Testling 6 Chem 1110-009
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1110-009 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Amy Phelps in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Testling 6 Study Guide Atomic Radius The distance between the nucleus and the outer electrons of a neutral atom Ionic Radius the distance between the nucleus and the outer electrons of an ion cation positive or anion negative lsoelectronic Particles atoms or ions that have the same number of electrons in them Ionized Energy IE first ionization energy IE1 the energy needed to remove an electron from an isolated atom or ion in the gas phase always has to do with energy that is required to give away electrons Successfuladditional ionized energies can also be measured Second ionized energy IE 2 is the energy needed to remove the second electron from an atom Eg Xg 9 X e39 IE1 Xg a x2 e 1E2 1 Electron nucleus interaction is attractive because the electrons and protons have opposite charges and opposite charges attract each other 2 The electron electron interaction is repulsive because electrons have the same charge and molecules with the same charge repel each other 3 The attraction to the nucleus of an atom will decrease when the electrons are farther away from the nucleus The electrons are also more likely to be taken by another atom 4 The attraction to the nucleus of an atom will increase with ionized energy because electrons are closer to the nucleus and therefore it will take more energy to take them away from the atom 5 The size of an atom will increase when there are more electrons because the negative charges of the electrons cause them to repel each other Due to the electrons being farther away from the nucleus less energy is required for the electrons to be taken by another atom 6 The size of an atom will decrease with ionized energy because the electrons are closer to the nucleus and are attracted to it due to its positive charge The result of this is that more energy is required to remove an electron from the atom 7 When helium and lithium are comparted a Lithium has more protons b Adding protons to an atom will increase the number of electrons due to the increased positive charge in the nucleus c Lithium has more electrons d If the number of protons and electrons are the same then the electrons will be closer to the nucleus due to the opposite charges If the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons the electrons will be less attracted to the nucleus due to there being more negative charges than positive charges 9 Due to lithium having more electrons the atom is larger than the helium atom It also has more ionized energy which means that less energy is required to take the 3rd electron away from the atom because it is farther away from the nucleus Valence shells are only added as you move down the rows of the periodic table 1 7 8 In the first column of the periodic table HFr the atoms get larger because more electrons are added which means that they are further away from the nucleus Noble gasses increase in size as you move down the column due to there being more electrons H K amp Fr have one more electron than the noble gas that they are closest to a H 151 b K 2 Ar 451 c Fr Rn 751 As you look across the rows of the periodic table atoms become smaller This is because the nucleus becomes more positive and has a stronger pull on the electrons causing them to move in closer to the nucleus increase in effective nuclear charge due to more protons amp the electrons are being placed in the same energy lvl 9 not moving to a new valence shell Atoms on the far left of the periodic table are larger As you move right across the row the atoms get smaller in order to try and match the size of the closest noble gas When an atom gains electrons its atomic and ionic radii become larger because there are more electrons and with more electrons they repel each other Condensed configuration of O and 02 a Oxygen starts out with 8 electrons If it gains two electrons it becomes oxide which has 10 electrons this is the same number of electrons as the noble gas NE b Oxygen is a stable atom having 8 electrons Oxide is ionized due to having 10 electrons Atoms that gain electrons become larger because the ionized atom has more electrons to repel each other This decreases the radius i O 1522522p 1 ii 02 1522522p6 6 instead of4 due to there being 2 extra electrons The atomic 8 ionic radii decrease when an atom becomes a cation loses electronsthen has a positive charge Condensed configuration of Li and Li a Li 152251 b Li 152 c Li has 3 electrons d Li ls2 has 2 electrons this is because it gave away an election and is now a cation The valence shell was removed causing the atom to become smaller and there to be more protons than electrons This means that the radius has become smaller as well 9 lsoelectronic ions have the same electronic arrangement a All of these have the same number of electrons b The ionic radii for these isoelectronic ions are trying to gain or lose electrons in order to have the same number electrons as the nearest noble gas c The trend in the ionic radii for these isoelectronic ions exists because there are more protons than electrons the radius decreases When there are more electrons than protons the radius decreases because the nucleus has a positive charge and it attracts more electrons in order to become stable When the nucleus has a negative charge it is unstable and is unable to attract as many electrons f cr K Cay 323 P is 17 19 20 21 e39 f if 18 18 18 i 18 a 18 0nic radius pm 184 181 133 88 81 1 The first ionized energies decrease as you move down the columnfamily decrease The electrons have less attraction due to being further away from the nucleus The atom is bigger so it has a less effective nuclear charge This means it requires less energy to remove the extra electron 2 The size of the atoms increases as you move down the column The atomic radii can be used to explain this because the valence shell moves further from the nucleus as you move down the column and less energy is required for an electron to be taken away 3 The first ionized energy on the periodic table going across the row from left to right increases The size of atoms decrease as you go across a row from left to right The atomic radii can be used to explain this because the initial shielding is farther away from the nucleus and as you move across the row the protons pull the electrons closer to the nucleus and cause the radius to shrink a Irregularities B 9 Be N 9 O 9 Mg 9 Al amp P 9 S increase instead ofdecrease i The first ionized energy for Be loses a 25 electron and B loses a 2p electron B becomes more stable because it loses an electron causing it to become more stable and have a full valence shell Be loses an electron and becomes less stable because it no longer has a full valence shell 1 This is the same for the other irregularities successive IE losing 1 2nd 81 3rd electrons 9 sometimes until you have lost all electrons 9 taking more than one electron it is easier to get the 1St electron because it is the furthest away from the nucleus It is harder to take the next few electrons because it requires more energy and they are closer to the nucleus the atom is smaller noble gasses are stable other atoms want to look like noble gases protons determin the type of atom 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 H hydrogen He helium Li lithium Be beryllium B boron C Carbon N nitrogen 0 oxygen F fluorine Ne neon Na sodium lVlg magnesium Al aluminum Si siicon P phosphorus S sulfur Cl chlorine Ar argon 38 Sr strontium 47 Ag silver 50 Sn tin 53 iodine 56 Ba barium Periodic Table 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Trends in formulas K potassium Ca calcium Sc scandium Ti titanium V Vanadium Cr chromium Mn manganese Fe iron Co cobolt Ni nickel Cu copper Zn zinc Ga galium Ge geranium As arsenic Se selenium Br bromine Kr krypton 79 Au gold 80 Hg mercury 82 Pb lead 92 U uranium NaCL sodium chloride LlCl lithium chloride MgCL2 magnesium chloride C02 carbon dioxide CCI4 carbon tetrachloride Nags sodium sulfide MgO magnesium oxide AlC3 aluminum chloride 50 sulfur dioxide N204 nitrogen tetraoxide FeClz iron chloride CO carbon monoxide N02 nitrogen dioxide FegOg iron Ill oxide CuO copper ll oxide Cuzo copper I oxide CIZ amp C3 chloride Tetra 4 Di 2 Mon 1 Roman numerals used on transition metals indicate charge Zinc always has a 2 charge Silver always has a 1 charge Oxygen always has a 2 charge due to place on periodic table Left side of periodic table metal except H 6 columns on right non metal CuSO4 copper ll sulfate no charge 504 sulfate has charge of 2 amp Cu copper II has a charge of 2 RULES FOR NAMING BINARY COMPOUNDS 1 All end in ide a ide ending is affixed to a nonmetal main group metals wnonmetal stay metal amp nonmetal wide non metal wnon metal use prefix to count atoms in formula a mono never use on first element b di 2 2 c tri 3 d tetra 4 e penta 5 roman numeral tells charge metals wmore than one charge wnon metal Polyatomic Ions more than one type of atom joined by a covalent bond bond where atoms share electrons equally stable 804392 sulfate 503 2 sulfite N031 nitrate NOZ391 nitrite MnO4 1 permanganate PO4393 phosphate 001 chlorate CrOif2 chromate C032 carbonate HC03391 bicarbonate hydrogen carbonate c2H3oz391 CH3COO391 CH3C02391 acetate OHquot1 hydroxide On the periodic table all elements in the first columnfamily except for H have a positive charge They lose one electron in order to become the same as the noble gas preceding them All try to become isoelectronic with noble gases
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