Quiz 1 & 2
Quiz 1 & 2
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aleris Lucenti on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Quizzes 1 and 2 0 Cell TheoryAll living organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the most basic unit of life All cells by definition are confined by cell membrane Cells are composed from the same building blocks Most cells contain genetic material All cells use the same genetic code All cells only arise from preexisting cells by cell division 0 Diversity 0 Living organisms show differences in form and function but despite that they all share certain characteristics that show evidence that all organisms evolved from a common ancestor Cell observation using microscopes resolutionmagnification 0 Light microscope 0 Bright field Phasecontrast Interfacecontrast Fixed samples Allows magnification up to 1000 times Resolveincrease level of detail 02 micrometer Usage Light focused by lenses in the condenser Prepare specimen carefully to allow light thru Appropriate set of lensesobjective Fluorescence microscope Use of fluorescent dyes to stain cells 0 Illuminating light passed via two filters First filter filters light before reaching specimen passing the wavelengths and excite the dye QQQ Second filter blocks out the light and passes only via those wavelengths and emits when dye fluoresces 0 Confocal Microscope Resolve 10 micrometer Specialized type of fluorescence Scans specimen with a laser beam Gives a 2d image 0 Transmission Electron Microscope Uses a beam of electrons and magnetic coils to focus the beam Specimen place on vacuum must be very thin Stained with electrons Resolve 1nanometernm Magnification up to a million fold 0 Scanning Electron Microscope Specimen coated by very thin film of heavy metal Scanned by beam electrons and focused by magnetic coils Images 3D Resolve bw 3nm amp 20nm5micrometer 39339 Prokaryotic Types Bacteria Archaea 1 Bacteria sphericall cells eg Streptococcus rodshe pied cells eg Escherichia coli Salmonella spiral cells eg Treponema pallide Figure 1i 1939 Essential Cell Biology 41h ed l Gailandl Science 2014 2 Archaea 0 Eukaryotic cells a Examples 0 Animalsmulticellular 0 Plants 0 Fungimulti o Protists algae plankton Nucleus Cell membrane Genetic DNA RibosomesProtein amp RNA complex responsible for protein synthesis Cytoplasmincludes cytoskeleton o Cytoskeleton Make the cell structure and allow movement Types Actin filaments Microtobules Intermediate filaments Size 15 micrometer average 0 Organelles Mitochondria The generator of chemical energy for the cell ATP Sugar oxidation and cellular respka on Endosymbiotic hypothesis originated from pre eukaryotic cells Golgi apparatus Protein modification and packaging Lysosomes Break down different biomolecules ERRough Endoplasmic ReticulumSmooth ER Protein synthesis RER Carbohydrates and lipids metabolism SER Vesiclesvacuole for plants cell ExocytosisEndocytosis Chloroplast plants cells only plastids Sunlight trap chlorophyll Produce sugars which is oxidized in mitochondria to produce ATP Peroxisomes Break down toxic molecules using H202 Cell wapants cell made of cellulose oz Endosymbiotic Evolution Theory evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes It states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as a symbiosis between separate singlecelled organisms oz Atomic structure consists of electrons protons neutrons in an atom o Electrons are the smallest of the three particles that make up atoms Electrons are found in shells or orbitals that surround the nucleus of an atom o Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus They group together in the center of the atom 39339 Basic understanding of Chemical bonds 0 Chemical bonds are formed when the electrons in an atom interact with the electrons in another atom This allows for the formation of more complex molecules 0 There are 3 types of chemical bonds Bond Strength Description Example Bonding of Covalent Strong Two atoms share Oxygen and electrons Hydrogen In H20 Oppositer charged ions are attracted to Bond between Ionic Moderate each other Na and CI in Gainlose salt electrons Forms between oppositely charges portions of Bonds between Hydrogen Weak covalently bonded water hydrogen atoms molecules Electrons not evenly shared o Polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment Non polar A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair Example In HH each H atom has an electronegativity value of 21 therefore the covalent bond between them is considered nonpolar 0 PolarA bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have different electro negativities and therefore have unequal sharing of the bonding electron pair Example In HCl the electronegativity of the Cl atom is 30 While that of the H atom is 21 Polar Molecule A molecule in which the bond dipoles present do not cancel each other out and thus results in a molecular dipole Cancellation depends on the shape of the molecule or Stereochemistry and the orientation of the polar bonds Molecular Dipole O 69 O 69 A result of the bond dipoles in a molecule Bond dipoles may or may not cancel out thereby producing either molecules that are nonpolar if they cancel or polar if they do not cancel Examples 0 C02 is a linear molecule With 2 bond dipoles that are equal and oppositely directed therefore the bond polarities cancel and the molecule is nonpolar 1 Ir ncu Acid A molecule that release a proton when dissolved in water generates hydronium ions thereby lowers PH Base Molecule that accepts a proton when dissolved in water PH more than 7
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