Com 101 Study Guide NO.2
Com 101 Study Guide NO.2 Com 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 101 at Washington State University taught by Taflinger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Corn 101 Study Guide No 2 Professor Richard Taftlinger Lecture Notes Print and Journalism News had always driven the plot of people s social stories Events would have to be put into context of the social story Often in the old world this was explained in religion if something bad happened it was because the gods were displeased In general people did not used to care about the outside world unless it got too close to them Printing was invented so new sheets were published These were not for average people they were for rich people Therefore they contained information that would be of interest to people with money and this information was to help them make more money In the 19th century newspapers began being printed for normal people News became a very large part of the world view Newspapers had no pretense of objectivity In 1833 the Sun was the first newspaper everyone could afford The Penny Press where the price was a penny and most people could afford it Canons ofjournalism and statement of principles 1923 Today the same thing exists the newspaper provides the information and facts and each person forms their own opinion What is News The definition is fuzzy Criteria for newsworthiness o Timeliness hearing about something in time to do something about it 0 Proximity how close the news is to you and how major to your area 0 Prominence what makes someone prominent is that they are reported on but this is problematic o Consequence for it to be news it should affect people so they can make an informed decisions about what is being reported on o Rarity an event being out of the norm these are unusual 0 Human interest what people have interest in often have no consequences in the real world Another definition this is a matter of opinion on what is important individual to each person and what is important in their world Problems with Objectivity Not everyone agrees on what objective is Says all points are of equal validity Concept of objectivity can be taken too far o Ignoring context 0 Not making judgement calls f providing all the details favors one view so if they do not include those details they cannot understand that side Two ways of writing news Inverted Pyramid 0 Basics of the story in the first paragraph 0 Ensuing paragraphs provide more details 0 Hard news and news shorts Feature Writing 0 Written as a story with exposition problem crisis and complications and a climax 0 People in the story are presented as characters often as heroes villains and victims rather than well rounded people 0 Magazines news stories television news stories and newspaper articles and columns Future of Newspapers Actual number of newspapers are declining More people depend on modern media technology so they buy newspapers less and less Newspapers cannot support themselves on subscriptions newsstands and ads Newspapers have to live off these small funds so they cut costs by cutting important staff join a syndicate to share expenses sell subscriptions to online readers and they reduce operations Newspapers had to cut reporters in important places such as DC Magazines Not as many as there are newspapers Cannot compete on breaking news because they are once a month however they do write with better in depth coverage meaning there is more detail especially because there are specialists writing the articles and because it does not come out daily the spend more time on writing each pIece Radio Sending sound through the air by attaching it to electric sound Bagdad Battery 250 BCE said to be the first battery In the 18th century electricity was taken seriously however only for fun and games People began to study electricity to find out what it is exactly Luigi Galvani 1786 O Believed everything contained electricity Alessandro Volta 1796 0 Thought Galvani was incorrect and made his own experiment to test if electricity could be made chemically Hans Christian Oersted 1820 O Demonstration that magnetism and electricity were not connected when they actually are William Sturgeon 1825 0 Created the first electromagnet Michael Fareday 1826 O Reversed Stugeon39s experiment Samuel FB Morse 1838 0 Sent a message down a wire 0 For the first time a message could send over miles in an instant O Morse code was created and thus lead to the telegraph O Takes a lot to learn to send the clicks and understand them Johannes Muller 1840 O Studying the senses and trying to figure if they were different Helmholtz 0 Student of Muller 0 Sang into piano to discover sound makes vibrations Leon Scott de Martinville O Phonautograph 18 0 Made it so sounds could be seen etched them into Smokey glass Bell and Gray both invented the telephone at the same time but Bell got to the patent office first so he gets all the credit Heinrich Hertz 1886 O Helmholtz students 0 Spark gap generator jumps the gap making the spark made a receiver to try to pick up the spark O The receiver picked up the spark 0 Demonstrated that electricity traveled through the air in frequencies just as it did through wires Guglielmo Marconi 1894 0 Added an antenna to the spark so it could go father 0 He made quotwireless telegraphyquot but people call it a radio Nikola Tesla O Figured how to boost power with the tesla coil 0 Raised the voltage of an electric current high enough Reginald Fessenden O Tried to send the first voice transmission without wires Ernst Alexanderson 0 Made a generator that was powerful to piggy back voice on radio waves going through the air 0 Finally radio is born Lee de Forest father of radio 0 He would just try to create things for fun 0 Took a Fleming valve vacuum tube added a bent wire and called it the audion tube 1904 and this amplified the tube Edwin Howard Armstrong 0 Took the audion tube and improved it 0 Designed regeneration so that whatever was put into the tube it was send back into the tube many times 0 Amplified radio signals and made good sound 0 Made the superheterodyne which was a receiver to put into the home and pick up signals Crystal Radio 0 Made from Quaker oats boxes David Sarnoff 0 First to see the potential for big radio Wasn t about the actual radio but rather what you could do with the radio Started at American Marconi office Knew wireless telegraphy was point to point media Radio was a broadcast medium rather than a point to point He wrong the quotradio music box memoquot to convince companies to invest in building broadcast buildings and selling broadcast music boxes Was named as commercial manager O In charge of RCA I American Marconi I General Electric I American telephone and Telegraph I Westinghouse 0 They used Armstrong39s inventions Radio stations start popping up all over the country KWSU KWSC is made on campus and it s the third in the world Every kind of entertainment was available on the radio 00000 0 Sound Recording Orson Welles 1938 Sound Recording Leon Scott de Martinville Thomas Edison tinfoil phonograph 1877 with the intention of being an answering machine but simply made something that could play back sound Chichester Bell and Tainter39s phonograph 1885 Problem could only make one at a time rather than making multiple Berliner Gramophone 1887 1890 the first juke box was created Eldridge Johnson got rid of the crank and put in a motor so that songs would no longer die during a song quotlittle nipperquot was a phonograph company with the dog listening to his master39s voice from the phonograph There was a race to advance the players more and more but there was a problem with production Mechanical Recording Session everyone would have to gather near the cone which limited how many musicians could be on the recording Electrical Recording Valdemar Poulsen 1897 made a way to record electrically Telegraphone 1915 it39s steel wire was weak and could not be replaced Fritz Pfleumer added magnetic wire to strips of paper The use of tape was a breakthrough BASFAEG magnetophone 1935 people were able to buy these magnetic recording things Carbon granule mic very poor quality mic and speakerphone Condenser Mic used 1925 needed a battery to power and susceptible to moisture Ribbon Mic 0 Radio stations needed the records so that they could play things back rather than having a live band come in 0 Radio was mostly entertainment and constantly needed new material 0 Non main stream music came to a rise 0 New forms of music became popular 0 For 20 years the country was bound together by the radio as a common source of info and social norms o 1952 Alan Freed quotfather of rock and rollquot he started making rock music a staple for the radio 0 Music aimed at young people started being played more often 0 1944 Minnesota Manufacturing company came up with rust on tape to give greater sensitivity 0 Reel to reel tape recorder o Cassette Tape 1963 made from plastic and used small tape 0 Norelco CarryCorder 1965 0 Sony Walkman personal carry your own music entertainment 1979 o This was the beginning of decline of records Digital Revolution 0 CD pits Movies Fraz Ucanious made motion pictures as a teaching tool using it to teach his students how a cannon ball flies Ludwig Doebler was a magician who stole Ucanious idea and started using the machine for motion picture shows which became very popular in England Aristotle wrote about painting with light and talked about the pinhole camera which was a black box with a small hole on one side which when pointed at something would reflect it upside down to be accurately traced Hyatt came up with Celluloid which was first used in ivory replacement It was very flammable Hannibal Goodwin took celluloid which was created by Hyatt and turned it into sheets Edison came up with the kinetiscope which was a movie in a box that had a coin slot so people could insert a coin and a movie would play while the viewer looked through some goggles The Lumiere brothers were the first to play a moving picture on a bedsheet and call it a movie theater Movie theaters continued from then on to be in theaters and there were nickel theaters called nickelodeons o Lumieres showed movies by shining 0 Edison had a kinetiscope 0 Danish Researches discovered selenium would generate an electrical signal in direct relation to the amount of 0 Movies and Society society before movies was all local or parochial 0 Movies reflect the markers39 society 0 19205 Post World War movies went through a major change 0 Movies started to cater to the young people who wanted to defy the old ways of society and create their own new young society 0 Movies created a sense of community 0 A full evening of entertainment 0 A cartoon 0 A news reel o A short subject like a comedy bit 0 A movie sometimes 2 The movies where upbeat optimistic and filled with dance They left people feeling happy after watching it 19405 war propaganda started cropping up in movie theaters there are lots of movies about the women waiting for their man to come home from the war and she sacrifices the things a women has to in war times These movies helped people to change their opinions to whole hearted support of the war It39s a Wonderful Life 1946 was one of the best movies and helped people to get happy again 4 Movies reflected the way young people felt because they didn39t like the way their parents wanted society to be 19505 people wanted to believe everyone was content in the world everyone has a dog and 2 kids and a white picket fence The blackboard jungle in 1955 disproved this showing the real world With the Cold War it was clear that the world could come to an end and movies reflected that The fear of nuclear power and war in the 19505 In the 19605 there was a new freedom in the 605 laws were changed and movies could do more than they could before they stopped worrying about offending people People stopped worrying about sex It looked at the suburban life and how they didn39t care about the restrictions but didn39t know what they wanted in place 19705 looked at the myths of society and which should be held and which should go away One of the big myths was the trust worthiness in the government to work in the public39s good People started looking at politicians as people who just wanted power not to actually work for the government Jaws was the first summer block buster movie In the 19705 there started being battles between good and evil star wars so literal battles Movies that the industry did not think would be popular became major hits These movies helped bind back together a society that had been fragmented in the 19605 19805 a problem arose the studios realized messages in movies were bad for sales so they merged with companies that knew nothing about movies to put teenagers in the theater Most movies at this time were about teenagers and catered to them For adults the Vietnam war became a story for movies to use Most movies in the 805 that were antiwar Special Effects took off because of Star Wars because George Lucas figured out ways to do something that could not really be done except in a computer Lots of SyFy started Star Trek came into the play most of their money went to special effects 19905 a period of establishing new mythologies as well as reinforcing some old ones Schindlers list Saving Private Ryan New mythologies are changed Dances with wolves Conspiracy theories started arising JFK Blockbuster films came more and more important they went year round Braveheart Jurassic Park Reemergence of Animation started with Snow White from Disney but the these imaginations where nothing like the original stories They rewrote them to reflect society to be the way it wants to be today 20005 Movies are still delivering mythology but it Is not out of our experiencespasts They were based on fantasies that were not from our past pirates of the Caribbean the matrix lord of the rings Future concerned with movies that bring in audiences lots of sequels where audiences are already existent books tv shows with a large fan base Big name actors will be used because they39re already known Movies have reverted to the kinetiscope where it s all about making money not about the message Newsreels were important they started to be produces after the lumieres who made the first movie theater Pate made the hand held camera so that it could go around and they filmed WW1 Movie studios sent a camera and writing producer went to the action the producer would edit content into a news real and sent it to the main office to go to the theater People nowhere near the war saw what the war was like they saw the dirt blood and death These drove home the war to people they responded emotionally and feel the impact of war Created newsreels that covered several subjects Television news killed off the newsreels Newsreels laid the ground work for television news Book Notes chapter 7 The idea of an active audience is important because it recognizes the intelligence of the individual Types of active audiences o Interpretive The message from the media is not fixed the audience can interpret and construct the message themselves The audience assigns meanings to various components Audiences might focus on different messages that they interpret than the producer meant for them to 0 Social Context if Interpretation Ground Firmly in Daily Life audiences interpret and experience messages in groups 0 Collective Action when audiences organize collectively to make formal demands on media producers or regulators People can sometimes act collectively resulting in group efforts like boycotts online petitions ect o Audiences as Media Producers audiences can produce their own media as well as distributed both to criticize the major media and to provide alternative perspectives that are rarely available from national media outlets It still remains difficult for most usergenerated media to reach a broad public Media are said to be polysemic which means to have multiple meanings There is a tendency in some branches of media studies to really push the boundaries arguing that ways of making meaning are so diverse that we cannot fully understand them and that in fact audience members have the ultimate power in their interactions with media because they can make the media texts mean whatever they like Social location matters because it shapes whom we talk to about different media what we perceive to be our best interests and most important concerns and what kinds of interpretations frameworks we bring to our media experiences Media messages draw on broader sets of cultural codes about how the world works The Nationwide study indicated that there was a tendency for people from different socioeconomic classes to interpret the meaning of the television program in different ways Andrea Press s 1991 study Women Watching Television is one of the wellknown studies that have focused on the relationship between social structure and audience interpretation There is a large study on how television and other media from America are interpreted internationally Romance Novels are very important because they provide a literal escape for women through the act of reading as well as a figurative escape through the fantasy of the romantic plots Men and women watch television differently men watch attentively where as women like to chat or carry out chores while they watch Resistance can be said to occur when people read media messages in a ways that oppose their preferred or commonsensical meanings which causes them to refuse the dominant meaning Ms Magazine in 1972 had a quotno comment section where readers could submit items to be put into the next month of the magazine This section was a way for readers to share their oppositional decodings with likeminded feminists and they helped build a shared meaning system that could serve as a basis for social solidarity within the feminist community For Americans who engage with the media the world of entertainment celebrity is likely to be a regular feature however the world of reality tv and actual reality can sometimes be blurred The pleasure of media use comes precisely from interpretive engagement with media texts media are fun because we actively participate in the making of meaning not because we simply turn off our brains One particularly active subset of the media audience consists of those who identify as fans of a particular genre text or author These became fanatics an eccentric or extremist whose obsession makes them different from most media audiences Fandom is a social activity and allows identification with a group Some fans become activists participating in collective action aimed at promoting saving or changing a particular media form or text Fans have long been producers of their own media and these often serve as valuable resources for building and maintaining connections within fan communities The term user implies an activity that involves both media making and meaning making Users are amateurs not media professionals Audiences may be distracted by a second screen or other users as technology increases
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