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Study Guide for Exam

by: Jasmond Notetaker

Study Guide for Exam BIO 210 - 01

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > BIO 210 - 01 > Study Guide for Exam
Jasmond Notetaker
La Salle
Cell Bio and Genetics
David S. Zuzga

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About this Document

A recap and intro of a few new topics including a brief overview of protein folding
Cell Bio and Genetics
David S. Zuzga
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmond Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 210 - 01 at La Salle University taught by David S. Zuzga in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Cell Bio and Genetics in Biology at La Salle University.

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Date Created: 10/04/15
Bio 210 Day 6 September 16 2015 The Fundamental Units of Life 0 The cell is the simplest unit of life 0 All organisms are made of cells 0 Cells can differ substantially from one another but share common features deconvolute Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 0 Basic features of all cells 0 Plasma membrane 0 Semi uid substance called cytosol 0 Chromosomes carry genes 0 Ribosomes make proteins Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having 0 No nucleus Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having 0 DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope 0 Membranebound organelles The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen nutrients and waste to service the volume of every cell Bio 210 Day 7 September 18 2015 Cell signaling processes information and controlsregulates cell processes Concept 63 The eukaryotic cell s genetic instructions or recipes for proteins are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes O The nucleus contains most of the cell s genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus separating it from the cytoplasm O The nuclear membrane is a double membrane each membrane consists of a lipid bilayer Bio 210 Day 8 September 21 2015 Carbon The Backbone of Life 0 Living organisms consist mostly of carbonbased compounds 0 Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large complex and varied molecules Concept 42 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms The Formation of BoncLs with Carbon 0 Four valence electrons carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms as well as double bonds The Birth of Organic Chemistry 0 Vitalism was the belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws 0 Proved wrong when chemists were able to synthesize organic compounds 0 Urea was the first compound to disprove vitalism Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeletons 0 Carbon chains form the skeleton of most organic molecules Hydrocarbons 0 are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen 0 Can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy Isomers 0 are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties have different covalent arrangements of their atoms have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements 0 are important in the pharmaceutical industry 0 Differing effects of enantiomers demonstrate that organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in molecules Concept 43 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function 0 are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in the chemistry of life The seven functional groups 0 Hydroxyl group 0 Carbonyl group 0 Carboxyl group 0 Amino group 0 Sul iydryl group 0 Phosphate group 0 Methyl group ATP An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes 0 An important organic phosphate is Bio 210 Day 9 September 30 2015 are large molecules and are complex Concept 51 Macromolecules are polymers built from monomers 0 The repeating units that serve as building blocks are called Three of the four classes of life s organic molecules are polymers 0 Carbohydrates 0 Proteins 0 Nucleic Acids The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers 0 are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions such as those that make or break down polymers 0 A occurs When two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule 0 Polymers are disassembled to monomers by a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction Concept 52 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material 0 include sugars and the polymers of sugars 0 The simplest carbohydrates monomers are or simple sugars Sugars 0 Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH 20 0 The location of the as aldose or ketose 0 A is formed When a dehydration reactions joins two monosaccharides 0 This covalent bond is called the polymers of sugars have storage and structural roles Storage Polysaccharides 0 a storage polysaccharide of plants consists entirely of glucose monomers 0 is a storage polysaccharide in animals Structural Polysaccharides 0 The polysaccharide is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules 0 are the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers Fats 0 are constructed from two types of smaller molecules glycerol and fatty acids 0 is a threecarbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon 0 A consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton 0 In a fat three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage creating a or triglyceride have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds 0 have one or more double bonds Phospholipids 0 In a two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol Steroids 0 are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Bio 210 Day 10 October 2 2015 The of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain is determined by interactions among various side chains results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains include hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds and van der Waals interactions


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