New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EARTH 2 Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: logeybearrr

EARTH 2 Midterm 1 Study Guide 12526

GPA 3.75

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide covers Chapters 1 and 2. If the professor announces in the next few days that Chapter 3 is also on the first midterm, I will upload an auxiliary file upon request.
Study Guide
EARTH, Earth 2, Gans, Geology
50 ?




Popular in EARTH 2

Popular in Earth Sciences

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by logeybearrr on Sunday October 19, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 12526 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Gans in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see EARTH 2 in Earth Sciences at University of California Santa Barbara.

Popular in Earth Sciences


Reviews for EARTH 2 Midterm 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/19/14
Ortega 1 Earth 2 Midterm 1 Study Guide GANS ESSENTIALS OF GEOLOGY 4TH EDITION Chapter 1 The Earth in Context 11 Introduction Universe all of space and all the matter and energy within it Cosmology the study of the overall structure and history of the Universe 12 An Image of Our Universe Geocentric Model the Earth sat without moving at the center of the Universe Heliocentric Model the Sun lay at the center of the Universe Gravity the attractive force that one object exerts on another Matter the substance of the Universe takes up space and you can feel it Mass the amount of matter in an object Density amount of mass occupying a given volume of space Weight the force that acts on an object due to gravity Star an immense ball of incandescent gas that emits intense heat and light Galaxy immense group of stars held together by gravity Solar System the Sun and its gravitational pull on many objects Planet object that orbits a star is roughly spherical and has cleared its neighborhood of other objects Terrestrial Planets inner planets relatively small and consist of a shell of rock surround a ball of metallic iron alloy Giant Planets outer planets ice giants or gas giants Moon a sizable body locked in orbit around a planet most moons are small and have irregular shapes 13 Forming the Universe Waves disturbances that transmit energy from one point to another in the form of periodic motions Wavelength the distance between successive waves Frequency the number of waves that pass a point in a given time interval Doppler Effect the phenomenon in which the frequency of wave energy appears to change when a moving source of was energy passes an observer Red Shift If a light source moves away from you the light you see becomes redder as the light shifts to longer wavelength or lower frequency Blue Shift If a light source moves toward you the light you see becomes bluer as the light shifts to higher frequency These shifts happen because red light has a longer wavelength lower frequency than blue light Red shift tells us that the universe is expanding Big Bang Theory all matter and energy everything that now constitutes the Universe was initially packed into an infinitesimally small point Nebula cloud of gas or dust in space Protostar a dense body of gas that is collapsing inward because of gravitational forces and that may eventually become a star Supernova a giant explosion that blasts much of the star s matter back into space Birth of Stars 1 gravitational pull of an initially more massive region of a nebula began to suck in surrounding gas and grew in mass and density Ortega 2 2 gas continues to move inward cramming into a progressively smaller volume and the rotation rate becomes faster and faster 3 the nebular evolves into a disk shape 4 gravity collapses the inner portion of the disk into a dense ball 5 the central ball of the disk becomes hot enough to glow and becomes a protostar 6 nuclear fusion reactions begin in protostar the body ignited and became a star 7 the larger the star the hotter it burns and the faster it runs out of fuel and dies 14 We Are All Made of Stardust Stellar Nucleosynthesis the production of new larger atoms by fusion reactions in stars the process generates more massive elements that were not produced by the Big Bang Stellar Wind stream of atoms emitted from a star during its lifetime after moving fast enough to overcome the star s gravitation pull Nebular Theory of Planet Formation the concept that planets grow out of rings of gas dust and ice surrounding a newborn star Protoplanetary Disk the material in the flattened outer part of the disk Volatile Materials materials that can exists as a gas at the Earth s surface Refractory Materials materials that melt only at high temperatures and condense to form solid sootsized particles of dust in the coldness of space Differentiation a process early in a panet s history during which dense iron alloy melted and sank downward to form the core leaving lessdense mantle behind 15 Welcome to the Neighborhood Earth System Atmosphere Earth s gaseous envelope Hydrosphere Earth s surface and nearsurface water Biosphere Earth s great variety of life forms Lithosphere the outer shell of the Earth Interior material inside the Earth Earth s Atmosphere 78 nitrogen 21 oxygen and minor amounts of carbon dioxide neon methane ozone carbon monoxide sulfur dioxide From top to bottom thermosphere menopause mesosphere stratopause stratosphere tropopause troposphere Lands and Oceans Sediment an accumulation of loose mineral grains such as boulders pebbles sand silt or mud that are not cemented together Topography variations in elevation on land Bathymetry variations in ocean depth 16 Looking Inward Introducing the Earth s Interior Organic Chemicals carbon containing compounds Minerals solid natural substance in which atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern is a mineral Glasses solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern Rocks aggregates of mineral crystals or grains or masses of natural glass Igneous Rocks develop when hot molten liquid rocks cools and freezes solid Sedimentary Rocks form from grains that break off preexisting rock and become cemented together Metamorphic Rocks form when preexisting rocks change in response to heat and pressure Sediment accumulation of loose mineral grains that have not stuck together Ortega 3 Metals solids composed of metal atoms Alloy mixture containing more than one type of metal atom Melts forms when solid materials become hot and transform into liquid Magma molten rock type of melt beneath the Earth s surface Lava molten rock that has flowed out onto the Earth s surface Volatiles easily transform into gas at the relatively low temperatures found at the Earth s sunace Silica compound of silicon and oxygen that decreases the density of a rock as it increases Crust rock that makes up the outermost layer of the Earth Mantle the thick layer of rock below the Earth s crust and above the core Core the dense ironrich center of the Earth Geothermal Gradient the rate of change in temperature with depth 17 What Are the Layers Made Of Moho the seismicvelocity discontinuity that defines the boundary between the Earth s crust and mantle Oceanic Crust 710 km thick Continental Crust 3540 km thick Upper Mantle the uppermost section of the mantle reaching down to a depth of 400 km Lower Mantle the deepest section of the mantle stretching from 670 km down to the core mantle boundary flows slowly Transition Zone the middle part of the mantle from 400670 km deep in which there are several jumps in seismic velocity Inner Core the inner section of the core extending from 5155 km deep to the Earth s center at 6371 km and consisting of solid iron alloy Hotter than the outer core but the greater pressure prevents flow Outer Core the sec ion of the core between 2900 and 5150 km deep that consists of liquid iron alloy flows slowly Lithosphere outer shell composed of rock that cannot flow easily and consists of the crust and upper mantle Asthenosphere layer of the mantle that lies between 100150 km and 350 km deep the asthenosphere is relatively soft and can flow when acted on by force upper mantle Chapter 2 The Way the Earth Works Plate Tectonics 21 Introduction Seafloor spreading the gradual widening of an ocean basin as new oceanic crust forms at a middean ridge axis and ten moves away from the axis Subduction the process by which one oceanic plate bends and sinks down into the asthenosphere beneath another plate Theory of Plate Tectonics the theory that the outer layer of the Earth the lithosphere consists of separate plates that move with respect to another 22 Wegener s Evidence for Continental Drift Fit of the Continents all the continents could be joined with remarkably few overlaps or gaps to create Pangaea Glaciations as a glacier flows it carries sediment grains of all sizes and cause striations Striations scratches caused by grains protruding from the base of the moving ice Ortega 4 when the ice melts it leaves the sediment in a deposit called till that buries striations till and striations together serve as evidence that the region was covered by a glacier Distribution of Climatic Belts the distribution of late Paleozoic coal reef sanddune and salt deposits could define climate belts on Pangaea in the portions of Pangaea that Wegener predicted would be subtropical equatorial areas late Paleozoic sedimentary rock layers include relicts of desert dunes and deposits of salt Distribution of Fossils similar species have been found on continents distanced by oceans and it can t be explained by migration patterns Criticism Wegener could not adequately explain how or why the continents drifted so his theory was met with criticism 23 Paleomagnetism and the Proof of Continent Drift Rocks preserve paleomagnetism a record of Earth s magnetic field in the past Circulation of liquid iron alloy in the outer core of the Earth generates a magnetic field Magnetic Declination the angle between the direction that a compass needle points and a line of longitude at a given location Magnetic Inclination the angle between a magnetic field line and the surface of the Earth at a given location Paleomagnetism the record of ancient magnetism preserved in rock the magnetic field of the rock is not the same as that of present day Earth Paleopole the supposed position of the Earth s magnetic north pole in the past Apparent PolarWander Path the successive positions of dated paleopoles trace out a curving line each continent has a different apparent polarwander path it s not the pole that moves relative to fixed continents but rather the continents that move relative to a fixed pole the continents must move with respect to each other 24 The Discovery of SeaFloor Spreading Abyssal Plains broad relatively flat regions of the ocean floor MidOcean Ridges submarine mountain ranges DeepOcean Trenches border volcanic arcs Volcanic Arcs curving chains of active volcanoes Seamount Chains Seamount isolated submarine mountains that were once volcanoes but no longer erupt volcanic islands and seamounts typically occur in chains contrary to volcanic arcs only one island at the end of a seamount and island chain remains capable of erupting volcanically Fracture Zones a narrow band of vertical fractures in the ocean floor fracture zones lie roughly at right angles to a midocean ridge and the actively slipping part of a fracture zone is a transform fault Harry Hess and Essay in Geopoetry the ocean floor is much younger than the continents the crust near midocean ridges are younger than deeper parts closer to trenches molten rock basaltic magma rises upward beneath midocean ridges and this material solidifies to form ocean crust the new sea floor then moves away from the ridge seafloor spreading Ortega 5 continents passively move apart as the sea floor between them spreads at midocean ridges and they passively move together as the sea floor between them sinks back into the mantle at trenches 25 Evidence for SeaFloor Spreading The existence of orderly variations in the strength of the measured magnetic field over the sea floor marine magnetic anomalies the main dipole of the Earth is generated by circulation of molten iron in the outer core Magnetic Anomaly the difference between the expected strength of the Earth s main dipole field at a certain location and the actual measured strength of the magnetic field at that location Positive Anomaly places where the field strength is stronger than expected Negative Anomaly places where the field strength is weaker than expected Marine Magnetic Anomalies defined distinctive bands of alternating positive and negative anomalies the polarity of the paleomagnetic field preserved in some layers was the same as that of Earth s present magnetic field whereas in other layers it was the opposite Polarity which end of a magnet points north and which end points south Magnetic Reversal a time when the Earth s field flips from normal to reversed polarity or vice versa Chron the time interval between successive reversals The variation in sediment thickness on the ocean crust the sediment layer is progressively thicker and older away from a midocean ridge 26 What Do We Mean by Plate Tectonics Lithosphere consists of the crust plus the top cooler part of the upper mantle Asthenosphere composed of warmer mantle that can flow slowly when acted on by a force the lithosphere floats on the asthenosphere L lifted the continental lithosphere floats at a higher level than the ocean lithosphere the lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to each other some plates consist of both oceanic and continental lithosphere Active Margin continental margin that coincides with a plate boundary Passive Margin continental margin that is not a plate boundary Continental Margin boundary between a continent and an ocean Divergent Boundary boundary at which two plates move part from each other Convergent Boundary boundary at which two pates move toward each other so that one plate sinks beneath the other or collide in the case of continentcontinent Transform Boundary boundary at which two plates slide sidewarts past each other 27 Divergent Plate Boundaries and SeaFloor Spreading Divergent Boundary is analogous to midocean ridge How Does Oceanic Crust Form at a MidOcean Ridge 1 magma has a lower density than solid rock so it behaves buoyantly and rises 2 the resulting lava cools to form a layer of basalt blobs called pillows 3 as soon as it forms new oceanic crust moves away from the midocean ridge so more magma rises from below 4 result the youngest sea floor occurs on either side of the midocean ridge Black Smokers chimney that spews hot mineralized water that looks like a cloud of dark smoke How Does the Lithospheric Mantle Form at a MidOcean Ridge the lithospheric mantle beneath the midocean ridge effectively doesn t exist Ortega 6 technically as the newly formed oceanic crust moves away the crust and uppermost mantle directly below cools and becomes part of the lithosphere as lithosphere thickens and gets cooler and denser it sinks down into the asthenosphere consequently the ocean is deeper over older ocean floor than over younger ocean floor 28 Convergent Plate Boundaries and Subduction At convergent plate boundaries two plates at least one of which is oceanic move toward one another One oceanic plate bends and sinks down into the asthenosphere beneath the other plate subduction Marked by deepocean trenches Convergent boundaries also referred to as subduction zones or trenches Oceanic lithosphere after aging 10 million years is denser than the asthenosphere and will readily sink into the lower mantle because of subduction the ocean lithosphere is much younger than any continental lithosphere Continental Crust cannot be subjected because it is too buoyant WadatiBenioff Zone a sloping band of seismicity defined by intermediate and deep focus earthquakes that occur in the down going slab of a convergent plate boundary Geologic Features of a Convergent Boundary Accretionary Prism a wedge shapes mass of sediment and rock scraped off the top of a down going plate and accreted onto the overriding plate at a convergent plate margin Volcanic Arc develops behind accretionary prisms if the volcanic arc forms where an oceanic plate sub ducts beneath continental lithosphere a continental volcanic arc forms when one oceanic plate sub ducts beneath another oceanic plate the resulting volcanoes form a volcanic island arc 29 Transform Plate Boundaries Fracture Zones short segments that appear to be offset laterally form each other by narrow belts of broken and irregular sea floor at midocean ridges earthquakes active fault slip occur only on the segment of a fracture zone that lies between two ridge segments Fracture Zones formed at the same time as the ridge axis itself midocean ridge the ridge consisted of separate segments to start with and these segments were linked not offset by fracture zones Transform Boundary Fault the actively slipping segment of a fracture zone between two ridge segments one plate slides sideways past another but no new plate forms and no old plate is consumed defined by a vertical fault on which the slip direction parallels the Earth s surface Not all transform boundaries link midocean ridge segments 210 Special Locations in the Plate Mosaic Triple Junction a place where three plate boundaries intersect Hot Spots volcanoes that are not a consequence of movement at a plate boundary volcanoes of volcanic arcs and midocean ridges are plate boundary volcanoes active hot spot volcanoes occur at the end of a chain of dead volcanic islands and seamounts Mantle Plume the heat source for hot spots a column of very hot rock rising up through the mantle to the base of the lithosphere Ortega 7 Hot Spot Track the chain of extinct volcanoes that form when the overlying plate moves over a fixed plume 211 How Do Plate Boundaries Form and Die Rifting the formation of a divergent boundary when a continent splits and separates into two continents Continental Rift a linear belt in which continental lithosphere pulls apart the lithosphere that stretches horizontal and thins vertically is the rift sometimes rifting stops before the continent splits in two and becomes a lowlying trough that fills with sediment Collision the death of a convergent boundary when a piece of buoyant lithosphere moves into the subduction zone and jams up the system the formation of the Himalayan Mountains when subduction consumed the ocean between India and Asia 212 What Drives Plate Motion and How Fast Do Plates Move RidgePush Force the lithosphere of midocean ridges lies a higher elevation than that of the adjacent abyssal plains SlabPull Force the lithosphere that was formed more than 10 million years ago is denser than the asthenosphere so it can sink into the asthenosphere Plates move at 1 to 15 cmyr Relative Plate Velocity specifies the rate that a plate moves relative to its neighbor Absolute Plate Velocity specifies the rate that a plate moves relative to a fixed point beneath the plate GPS measurements can detect relative plate motions directly


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.