STUDYGUIDEEXAM2.pdf History 1020
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
WORLD HISTORY II: STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 PROFESSOR CASTEEL 2.23 – 3.10 Alex Phillips AFRICA AFRICA & COLONIZATION - European colonization of Africa - Boer War o First total war (against military and civilians) o Maxim gun helped the Europeans gain land b/c superior technology - The Berlin Conference: anyone could claim land in Africa as long as they notified other countries and they could control it - David Livingston and Henry Morton Stanley o Their effects on colonization in Africa o Victoria Falls o Treaty with African chiefs “agreeing” to give over land to Belgium (King Leopold III) BELGIUM & THE CONGO - effect of the Industrial Revolution on the Congo o Congo had many natural resources like rubber o John Boyd Dunlap invented rubber bicycle tire – this created an opportunity for King Leopold to make desperately needed money for infrastructure - Quotas for rubber were unrealistic o Africans punished if didn’t meet quota o Over half the Congo population killed o Hands were cut off to make a point - Congo Reform Association: exposed what was going on in the Congo to Europe WWI THE START OF WWI - Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia form alliance o Agreed to help each other if Germany tried to take over their colonies in Africa - Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary o Formed as protection against Triple Entente - Gavrillo Princip and the Black Hand o Sent to Serbia to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand - Why did everyone get involved? o France is allied with Serbia -> Serbia was mad b/c of assassination -> Triple Entente allied so they are all involved with being against the Triple Alliance - The Schlieffen Plan: Germany goes through Belgium (neutral country) and then into France - Plan 17: French fortify border b/c think Germany will come in by crossing border o Meanwhile, the Germans are already in France TECHNOLOGY IN WWI - tank: used to get across trenches - machine gun: reason no one got far or gained much land - air planes: air battles, observation - U-boats: (submarines) German’s used them to control water and trade - Poison Gas: gas masks – no beards – kills people from burns or fluid in lungs TRENCH LIFE - soldiers got Trench foot and then they were useless - mud clogged weapons, caused trench foot, and caused injured soldiers to die from exposure - rats and lice END OF WWI - Armistice Day - US enters war and boosts morale - Germany is tired of long war - Russia signs treaty o Brest-Litovsk and gets out of war - Who should pay for the war/ who should be blamed? o Woodrow Wilson proposes 14 points o Britain and France decide 14 points not harsh enough and sign the Treaty of Versailles: Germany has to pay for all war damages EFFECTS OF WWI - women in WWI o took men’s jobs: making munitions, working in mines, building planes o all women fire depts. And police forces o after war more women got the right to vote (US: 1920) - rationing o crops destroyed during war o Ersatz food o Cook books o Propaganda – rationing so have some food for troops - Advances in medicine o Advances in prosthetics o Harold Gillies: forefront of plastic surgery (skin grafts) o Charles Meyers: coined term shell-shock Military had hard time accepting diagnosis b/c men supposed to be able to control emotions INFLUENZA - killed ~50 million - attacked young, healthy people o thrives as immune system weakens - called Spanish flu b/c gained attention when it hit Spain which was a neutral country in WWI RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - France gives $ for building factories - Peasants (90% of population) couldn’t own land so went to cities to find work o Not enough factories build b/c limited funds o Factory conditions unsafe so workers strike - How industrialization brought revolution to Russia o Peasants unhappy b/c cant own land and lack of factory jobs o 90% of population unhappy with leaders - October Manifesto and what it says about state of Monarchy o Duma (most members peasants) and constitution o Tsar Nicholas II unhappy with duma (b/c they disagreed w/ him) and replaced them This shows the monarchy still has all the power - Rasputin o Advising Alexandria while Tsar Nicholas leading army o Random so made people lose even more faith in Monarchy o Reasons why he held so much power REVOLUTIONS - how the Revolutions of 1917 helped absolutism fall in Russia o International Women’s day (March) : Tsar orders military to stop the peaceful protest and many refuse EFFECT: Tsar abdicated a week later o Bolsheviks and Red Army led by Lenin: overthrow provisional govt. EFFECT: successful and now Lenin in charge LENIN AND HIS REIGN - thought socialism happened with revolutions from above and was led by Vanguards (professionals) o this thought conveniently put Lenin in a leading position o this thought lso split the people into two groups 1. Bolsheviks 2. Mensheviks (minority) - secret police jailed/executed people who spoke against Lenin (~50,000) - civil war between two groups (Red and White Armies) - executed Tsar to keep monarchy from starting again - famine (~10 million deaths) - NEP – New Economic Plan o Rebuild industry and agriculture (not a communist ideal) o Successful o Trotsky didn’t support it b/c it wasn’t communist and thought Russia needed to convert other nations to communism o Stalin supported it b/c it made Russia more powerful o Five Year Plans (mega projects, unrealistic quotas) ITALY FASCISM - High unemployment due to debt made people unhappy and gave more support for the socialist party - Mussolini sees the struggle Russia is having and doesn’t agree with socialism and gets kicked out of the socialist party -> makes fascist party - Fascism: o Anti-communist, violence, authoritarian o Blackshirts: Mussolini’s soldiers, most WWI veterans GERMANY WEIMAR REPUBLIC - provisional govt. in Germany - The Reichstag: parliament - Chancellor: held most power - President elected every 7 yrs. - First democracy in Germany HITLER’S RISE TO POWER - leader of Nazi party - Beer Hall Putsch -> jail -> Mein Kamf -> gained popularity - Becomes chancellor 1933 - Enabling Acts: created one party (Nazi party) - Party members elect Hitler as president - The Hitler Youth: boys 18 and under o Education is about fascism - Nuremberg Laws o “Pure bloods” can only be citizens o state has final say in citizenship o only citizens have rights o Jews aren’t citizens START OF WWII - Germany mobilizes army o Breaks treaty of Versailles o Breaks non-aggression pact w/ Russia by invading Poland o Breaks Munich agreement w/ Britain - Rome-Berlin axis (Italy and Germany) - Anti-Comintern Pact (Japan joins German and Italian alliance)
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