Comm 1113 Exam 1 Study Guide Filled out
Comm 1113 Exam 1 Study Guide Filled out COMM 1113-001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rodney Wines on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1113-001 at University of Oklahoma taught by John Banas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Principles of Communication in Business at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Communication 1113 Study Guide Chapter I 0 The needs communication fulfills 1 Fulfills Rational needs Essential elements we look for in a relationship 2 Fulfills Identity needs The way we communicate shapes who we are 3 Fulfills Spiritual Needs Morals and meanings o How is meaning created 1 Humans give sounds and writing meaning 0 Various models that explain the communication process 1 Action Model The message is only traveling in one direction Sender to Receiver 2 Interactional Model Same as the action model except it adds The feedback and context element 3 Communication as Transactional Model Does not include the source or receiver communication is owing in both directions at the same time Communication has many characteristics Multiple Channels Filters Communication Meaning Message IntentionalUnintentional Dispelling some communication myths Everyone is a communication expert 91 of Americans believe they are experts in r AOBUJNH communicating 2 Communication will solve any problem Wrong many relationships like on Dr Phil need less 3 Communication can breakdown Communication isn t a car computer it s more of a process 4 Communication is inherently good Communication for positive purposes can be good 5 More Communication is better when there are genuine disagreements more talk doesn t always help Most likely to lead to anger 0 Building your communication competence 1 Ability to understand others thoughts and feelings 2 Cognitive Complexity Ability to consider a variety of explanations in a given situation 3 Communicators and Ethics Knowing if something is morally wrong or not Chapter 2 o What is culture 1 The totality of learned shared symbols language values and norms that distinguishes one group of people from another 0 Acquiring a culture l Enculturation the process of which we gain culture by learning traditions values and norms 0 How culture affects communication 1 Emphasis placed on individuals vs groups Communicative context Power distance Views about masculinity and femininity and rolls Orientation towards time ONUlPUJN Uncertainty avoidance Communication with cultural awareness Being Open Minded about cultural differences Knowledge about different commutation codes Be exible and Respectful mNHo Chapter 3 o The perceptual process 1 Selection process which mind and body help isolate certain stimuli to pay attention 2 Organization Classification of information 3 Interpretation figuring out the meaning for yourself o How we explain our perceptions p x The ability to explain social behaviors including our own is important to perceiving the outside world 0 Managing our image 1 Image management is complex 2 Face Desired public image Face work behaviors used to project that image 3 Face Needs Components of the desired public image 0 l Self concept defined Composed of those stable ideas about who you are Chapter 4 o The nature of language 1 Language A structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning a Words The building blocks of language and verbal communication 0 Regarding language as bound by context and culture 1 SapirWhorf Hypothesis Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf proposed this 2 Linguistic Determinism Suggest that the structure of language determines how we think 3 Linguistic Relativity Language determines our perceptions of reality 0 Regarding the use and abuse of language be able to differentiate between the various forms 1 Humor What s so funny Most perceive it s a violation of our expectations a How it s used To Release tension inside jokes 2 Euphemisms Sugarcoating Vague mild expression that symbolizes and substitutes for something that is blunter or harsher 3 Slang the use of unconventional words that are often understood only by others in the group 4 Defamation Harmful words Language that harms a person s reputation or gives people a negative vibe 1 Two Forms a Libel Defamation statements made in print b Slander Statements made out loud 5 Profanity Offensive language Consider to be vulgar rude or abusive 6 Hate Speech Profanity with a hateful Purpose Meant to degrade intimidate or dehumanize people based on their sex natural origin etc 0 Language expresses who we are 1 By naming and identifying 2 Defining our creditability 0 Language separates us form others 1 Separates us from different people Chapter 5 0 What is nonverbal communication 1 Behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words Usually is accompanied with verbal message Six Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication 1 Nonverbal Communication is present in most Communication Contexts a Emoticons The familiar textural representations of facial expressions 2 Nonverbal Communication Often Conveys More Information Than Verbal Comm a Nonverbal Channels Behavioral forms of expression i Relies on our vision How someone looks facial expression and gestures 3 Nonverbal Communication is Usually Believed over Verbal Communication a Deception The act of leading someone to believe something one knows to be untrue 4 Nonverbal Communication Is the Primary Means of expressing emotion a Six Basic Emotions i Happiness ii Fear iii Disgust iv Anger v Sadness iv Surprise 5 Nonverbal Communication Metacommunicates a Communication about communication 6 Nonverbal Communication Serves Multiple Functions a Nonverbal Communication Helps us manage Conversations Ex Raising hands in class or eye contact b Nonverbal Communication helps us maintain relationships i Immediacy Behaviors Nonverbal signals of affection and affiliation c Nonverbal Communication helps us from impressions by observing how another person dresses and carries him or herself d Nonverbal Communication helps us in uence other people Manipulating visual cues e Nonverbal communication helps us conceal information Faking or forced visual cues 0 Ten Channels of Nonverbal Communication A Facial Displays Facial Expressions in nonverbal communication 1 Three Important Functions a Identity Face is the first cue to identify other people from others b Attractiveness Importance in Symmetry and Proportionality c Emotion Showing Happy sad surprised etc 2 Nonmanual Signals Signs that work with hand language to help express a meaning B Eye Behaviors 1 Oculesics the study of the eye behavior as a separate nonverbal channel a Eye Contact used to signal attraction to someone and to infer that someone is attracted to us C Movement and Gestures 1 Kinesics the study of movement including movement of walking 2 Gesticulation The use of arm and hand movements to communicate 3 Emblems Gestures that have a direct verbal translation 4 Illustrators Gestures that go along with verbal message to clarify it 5 Affect Displays Gestures that communicate emotion 6 Regulators Gestures that control the ow of conversation 7 Adaptors Are gestures you to satisfy some person need D Touch Behaviors Touch is the first sense to develop 1 Haptic Is the study of how we use touch to communicate a Affectionate Touch Hugging Kissing holding hands and other relationship things b Caregiving Touch being given care by someone Having a haircut or teeth cleaned c Power and Control Touch Used to exert power over someone d Aggressive Touch Behaviors done to in ict pain or harm to someone e Ritualistic Touch Custom or tradition dictates the type of touch E Vocal Behaviors 1 Vocalics Characteristics of voice to communicate meaning 2 Paralanguage Vocal and Verbal communicating 3 Channels of Vocal Communication i Pitch ii In ection iii Volume iv Rate v Filter Words vi Pronunciations vii Articulation viii Accent ix Silence F The use of Smell 1 Olfactics Sense of smell 2 Memory Can affect communication behavior by in uencing memories and moods 3 Sexual Attraction Also Plays a role in who we are sexually attracted to G The use of Space 1 Proxemics Tells us that we have a preferred amount of personal space 2 Intimate Distance Range of O to 1 and a half feet the zone we are willing to occupy with friends family and romantic partners 3 Personal Distance 1 and one half feet to 4 feet 4 Social Distance 4 to 12 feet 5 Public distance 12 to 25 feet or greater H Physical Appearance Judgements about people based in their looks 1 Halo Effect When a person s looks good most of us subconsciously assume he or she is good I The use of Time 1 Chronemics The way we use time J The use of artifacts 1 Artifact are objects and visual features within an environment that re ects who we are and what we like Chapter 6 What is listening 1 Listening is the active process of making meaning from another person s message 0 Misconception about listening process 1 Myth My Dearing is the Same as Listening a Difference Hearing is the perception of sound where listening is the process of paying attention to assign meaning to it 2 Myth Listening is Natural and Effortless a In reality Listening is a learned skill Just like speaking we have to learn to listen 0 Types of listening 1 Informational Listening Listening to learn Mostly a passive process and most important to learning 2 Critical Listening When the goal is to evaluate or analyze what we are hearing Its analyzing and evaluation speaker s words 3 Empathic Listening Occurs when you are trying to identify with the speaker by understanding and expecting what they are thinking and feeling a Perspective talking The ability to understand a situation from another point of view b Empathic concern the ability to identify how someone else is feeling and to the experience those feeling yourself 4 Other Types of Listening a Inspirational Listening Listening to be inspired by what someone is saying b Appreciative Listening listening for enjoyment 0 Common barriers to effective listening A Noise Stimuli competing for attention anything that distracts you from listening to what we wish to listen to B Pseudolistening an Selective Attention 1 Psudolistening When you pretend to pay attention to a speaker but weren t really listening 2 Selective Attention Listening to only what you want to hear and ignore the rest C Information Overload The stage of being overwhelmed by the huge amounts of information each person take in on a daily basis 1 Sources and Effects of Information Overload It can override our attention a ADHD Attentiondeficithyperactivedisorder or having trouble focusing or paying attention for along period of time 2 Glazing Over Daydreaming a Can lead to three problems i Can miss important details ii Listening less effectively that we normally would iii Make the speaker feel that we are not listening D Rebuttal Tendency The propensity to debate a speaker s point and formulate a reply While that person is speaking E ClosedMindedness The tendency not to listen to anything with which we disagree F Competitive Interrupting Used to describe the practice of using interruptions to take control of the conversation Chapter I I 0 Know why you re speaking 1 We speak with many different goals in mind to inform persuade to entertain to introduce 2 We speak to Inform to inform the listeners something they don t already know 3 We speak to Persuade a Persuasion the process of guiding people to adopt a specific attitude or enact a particular behavior 4 We speak to Entertain Used to persuade our audience to adopt certain attitudes and behaviors 5 We speak to Introduce Introduce others or ourselves 6 We speak to Give Honor a Eulogy A speech made to honor the memory of people after their deaths b Toast a short speech of tribute to the person or people being celebrated 0 Identify topics that are right for you 1 Ask 4 Main Questions 1 What do I already know about this topic 2 What do I need to know about the topic 3 How much do I care for the topic 4 How valuable is the topic 0 Identify topics that are right for your audience 1 How appropriate is the topic for my audience 2 How much will my audience care about this topic 0 Identify topics that are right for the occasion 1 Why am I speaking 2 What is the emotional tone of the event 0 Consider who your listeners are 1 Audience Analysis Carefully thinking about characteristics of listeners so they can address their audience in an effective way 0 Internet research A Internet Research Informant at your fingertips 1 General Engine Search website that allows us to search for other websites 0 Library research 1 Libraries vary in the resources they provide so it is often worth investigating what the local and school library can offer 0 Personal observations 1 Observations that your observe of an example of the topic from your experiences 0 Surveys 1 Collecting data by asking people directly about their experiences Chapter 12 0 Draft a purpose statement 1 Purpose Statement A declaration of your specific goal for your speech 0 Draft a thesis statement 1 Thesis Statement One sentence long version of the message in your speech A Guidelines for Thesis a Be Concrete Be concrete not vague or abstract b Make a statement Frame the thesis as a sentence rather than a question c Tell the Truth Communicate ethically with the listeners Believe in the truth of the thesis statement 0 The body expresses your main points 1 Main Point Statement expressing a specific idea or theme related to the speech topic a Should be Related All main points need to be related to each other in some way or you need to adjust the thesis statement or the outline to integrate an outside topic to the speech b Should be Distinct Each topic should relate to each other but express a different idea c Should be Equally Important Giving each topic approximately the same amount of time d Main Points can be Organized in Various Patterns Should be organized in a way that make sense on the topic 0 Know the three rules of outlining 1 Rule of Subordination Specifies that some concepts in your speech are more important than others 2 Rule of Division Specifies that if you divide a main point into sub points you must create at least two sub points 3 Rule of Parallel Wording All points and sub points in the outline should have the same grammatical structure 0 Know how to evaluate supporting material 1 Creditability Information that is believable and trustworthy 2 Obj ectivity The extent that it presents information in an unbiased fashion 3 Currency Using recent supporting materials is particularly important when you are speaking about issues that change continually o Transitions help your speech ow smoothly 1 Transitions A statement that logically connects one point in a speech to the next a Some Transitions Preview and Internally Summarize i Preview A statement alerting listeners that you are about to shift to a new topic ii Summary A statement that brie y reminds listeners of the points you have already made b Some Transitions are Signposts i Signposts Serve as sings to help listeners to follow the path or outline in your speech c Some Transitions are nonverbal i Body Movement No use behind a podium but you can change you position on the stage to indicate a new topic
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