphosis the transformation of communication media usually brought about by the complex interplay of perceived needs competitive and physical pressures and social and technological innovations Started with studying the internet as a new technology Then was retroactively expanded to view the history of television radio etc What pressures and barriers must pass to become adopted by a society Six fundamental principles 0 Coevolution and coexistence new technology over time in uences new media filled roles of TV and radio Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Metamorphosis new media comes about by evolving from old media slowly over time not all at once 0 Propagation emerging formats of communication technologies use some of the dominant traits from earlier forms 0 Survival forms of media forced to adapt as technology advances Opportunity and need if no perceived need the new tech will fail o Delayed adoption takes one human generation to go from proof of concept 9 diffused application in society 0 Delayed Adoption 30YearRule proof of concept takes 30 years to become widely adopted Comes in three stages 0 1st decade lots of excitement and hoopla not much penetration into society 0 2nd decade beginning of penetration into society prices fall 0 3r01 decade standard technology that everyone has and you re weird if you don t have it Technomyopia inability to see the future of a technology 0 Slows adoption down because manufacturers worry about now and not the future so they won t invest in new products right away Supervening Social Necessities ways that society and technology interface that can help spread new technology 0 Needs of companies what companies need to do to survive adapt 0 Requirement of old technologies actual equipment needs to adapt 0 Regulatory and legal actions laws and practices assist in evolution of technology 0 General social forces actions in society that deem new technology necessary Law of Suppression of Radical Potential societal forces that can slow down stop spread of new technologies 0 Same four reasons as above can also slow down or sti e advancement of technology depending on how companies gov t reacts MASS MEDIA AND SOCIETY Societal institution things that are established or valued within our society and shape the beliefs of many members of society Ex family education religion media Mass media differs from these other institutions in How it operates Its relationship to each individual within a society How it relates to other institutions 0 Interconnects with other institutions Acts as general sphere of knowledge in society Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Operates as part of public sphere people interact with it daily Open accessible in theory to all members of society Have long term in uences Media Society Links Society as a window physical way to see the world as it s happening Society as a mirror re ection of what has happened in our society Society as a filter or gatekeeper those responsible for media determine what you will hear or see Society as a signpostguideinterpreter mass media digests information and makes it understandable to audience Society as a platform or forum way to get messages opinions out to a wide audience Society as a screenbarrier elitist mechanism that serves only certain segments of our population NORMATIVE THEORIES OF MEDIA AND SOCIETY These discuss what is right and wrong desirable or undesirable just or unjust in society There are different ways of describing how media is ideally integrated into society Authoritarian Libertarian THEWORST THING ABOUT Oldest most common worldwide Media serve to protect established social order Media tightly controlled and subordinate to authorities Censorship and other controls are common and I P justified Media have no independence I S o thmxmiuz Seen as a reaction opposite to Authoritarianism Media serve as a public forum for discussion of issues 0 No restrictions on content 0 Media freedom valued Private ownership of the media laissez faire no gov t control Public and universal access to the media Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Soviet Totalitarianism Media must be controlled and owned by communist gov t Media is there to broadcast propaganda which furthers the goals of the communist party No criticism of Soviet party or 7 leadership allowed Social Responsibility Content that might cause crime violence or civil disorder must be avoided value media responsibility Media should be as diverse as society it serves Gov t allowed reasonable control with limited intrusion Other Smaller Types Developmental Media 0 Media has light gov t control to foster social improvement 0 Education and information are highest priorities Democratic Participant o Small scale interactive and participative media are better than large one way professional media 0 Local groups should have their own media Citizen Journalism This is when individual non professionals can put their opinions and what they see Examples mailing lists blogs YouTube Implications of Normative Systems In each system 0 Media are typically agents of those with political and economic power 0 Media content re ects interests of those financing the media 0 Regardless of system those within system argue that media serve social responsibility of its audience Structural Functionalism Media are necessary and serve functions in society have a purpose Functions of mass communication include surveillance correlation socialization and entertainment Surveillance media monitors the environment 0 How does it work I Acts as a warning Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide I Exposes people to media s idea of norms o How does it not work I Makes people more anxious I Makes people desensitized I Can be overwhelming if overexposed Correlation editorial activity 0 How does it work I Enforces social norms I Impedes threats to social stability I Checks on gov t o How does it not work I Increases ideas of conformity and perpetuates stereotypes I Creates pseudoevents event or activity that exists solely for the purpose of media publicity I Minimizes criticism which would be constructive Socialization transmission of culture 0 How does it work 9 promotes social cohesion o How does it not work 9 promotes homogeneity and depersonalizes individuals Entertainment media as diversion relaxation amusement o How does it work I Fills leisure time I Creates mass culture connections bonds 0 How does it not work I Lowers taste because needs to appeal to masses I Unhealthy commercial links Feminist Approaches Radical feminism focuses on patriarchy as system of power opposes standard gender roles calls for radical reordering of society 0 Believe there should be separate media for men and women which would meet each group s needs Liberal feminism focuses on women s ability to maintain equality through their own actions and choices 0 To improve women s place in society equalize media images not necessarily create new separate media Media Hegemony Hegemony the in uence or dominance over others Media content reinforces status quo those who advocate change are deviant Hegemonic masculinity behaviors and beliefs that are expected of men and considered normal behaviors Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide PERCEPTIONS Perception the complex process by which people select organize and interpret stimulation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world Two basic in uences 0 Structural from physical aspects of what you re exposed to 0 Functional psychological factors in uencing personal perceptions Subliminal Perception This is the notion that people can be in uenced by things they re not even aware they re perceiving This is a controversial theory because some people feel it takes away their control seems like a violation of trust Based on human perceptual limits long enough for subconscious mind to process but short enough that your eyes don t process it James Vicray one of the first to study this 0 Used double movie projectors with the ad overlayed for l 300031 of a second 0 Claimed an increase in popcorn sales 0 However later came to say he made it up Wilson Bryan Key wrote books in 1970s examining use of subliminal perception in advertising 0 He was the Clam Bake Orgy guy 0 Sexualized images apparently subtly included in ads to arouse consumers o A lot of what he said has been discredited because it was based on his own perceptions Little scientific support validity exists to support subliminal perception Selective Exposure Tendency for people to expose themselves in messages that are in agreement with existing attitudes and to avoid those that aren t Cognitive consistency approaches individuals only want to expose themselves to messages with some kind of consistency between their beliefs and what they see Want to avoid cognitive dissonance Heider s Balance Theory 0 If we like someone and also like an object we hope that person likes that object o Feels uncomfortable when someone you like likes something you do not emotional turmoil 0 You will either 1 reason with yourself that you like the person less or 2 you like the object more than you do to balance it out Festinger s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance o Uncomfortable feeling that occurs when someone has two thoughts that don t mesh at once 0 New information can be irrelevant consonant or dissonant Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Reactions to dissonant information I Discount the information I Reinterpret the information to make it fit your beliefs 0 Case for selective exposure you will avoid dissonant information to avoid psychological discomfort Selective Perception Tendency for people s perception to be in uenced by their own wants needs attitudes or psychological factors Eye 9 mental picture camera Ames Distorted Room 0 Apparent position of one person viewed differently than their actual position because of how room is shaped 0 Based on assumed norms governing how a room is typically set up Culture can play a role in selective perception o Binocular rivalry one image presented to one eye very different image presented to the other your brain switches between two images so quickly that it makes them seem superimposed on one another 0 People of different cultures involved in such experiments will often say they first see the image associated with their culture even though both images presented at the same time 0 Food deprivation studies groups couldn t eat for different amounts of time then image was presented in low light I There was no actual image people who didn t eat for longer gave more food related answers Preexisitng attitudes also affect perception based on group affiliation personal values etc Selective Retention Tendency to recall things in accordance with prior attitudes wants needs and schemas Schema a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world CONCENTRATION OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP Some media are owned by organizations whose prime business is nonmedia Ex GE bought RCA to try to gain control of NBC network once they did they sold the rest of the networks What s bad about this 0 Cutting costs to maximize profits can be bad for entertainment industry 0 If people can t get involved in corporate business they re kind of out of luck for getting into entertainment 0 Corporate groups tend to choose national news over local news Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Newspapers will re ect more of the views of the parent companies 0 Along the same line media may be reluctant to report on stories involving parent sibling organizations 0 Credibility about corporate activities is lessened because they have bias in the media What s good about it 0 Can give more resources to local newspaper industries because they have the local news people want 0 It promotes synergy in business two or more companies come together and their force together is greater than that of them separately Legal Controls Media organizations are subject to gov t restrictions 0 What can and can t be aired may be limited based on who it might offend or make look bad News organizations can be sued if they air certain stories that reveal secret company information Propaganda Model Private media is viewed as a business selling product to other businesses 0 Readers and audiences 9 product being sold to advertisers 9 other businesses News is filtered to serve as propaganda in five main ways 0 Ownership wealth connections that exist among mass media I Back to large corporations buying media companies I Concentration of ownership forms with the best interest being that of the conglomerates want to increase profits I There are outsider members on company boards those who don t have a background in entertainment industry I 6 largest media conglomerates Comcast Disney News Corp Time Warner Viacom CBS own 90 of media in US 0 Advertising I Viewed as a subsidy monetary gift provided by companies to media I Preference for middle upper class since they can buy things I Promotes pro business model advertisers see news programming as filler I They avoid serious issues informants and entertainment 0 Reliance on sources I Important as source of reports exclude judgements only facts I Needs to be an appearance of objectivity needs to be an expert so as not to provide distorted information I Media uses sources that have power and insider knowledge Theories of Mass Communication Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Flack concerning and intentional efforts to manage public information I Basically negative responses to the media I May come from advertisers or official gov t I Much ack originates from conservative groups 0 AntiIdeologies I Has evolved from the original writings from the propaganda model I Originally thought of as anti Communism before USSR collapse I Political and social ideologies different from our own are viewed as an ultimate evil 0 These can be real or imagined I Media focuses on abuses of those who believe in these ideologies o Ignores abuses of US Allies Expectations of News Audiences expect accuracy News must be free of judgement and outside opinions Avoid slanted skewed reporting report both sides of an issue Contributors of News Inaccuracies Deadlines people cut corners Competition facts aren t always checked in interest of saving time Editing is done by an outsider to the story
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'