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by: Alex Phillips

STUDYGUIDEEXAM2.pdf History 1020

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > History 1020 > STUDYGUIDEEXAM2 pdf
Alex Phillips
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World History II Exam 2 Study Guide Feb 23 - Mar 10
World History II
Cari L Casteel
Study Guide
Germany, Italy, WWI, WWII, Hitler, Nazis, Mussolini, Stalin, lenin, Russia, Rasputin, Tsar Nicholas II, Communism, socialism, Fascism, treaty of versailles, Berlin Conference, Boer War, Africa, David Livingston, Victoria Falls, Congo
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/19/16
WORLD HISTORY II: STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 PROFESSOR CASTEEL 2.23 – 3.10 Alex Phillips AFRICA AFRICA & COLONIZATION - European colonization of Africa - Boer War o First total war (against military and civilians) o Maxim gun helped the Europeans gain land b/c superior technology - The Berlin Conference: anyone could claim land in Africa as long as they notified other countries and they could control it - David Livingston and Henry Morton Stanley o Their effects on colonization in Africa o Victoria Falls o Treaty with African chiefs “agreeing” to give over land to Belgium (King Leopold III) BELGIUM & THE CONGO - effect of the Industrial Revolution on the Congo o Congo had many natural resources like rubber o John Boyd Dunlap invented rubber bicycle tire – this created an opportunity for King Leopold to make desperately needed money for infrastructure - Quotas for rubber were unrealistic o Africans punished if didn’t meet quota o Over half the Congo population killed o Hands were cut off to make a point - Congo Reform Association: exposed what was going on in the Congo to Europe WWI THE START OF WWI - Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia form alliance o Agreed to help each other if Germany tried to take over their colonies in Africa - Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary o Formed as protection against Triple Entente - Gavrillo Princip and the Black Hand o Sent to Serbia to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand - Why did everyone get involved? o France is allied with Serbia -> Serbia was mad b/c of assassination -> Triple Entente allied so they are all involved with being against the Triple Alliance - The Schlieffen Plan: Germany goes through Belgium (neutral country) and then into France - Plan 17: French fortify border b/c think Germany will come in by crossing border o Meanwhile, the Germans are already in France TECHNOLOGY IN WWI - tank: used to get across trenches - machine gun: reason no one got far or gained much land - air planes: air battles, observation - U-boats: (submarines) German’s used them to control water and trade - Poison Gas: gas masks – no beards – kills people from burns or fluid in lungs TRENCH LIFE - soldiers got Trench foot and then they were useless - mud clogged weapons, caused trench foot, and caused injured soldiers to die from exposure - rats and lice END OF WWI - Armistice Day - US enters war and boosts morale - Germany is tired of long war - Russia signs treaty o Brest-Litovsk and gets out of war - Who should pay for the war/ who should be blamed? o Woodrow Wilson proposes 14 points o Britain and France decide 14 points not harsh enough and sign the Treaty of Versailles: Germany has to pay for all war damages EFFECTS OF WWI - women in WWI o took men’s jobs: making munitions, working in mines, building planes o all women fire depts. And police forces o after war more women got the right to vote (US: 1920) - rationing o crops destroyed during war o Ersatz food o Cook books o Propaganda – rationing so have some food for troops - Advances in medicine o Advances in prosthetics o Harold Gillies: forefront of plastic surgery (skin grafts) o Charles Meyers: coined term shell-shock  Military had hard time accepting diagnosis b/c men supposed to be able to control emotions INFLUENZA - killed ~50 million - attacked young, healthy people o thrives as immune system weakens - called Spanish flu b/c gained attention when it hit Spain which was a neutral country in WWI RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - France gives $ for building factories - Peasants (90% of population) couldn’t own land so went to cities to find work o Not enough factories build b/c limited funds o Factory conditions unsafe so workers strike - How industrialization brought revolution to Russia o Peasants unhappy b/c cant own land and lack of factory jobs o 90% of population unhappy with leaders - October Manifesto and what it says about state of Monarchy o Duma (most members peasants) and constitution o Tsar Nicholas II unhappy with duma (b/c they disagreed w/ him) and replaced them  This shows the monarchy still has all the power - Rasputin o Advising Alexandria while Tsar Nicholas leading army o Random so made people lose even more faith in Monarchy o Reasons why he held so much power REVOLUTIONS - how the Revolutions of 1917 helped absolutism fall in Russia o International Women’s day (March) : Tsar orders military to stop the peaceful protest and many refuse  EFFECT: Tsar abdicated a week later o Bolsheviks and Red Army led by Lenin: overthrow provisional govt.  EFFECT: successful and now Lenin in charge LENIN AND HIS REIGN - thought socialism happened with revolutions from above and was led by Vanguards (professionals) o this thought conveniently put Lenin in a leading position o this thought lso split the people into two groups 1. Bolsheviks 2. Mensheviks (minority) - secret police jailed/executed people who spoke against Lenin (~50,000) - civil war between two groups (Red and White Armies) - executed Tsar to keep monarchy from starting again - famine (~10 million deaths) - NEP – New Economic Plan o Rebuild industry and agriculture (not a communist ideal) o Successful o Trotsky didn’t support it b/c it wasn’t communist and thought Russia needed to convert other nations to communism o Stalin supported it b/c it made Russia more powerful o Five Year Plans (mega projects, unrealistic quotas) ITALY FASCISM - High unemployment due to debt made people unhappy and gave more support for the socialist party - Mussolini sees the struggle Russia is having and doesn’t agree with socialism and gets kicked out of the socialist party -> makes fascist party - Fascism: o Anti-communist, violence, authoritarian o Blackshirts: Mussolini’s soldiers, most WWI veterans GERMANY WEIMAR REPUBLIC - provisional govt. in Germany - The Reichstag: parliament - Chancellor: held most power - President elected every 7 yrs. - First democracy in Germany HITLER’S RISE TO POWER - leader of Nazi party - Beer Hall Putsch -> jail -> Mein Kamf -> gained popularity - Becomes chancellor 1933 - Enabling Acts: created one party (Nazi party) - Party members elect Hitler as president - The Hitler Youth: boys 18 and under o Education is about fascism - Nuremberg Laws o “Pure bloods” can only be citizens o state has final say in citizenship o only citizens have rights o Jews aren’t citizens START OF WWII - Germany mobilizes army o Breaks treaty of Versailles o Breaks non-aggression pact w/ Russia by invading Poland o Breaks Munich agreement w/ Britain - Rome-Berlin axis (Italy and Germany) - Anti-Comintern Pact (Japan joins German and Italian alliance)


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