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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Jaya Brown

Exam 2 Study Guide Psyc 3330

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This is an accumulation of our notes from lecture. None of these notes are from the book
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Alley
Study Guide
psychology cognitive
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaya Brown on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 03/19/16
Contemporary Views of LTM Three types of memory system     1. Semantic memory ­ stores knowledge about the world      2. Episodic memory ­ memory of experiences in subjective space and time; permits a  personal past.  Includes:   Autobiographical memory ­ "specific, personal, long­lasting", usually significant to self; forms your personal life history; late developing (“childhood amnesia”).   Flashbulb Memories ­       3. Procedural memory ­ knowing how to... (vs. knowing that)  sometimes implicit (tacit)  can function without episodic memory Levels of Processing Theory   level or depth of processing (encoding) is the main factor governing storage and retrieval; LTM is not simply a ~permanent storage bin. “Trace persistence is a function of depth of analysis, with deeper levels of analysis associated with more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger traces. … it is advantageous to store the products of such deep analyses, but there is usually no need to store the products of preliminary analyses.” (Craik & Lockhart, 1972, p. 675)       Memory trace is a byproduct of perceptual/cognitive processing:   superficial processing  short­lived traces   deep (semantic) processing  most durable traces Evidence for Levels of Processing Theory: 1) Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal             [mere repetition (maintenance)]  [level of l   ning] 2) Repeated exposure may not  retention of info.            ex.1  memory for c_____            ex.2  memory for telephone keypad                      0 of 50 Britons able to reproduce pattern of #'s and letters on a British phone dial.      (Morton, 1967) 3) Incidental Learning – seen in results of ________________ memory tests for  differently encoded material.              example: upper or lower case print? < rhyme? < fit sentence?  (Craik & Tulving, 1975)  depth of processing is more important that processing time.  4) Self-Reference Effect ­ relate something to yourself & you’ll remember it better; *self­schema.  ­Particularly easy with adjectives ­ we have a lot of deep processing when we think about things related to ourselves Effects of Context on Memory  Encoding Specificity Principle   Probabality of (remembering)  depends on similarity of encoding at time of learning and time of testing; aka  context­dependent memory.  - context dependent memory- you ability to remember things depends on the context - more similarity better memory Context Effects A.  Physical Context ­ recall is better in same physical environment   ex. 1: memorizing words you learned under water or on shore   (Godden & Baddeley, 1975) remember best when you are in the environment you learned it  ex. 2: learning with jazz vs. Mozart  memory for word list better if tested with __________ than if tested with different music or silence  (Smith, AJP, 1986). B. Affective context (Mood­Dependent memory)  ­ recall is better when  emotional state at time of learning and time of recall match.   ex.:Happy or sad (hypnotically induced) students learned word lists then tested while  happy or sad    Better recall when moods matched (70%) vs. mismatch (42%) (Bower, Monteiro, & Gilligan, 1978) vs.Mood Congruence   Effect:better memory for material that ‘fits’ your mood; e.g.,  depressed people are more likely to remember depressing events.  vs.Pollyanna Principle­ we tend to have better memory for pleasant material ex: rosy views of past vacations ­ travelers on a  European tour and students on a thanksgiving break  remembers it as more enjoyable than they said it was at the time      ­ 61% of students went on a CA bicycling tour said they were disappointed  during the trip but only 11% later remembered they’d been disappointed C. State-Dependent Learning  ­ better memory with same level/type of drug  influence.   Group Learning Condition Test Condition % Recall 1 smoke marijuana      smoke marijuana 23 2 smoke marijuana smoke reg. cigarette 12 3 smoke reg. cigarette smoke marijuana 20 4 smoke reg. cigarette smoke reg. cigarette 25 (Eich et al., JVLVB, 1975) III. Comprehension Effects on Memory poor comprehension generally  poor ___memory___ ex: memory with and without a hint: The steps for doing laundry may be confusing without a hunt if written vaguely enough  Power law of forgetting  ­ The rate of loss decreases with passage of time  Causes of Forgetting    A. Decay / Lack of use ­  loss of inactive (un­refreshed) memories; loss due to mere  passage of time without use.  From deterioration of neuronal connections?    B. Interference ­ loss due to other material 1.  Proactive Interference ­ forward acting       2.  Retroactive Interference ­ backward acting    C.Amnesia ­ loss due to trauma or drugs 1. Anterograde ("in forward direction") amnesia  learning deficit, but memory span  usually normal (7+2) a. Korsakoff syndrome  chronic alcohol abuse b.  H.M. (similar to Clive Wearing [video]) – has no recall for recent events, but  memory span & older memories [> 3 yrs. Presurgery] intact     H.M.'s amygdala & almost all of hippocampus removed  almost total lost of recent              ives every moment in isolation from the past.   2. Retrograde ("backward") amnesia ­ causes include ECT and head trauma; no lasting memory of events for limited period prior to incident, but info. is often  retained shortly after incident onwards.  Reconstructive (vs. Reproductive) Memory “The first notion to get rid of is that memory is primarily … reproductive.  In a world of constantly changing environment, literal recall is extraordinarily u(Bartlett, 1932) Remembering a list:  bed, silence, toss, artichoke, tired, quilt, sheet, fatigue, clock, knight, night, dream bed - primacy night - on list twice repetition/frequency artichoke - distinctiveness dream - recency sleep/pillow/blanket - people put but weren't on the list (reconstructive memory) I. Classic Studies by Bartlett (Remembering, 1932): repeatedly tested recall for (odd) stories hours, months, or years later. Lasting findings and concepts:   Omissions: especially info. that is illogical or violates expectations. Didn’t fit with  expectations.   Additions:  e.g., added info. that would help explain incongruous passages. If they  didn’t understand or if something seemed to be missing   Transformations:  ex., “fishing” (familiar) replaces "seal hunting" or distortions o Altered information: ex. Fishing (familiar) replaces seal hunting  o Altered sequences: even if all of the pieces are remembered you may not  remember the specific order   Information omitted in an earlier recall may reappear later. People may not have lost their memory but are just having a retrieval problem Bartlett concluded that memories are shaped by an active organization based on past experience (general knowledge):  schemas  examples:  “restaurant schema” recall a visit to a restaurant from the moment you got to the entrance – explains the typical experience at a restaurant  “college office sche” (Brewer & Treyens, 1981) –students spent less  than a minute in the room and recalled a chair and a desk (most all offices have this)  About 1/3 recalled books even thought there were no books.  face schema vs restaurant script  Schema: a body of organized info we have about a concept, event or knowledge domain; this  organized knowledge, derived from experience, guides the encoding of new information and  retrieval of stored information.  Script: a type of schema consisting of the knowledge of the typical ordered sequence of  events/actions in a particular situation. trip to a gas station, checking into the hotel   II. Linguistic Memory  (for sentences & passages): we retain the "gist" (deep structure;  meaning) rather than verbatim (surface structure).  Linguistic memory seems to be  reconstructed from knowledge.  We remember the “gist” of sentences.   Semantic Integration: we take information from multiple sentences and ‘store’ it in  abstract form(Bransford & Franks, 1971; try demo. In Matlin, pp. 279­280]  Sentences with the same information, however it’s hard to know the exact wording of the sentence but you know the general information and can identify one with wrong information. III. Eyewitness Testimony & Face Recognition Studies *Loftus Common Problems   There is a problem: Faulty eyewitness testimony is the most frequent cause of wrongful convictions (> 50%) we find out because information comes out that someone else did it, and more recently DNA came out and has exonerated many people  Misleading Postevent Information (MPI) such as (mis)leading questions can distort & transform memories. - a large, robust effect.  Are memories themselves changed, or just peoples’ reports? It seems that memories themselves are changed, not just peoples’ reports. If someone planted a piece of info such as –he had a mustache- people will start to remember the man with a mustache  Example of a leading question: how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? People report a higher speed if it was ‘smashed’ as opposed to ‘contacted’  Also asked if there was any broken glass (there wasn’t any) usually only there in a higher speed collision however if the leading question swayed one way or the other people would or wouldn’t remember glass  Source-monitoring confusions: a memory derived from 1 source may be misattributed to another; includes info. from before or after a remembered event.  T he bunny effect – mistaking bugs bunny being at Disney world when asked if they met him there but it was impossible. It was a super subtle hint (bugs on Disney stationary)  Picking the clerk as the robber in a line up bc of recognizing him  ID problems include use of best-match criterion (e.g., picking person in line-up who most resembles your memory of culprit; similarly, may try to pick the suspect.)  If the police have enough to know that someone did something they don’t want an eyewitness because they don’t work well. Dangerous phenomenon because they may pick someone who didn’t do it, they just may resemble the perpetrator.  Induces you to pick the wrong person because people assume the person is there when the guilty person might not be there.  Confidence is a poor index of accuracy (low positive correlation) – positive, as people are more confident they are more likely to be correct, but it’s really low so it really tells you nothing about how likely they are to be accurate  Attention is limited i.e. Weapon-Focus Effect: in crimes involving a weapon (armed robbery) for most of us the weapon will draw most of our attention. While this happens we aren’t looking at the person/knowing what they look like. IV “Recovered Memories” & False Memory Syndrome (FMS)  Remembering things that never happened.  FMS involves: 1. Belief that a behavioral problem is a reaction to a repressed traumatic past event. usually childhood sexual abuse  (CSA). 2. development of pseudo memories of childhood trauma  Epidemic of FMS beginning in 1990’s partially due to “therapists” beliefs and practices. Ex. Daughter of clergy man developing rape memories from therapist, many people were lead to believe that they suppressed memories that really never happened  A lot of media coverage of these cases  People doing therapy had reason to suspect that people coming to them were struggling with childhood repression  De Rivera (1998) examined 56 people who had recanted false accusations. All had FM supported by an authority figure (e.g., therapist). Most (54%) indicated the therapist was the main author of their abuse story.  (false) memories may be induced by suggestive therapists who may use hypnosis, dream interpretation and/or guided imagery.  False memories can be induced by: 1. suggestion (Loftus) 2. Beliefs about one’s own past are readily influenced by clinicians’ dream interpretation (Mazzoni & Loftus, 1998)  dreams may be the “royal road to memory manipulation”. 3. merely imagining events: Imagination-inflation (Loftus; Mazzoni) – people can develop both a belief in, & a memory of, an event that never happened to them by __________________________________. V.  Memory shifts due to knowledge  (e.g., of environmental invariants like  momentum or gravity)  or inference A. Representational Displacement:  observers tend to remember an event  as extending past its actual ending point.   e.g., Representational Momentum (RM) ­ memories tend to be distorted in the  directional of a perceived or implied motion with higher perceived velocity   more displacement.  B. Boundary Extension  ­ a tendency to ‘remember’ more of a scene than was  actually seen. As when ‘remembering’ parts of a static scene that were actually of the  view.          pictures drawn from memory may include elements that would logically fall just  outside the boundaries of the ori.inal  (Intraub) MENTAL IMAGERY What is a mental image? 1. mental representation of an object or event that is not perceptually present.   2. internally­generated (top­down), perception­like representation  versus hallucinations? Ongoing controversy: Are mental images simply (1) epiphenomena (by-products), or do they (2) have functional significance?  (1)Propositional Hypothesis  (Pylyshyn ­ all information is coded and stored in the form of propositions (abstract language­like representations) propositional form; images are  [epiphenomena] generated from propositions. (2) Analog Code (Pictorial Representation) Hypothesis  (Shepard; Kosslyn) imagery  and perception are similar; visual images are like “mental pictures”.  Mental images and  percepts are not identical but we can sometimes use mental images like we use real  images (percepts).    Research “results indicate that mental imagery is remarkably able to substitute for actual  perception (Roger Shepard .  Effects associated with perception are also found in imagery.   Images seem helpful or necessary for solving some problems (e.g., mental clock  problems) Supported by the existence of hallucinations …. So why don’t we confuse images and percepts more often “Japanese abacus experts … use interiorized representations of the abacus that allow them to mentally calculate without an abacus as accurately as with an abacus, and often faster” (Rogoff, 1990) Imagery Research [overall, it supports the Analog Code Hypothesis; most research has studied visual imagery] A. Mental Rotation  (Shepard): timed same/different judgments for pairs of rotated  letters and depictions of 3­D  bjects  Original mental rotation task recorded how long it took people to determine  whether pairs of 3d objects were identical  RT was highly correlated with the degree of rotation, as if the Participant’s were viewing rotation objects and waiting for enough rotation so that they could be matched or compares, Participant’s apparently perform this task by rotating one object until it can be viewed from the dame perspective as the reference figure  Mean RT increases with degrees of rotation  RT is a linear function of amount of transformation (degrees of rotation) required  Sex Differences?: o B. Mental Paper Folding  (Shepard):  “Do 2 edges meet?” When folding a pattern into a cube do the marked edges meet?  RT = f(number of "folds" required) C. Image Sizing  (Kosslyn)   relative size of mental and sensory images is similar   Faster sentence verification for larger images (apples are round, tigers have stripes_0 D. Internal Psychophysics  – people take longer making decisions about mental objects when they are more similar to each other. 1. Symbolic Distance Effect (Moyer When asked which of 2 animals is larger, takes  longer when animals are a similar size.  (ex: which is larger mouse or chipmunk vs  elephant or rabbit)  2. Mental Clocks (Paivi –we take longer to judge angle of hands on (imaged) clocks  when hands are close together.     Ex: hands closer at 6 or 3:10….  5:30 or 7:15   E. Selective Interference :   ­Within modality > Cross­modality   e.g visual + visual > visual + auditory  Holds for both 2 percepts  and for  images + percepts           F. Image Scanning  (Kossly ­ time required for scanning mental and sensory images is  similar: increased ‘distance’  increased RT (even though eyes closed during imaging)  Experimenter Expectancy effect?  (see textbook, p. 217) G. Neuropsychology  (1) brain damage sometimes produces parallel impairments in imagery & perception  e.g., recognizing and visualizing faces  (2) neuroimaging   “many common neural processes underlie perception and depictive imagery” (Kosslyn & Thompson, 20 0) ex: a region of the occipital­temporal cortex called the fusiform face area is activated  both when we see faces and also when we imagine them  Eidetic Imagery? ­ a mental image that is so vivid and clear that is as if it is actually perceived ­ edetikers (people with eidetic imagery) are usually children and have images of limited  duration  ­ “photographic memory”= [accurate + detailed + LTM] Very little evidence for true “photographic memory” and some of this is Spatial Cognition Getting directions:  verbal instructions vs.  maps 1. Reversibility­ if you know A to B then you know B to A a. Often difficult with verbal instruction 2. Flexibility­ more than one route  a. Advantage of maps 3. Landmarks­  a. generally more landmarks given with verbal instruction b. some people especially women rely more on landmarks  Cognitive Maps (Tolman, 1948)  rats form "cognitive maps" that encode “routes and environmental relationships” ­vs. learning simple chains (S­R links) of responses  “Lashley reported incidentally the case of a couple of his rats who, after having learned a … maze,  pushed back the cover near the starting box, climbed out and ran directly across the top to the goal­ box where they climbed down in again and ate.  … such observations suggest that rats really  develop … spatial maps which include more than the mere trained­on specific[Tolman, 1948]  “The stimuli … are not connected by just simple one­to­one switches to the outgoing responses.  Rather, the incoming impulses are usually worked over and elaborated … into a tentative,  cognitive­like map of the environment. And it is this tentative map, indicating routes and paths and  environmental relationships, which finally determines what responses, if any, the animal will finally  release.[Tolman, 1948, p.193] Cognitive “map” is just an analogy; our cognitive maps have missing and distorted information; especially compared to survey maps Survey maps ­ accurately present distance and direction. versus Network maps ­ present important intersections (“nodes”) and other minimal  information needed for navigation.   Good for showing limited information.  more schematic; e.g., "distance" indicated by the # nodes.  show relative locations but not absolute distances or exact directions.  example: map for London “Tube”: see London tube map  example: Marta map: Marta map Cognitive maps are more like Network than Survey maps [1] limited info. [2] schematic [3] rarely reflect absolute distances or directions E.g., Distance estimates are larger if there are: 1* more landmarks (or cities and towns) along a route (e.g., urban vs. rural road)  more changes in direction [4] many judgments rely on heuristics Heuristics tend to simplify &/or reduce the variation in our mental maps. Heuristics: “rules of thumb”; general problems solving strategies that often lead to a good solution   tend to simplify and/or syandardize elements in our mental maps.    are used for many spatial judgments.    allow approximate but imprecise spatial judgments.   e.g., we tend to: 1. regularize (90) angles (right-angle bias): people tend to remember intersections that are roughly 90 degrees as 90 ( the first light we encounterwhile leaving bracket hall to get to moes is not 90 degrees but if asked to draw a map we would draw it as so) 2. remember things are more symmetrical (symmetry heuristic):   a. e.g., slightly curved roads are straightened; irregularly curved roads may seem to have a uniform curvature.  3. remember things (singular) as more vertical or horizontal (rotation heuristic) 4. align things to make comparisons (alignment heuristic).  I.e., we tend to make  landmarks and boundaries in our mental maps better aligned than they actually are. (e.g. the tendency to line up the U.S. and Europe)  Visual-Spatial Abilities Appear to be at least 5 qualitatively different kinds of visual­spatial ability:   1. Field Independence  requires identification of orientation while ignoring distracting  info. ex.  Rod & Frame Test; Water-Level Task (Piaget) 2. Mental Rotation  both timed and untimed tests; related to route learning 3. Spatial Visualization  complex, analytic, multistep processing of spatial info.   ex.  Embedded Figures Test; paper folding; hidden figures 4. Spatiotemporal Ability  involves judgments about, and responses to, dynamic visual  displays.   a. Examples:  i. (1) time­of­arrival judgments,  ii. (2) judging when a target is coincident with a stationary line,  iii. (3) velocity judgments   5. Object (Spatial) Location Memory  a. Example: Silverman and eals object location memory task: the task is to  identify the items that have changed location from one array to another Sex Differences?  males are consistently better on types except spatial visualization (#3) {such as  mental paper folding}   males are more likely to use imagery when solving problems   females are sometimes better on Spatial Location Memory task (#5) (Silverman & Eals)  Sex differences in “Real-world” tasks?  men learn a route from a 2­D map faster and with fewer errors (women learn  more landmark details and street names).  ______  do better on tests of wayfinding – e.g., take circuitous route through  unfamiliar woods while (1) setting arrows to point at start point, & then (2) lead way  back to start point via shortest route.   [performance  mental rotation ability but not  IQ]  Men trying to escape a 3­D virtual­reality maze got out of the maze faster than  women (M = 2:22 vs. 3:16).   [Also found some sex differences in the brain structures utilized  during this task.(Riepe et al., Nature: Neuroscience, 2000)  Sex Differences in Cognition: Is there an inherited component? The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities Our evolutionary past included a division of labor wherein males had primary responsibility for hunting and group defense, whereas women’s primary roles included gathering, child care and, perhaps, food prep. Thus, there would be differential selection pressures for males and females. E.g., more selection pressure on men for targeting and long-range navigation skills. Sex Differences I. Spatial Ability  Men tend to perform better than women on some tests of spatial ability, especially  mental rotations tests.  E.g., mean performance of men on a Mental Rotations Test is  about 1 SD higher than women.  Meta­analysis  (Voyer, 2011) and cross­cultural studies  confirm male advantage in mental rotation tasks   Male mammals tend to perform better than females on tests of spatial ability in species in which males have larger home ranges; Females tend to perform better than males on tests of spatial ability in species in which females tend to perform better than males (e.g.,  brood parasitic cowbirds).  [Sex] differences in spatial ability are associated with a larger hippocampus in non­ human mammals.    Men tend to perform better on some tests of spatial ability  Ex: mean performance of men on mental rotation test is about 1 SD higher than  women  Meta­ analysis confirms male advantage in mental rotation tasks which is largest when there are time constraints   Cross­cultural data: women scores significantly higher than men on a test of object  location memory in all 7 ethnic groups and 35 of the 40 countries used  More variation in men, resulting in more males at both extremes   Sex differences in spatial ability can be affected by experience   Mental rotation scores were changed by 10 hrs (or more) of playing action  video games II. Math  males get higher scores on math reasoning & problem­solving aptitude (E.G., SAT)  tests;  whereas females do as well on tests involving lower level skills (e.g., state  assessment tests).    Females do better on school achievement tests for math (as in all other subjects).    Sex differences is most obvious at highest levels of achievement and ability (mostly  males); evident even in preschoolers  Males are more variable than females, resulting in more males at both extremes     III. Language  Women tend to be better at fluency, spelling, grammatical usage, and reading.  IV. Episodic Memory – on average, better in females Sex difference in cognition: overall conclusions I. there are small to moderate difference on several abilities  II. Within gender variability is typically much greater than between­gender variability


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