Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday October 20, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.
Reviews for Midtermstudyguide.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/20/14
Midterm Study Guide Possible Identifications Description and Significance Benedict Arnold Oct 1776 Using a naval offensive against the British eet at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain Arnold sought a way to delay Carlton s British eet from reaching Ft Ticonderoga where American rebels were holed up after their recent defeat at Quebec Arnold engaged the eet using his small eet of gunboats to attack them Although Arnold s eet was heavily damaged he managed to escape under cover of darkness and heavy fog and made for Ft Ticonderoga His desperate improvised efforts on Lake Champlain ultimately slowed the British eet enough so that by winter the frozen lake became unpassable as a route to New York where this eet was expected to join others coming from the south and link up in Albany as part of the Hudson Highland strategy Benjamin Martin Not a real person He is a composite character played by Mel Gibson in the film The Patriot which is not an historically accurate depiction of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution Loosely based on the activities of Marion Swamp Fox Martin British Hudson Highlands strategy Northern phase of the Am Revolution The first of the British 2part strategy the Northern strategy involved a concentration of forces to gain control of the Hudson River corridor in order to cut off New England the epicenter of the American rebellion from the remaining colonies depriving it of support This strategy involved establishing a base in New York in an effort to capture the surrounding countryside and thereby increase their supply base It also anticipated a Loyalist support which never actually materialized which would also crush the rebellion British Southern strategy Southern phase of the Am Revolution 17781781 The bloodiest phase With the Battle of Saratoga won in 1777 and the loss of over SK British troops the British turned to a southern strategy which was to involve careful steps beginning by capturing Savana and then Charles Town then sweeping northward by securing the countryside of each colony The effect ideally was to clear out and crush the rebellion and secure supply bases To aide this strategy it was thought that Loyalist would help in the resistance and help reestablish Royal authority Bunker Hill 1775 1775 One of the first decisive shows of American strength actually fought on Breed s Hill which showed the British had grossly underestimated American rebel enthusiasm and fighting ability and lead to British substantially increasing troop strength and the amassing of thousands of British Regulars in New York in 1776 The American rebels were able to repel British Regulars charges up the hill 3X but eventually lost the hill as their supplies and amo ran low and they scattered Camden SC 1780 August 1780 S Carolina Part of the Southern Strategy The Battle of Camden led by Hoatio Gates the worst American battle defeat of the Revolution Gates ed leaving his men leaderless Camden represented the 2 major loss by rebels in the Southern Campaign It strengthened their hold on S Carolina Charles Lord Cornwallis Second in Command to Gen Henry Clinton 1778 Captures Charles Town Marching inland where he routed the army under Horatio Gates at Camden SC in August then pushed up into North Carolina There in 1780 he met with Gate s replacement Nathaniel Greene who d taken command of American forces in the South Splits army up never done into three parts 1 one detachment under Daniel Morgan routs Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens January 1781 Enraged Cornwallis pursued Greene north breaks the careful stepbystep strategy The two finally met up March 1781 at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse N Carolina Cornwallis wins forcing Greene to retreat With his army battered Cornwallis continue onto Virginia where the French blockade his escape Washington races south with his army to lay siege to Yorktown After enduring a threeweek siege he was forced to surrender his 7500man army effectively ending the American Revolution Conway Cabal 177778 The Conway Cabal refers to events in late 1777 and early 1778 alleging a conspiracy to sully the reputation of Washington as commander of the Continental Army Centers around letters Between Generals Thomas Conway Hoatio Gates and Washington and the criticisms of Washington s leadership Horatio Gates may have been a patsy in this scheme In any event the Conway Cabal ultimately help strengthen Congress s faith in Washington s supreme leadership as well as its awareness of those whose petty jealousies and ambitions sought to undermine him Daniel Morgan 1781 Daniel Morgan lead the detachment from N Green s army which routed Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens S Carolina I an 1781 Morgan was one of 3 detachments created by N Green who was assigned control of the Southern Campaign after H Gates s defeat at Battle of Camden in S Carolina The British suffered heavy losses at The Battle of Cowpens which helped to break their stronghold in South Carolina Fabian strategy G Washington used the Fabian strategy post 1776 after the disaster in New York Without a true army at his command he avoided any set piece battles with the trained British forces in favor of a strategy of attrition His Fabian strategy constantly retreating inland bought him time to improve and better equip and train his Continentals plus get help from European powers supportive of the colonies Washington sensed this style would help defeat the traditional battle styles of the British Army by essentially wearing them down Sometimes referred to as Indian fighting or frontier warfare Often employs gruella tactics Fort Ticonderoga 1775 In 1775 B Arnold with a small contingent of G Mountain boys overwhelmed the small contingent of British troops holding the Ft The Ft became a significant stronghold for rebels thereafter Ammunition and cannons from the Ft were used in the siege of Boston and later using an improvised naval battle on Lake Champlain B Arnold protected the fort against a British incursion in 1777 The Ft remained a rebel stronghold until the end of the war in 1783 FrancoAmerican Alliance 1778 Came as a result of the Battle of Saratoga 1777 which was a decisive American victory The pact called for among other things that France would recognize American Independence and that France and America would be good and faithful allies against any British hostilities that France would be America s most favored trading partner that Americans may invade and conquer Canada just as France may invade and conquer the West Indies Because of a pre existing pact between France and Spain however the FrancoAmerican Alliance can also be seen as America s becoming an unwitting pawn which worked in Spain s desires to win back from British conquest it s lost the Rock of Gibraltar Gil Martin Fictional character played by Henry Fonda in the 1939 film Drums along the Mohawk Hollywood s depiction of life on the NY frontier in 1775 featuring among other things Indian relations and the effects of the Battle of Oriskany on Gil a rebel patriot who was wounded In general the film gets the chronology and locations correct but fails in other regards such as its depictions of Indians generally as backward and savage Grand strategy American patriot leaders In general grand strategy refers to aims beyond the war although it is likely a term Washington himself may not have understood Some historians claim the grand strategy of the American revolution was twofold American Independence and Westward expansion Among the Patriot leaders independence was the ultimate aim of the revolution Westward expansion was not an explicit war aim but a consequence of it and can certainly be seen in the effects in places like the Mohawk Vally where events such Battle of Oriskany ultimately helped to divide the solidarity of the 6 nations which would help pave the way for land expansion by Americans Guy Carleton 1775 British Royal Governor of Canada who drove Americans from Canada His most famous deed during the American invasion of Canada was eeing from Montreal to Quebec City by disguising himself as a commoner The arrival of John Burgoyne s British troops in 1776 broke the American s siege there and repelled the rebels Horatio Gates British troops commanded by Gen John Burgoyne invaded New York in 1777 H Gates army repelled them 2X in 1777 Gates capturing over 5K in the Battle of Saratoga This victory became a major turning point of the American Revolution convinced France to form an alliance with the Americans against Great Britain in 1778 Thus Gates was put in charge of the Southern strategy however Gates mistakenly marched his army against the British in the Battle of Camden in South Carolina in August 1780 where the tables turned leading to one of the greatest American defeats of the war As the American troops retreated Gates ed his army His troops were slaughtered He was replaced by Nathanael Green John Burgoyne 0 Commander during the American Revolution and participated in several notable events in the Northern campaign including the Siege of Boston 1775 repelling of the Americas from Canada 1776 He is also credited with being the architect of the Hudson Highland campaign whereby he would move his troops along the Hudson to Albany where he would rendezvous with General Howe coming up from N York effectively decapitating the rebel stronghold in Pennsylvania This plan failed due to miscommunications and failure by his fellow commanders Howe and Clinton His downfall came at Saratoga 1777 with the rebel capture of some 5000 British troops and a turning point of the war John Paul Jones 0 Revolutionary navel privateer Harassed British ports Is seen as one of America s only sea captains in the A Revolution to take the war to Brittan Jones efforts are an example of one of the weaknesses of the American military force demonstrating that essentially it had no Navy Joseph Brant 0 Mohawk leader and British ally during the Revolution commissioned as Captain who engaged in several offensives to repel American forces including a major role in the Battle of Oriskany where a rebel expedition was repelled Part of the legacy of Brant s legacy was how his allegiance with the British helped drive a wedge into the 6 nations forever dividing the longheld solidary among numerous Indian tribes Lexington and Concord 1775 0 Represent the opening battle of the Am Revolution when a contingent of Redcoats were sent by Mass Gov Thom Gage to destroy a munitions stockpile at Concord Prior to reaching Concord the redcoats encountered a band of militia at Lexington a skirmish resulted leaving many militia dead th Redcoats continued onto Concord where they encountered many more militia but were defeated The Lexington and Concord battles represent examples of the rage militaire which accounted for the passion with which many colonist took up arms against the British This passion would ebb however after the Siege of Boston later the same year Morristown 177980 Washington s New Jersey winter camp at Jockey Hollow By now Washington s Army is worn down and ragged In the countryside an economic depression has rendered the currency worthless and everywhere supplies are short The weather is terrible Nathanael Greene 1780 Selected by Washington as Commander of Southern campaign to replace Gates as his top Lt General after Gates abandoned his army at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina in August 1780 Green was something of a radical leader dividing his forces against military protocol with Cornwallis bearing down but which forced Cornwallis to divide his and enticed the British commander to chase after his three detachments which leads to the Battle of Cowpens in S Carolina January 1781 where Daniel Morgan lures the British into a trap over a hill defeating Col Tarleton then later to the Battle of Guilford Ct House in N Carolina where Green engaged a frustrated Cornwallis who fires into the thick of battle killing many of his own troops Green s tactics ultimately help break the British stronghold in the southern theater Nicholas Herkimer 1777 Nicholas Herkimer lead a contingent of Continentals and their Oneida allies against a contingent of Loyalists and their NA allies such as Joseph Brant a Mohawk leader commissioned a Captain in the British Army The Battle of Oriskany played out in the Hudson Vally frontier but was part of the overall Hudson Highland strategy The Battle of Oriskany was fought in defense of Ft Stanwix then under siege from British troops lead by Burgoyne The Battle of Oriskany prefigures the battle of Saratoga but there were heavy losses on both American and Loyalist sides Part of the legacy of this battle was how it helped drive a wedge into the 6 nations forever dividing the longheld solidary among numerous Indian tribes Oriskany 1777 1777 Burgoyne invades America from Canada Battle of Oriskany figured into the siege of Ft Stanwix which was an American stronghold in the frontier war Gen John Burgoyne s invasion was part of the larger British Hudson Highland strategy which included an Anglo American war on the frontier In the case of Ft Stanwix members of the 6 nations the Oneidas allied with American rebels in defense of the fort in the Battle of Oriskany in August 1777 Among the players in the battle was Benedict Arnold and Nicholas Herkimer Although Burgoyne was ultimately repelled one of the results of this ongoing con ict was the disruption of longestablished solidarity among the 6 nations as various nations took sides between British and rebel contestants in the con ict This disruption ultimately eventually aided America colonial western land expansion policy long after the British defeat at Yorktown Saratoga 1777 1 major American victory Year of the hangman It is a set piece battle Battle of Saratoga Freeman s Farm Benedict Arnold served under Horatio Gates vs Burgoyne who also dragged along an enormous baggage train that included 30 carts filled with his own supplies for example and his mistress It is a devastating loss for the British Gates removes B Arnold from Command after a heated argument about battle strategy However it was a decisive American victory which the French saw as an example of how the Americans could stand up to the British A total of about 5900 British German and Canadian troops surrendered at Saratoga French join publically British switch from a northern to a southern strategy Lead to the Franco American Alliance Siege of Charleston 1780 One of the earliest battles in the Southern campaign the siege of Charles Town S Carolina represented one of the most devastating losses for the American cause In 1779 Sir Henry Clinton Commander in Chief of British forces sent a otilla of British navy to Charles Town He was joined by Cornwallis and together they amassed some 14000 troops and 90 ships In the course of the siege which began in the Spring of 1780 American troops were devastated With a month Commander Benjamin Lincoln surrendered some 5000 American troops Thomas Gage Former Governor of Mass When hostilities broke out between colonists and the British forces in America In 1775 It was Gage who sent a small contingent of Regulars to confiscate munitions in Concord which resulted in the Battle of Concord then later Lexington The resulting skirmish opened the American Revolution but was a costly battle for the British and which led to the siege of Boston which resulted in another rebel victory but taught the British they had grossly underestimated the troop strength needed to end the rebellion The following battles at Bunker Hill ultimately caused Gage to be recalled to London Valley Forge 177778 Washington s Pennsylvania encampment during Winter of 7778 which Washington chose for its defensible location Initially supplies were low and disease high causing death and desertion by the thousands By February things began to improve and by March Baron Frederick von Steuben a Prussian Captain began training and drills to provide much needed discipline among the ranks Valley Forge provided an important lesson in both rebel endurance but also in how poorly supply lines had been managed leading to much unneeded suffering William Howe 0 1775 Replaced Thomas Gage Lead the British assault on Bunker Hill One of the first decisive shows of American strength actually fought on Breed s Hill Although Howe was not injured during the battle he became Washington s counterpoint as Commander in Chief of the British forces It was under Howe s direction that the British abandoned Boston repelled by a swarm of militia but who landed more than 10000 British troops in New York as part of the overall Hudson Highland strategy to cut off the head of the American rebellion in New England Possible Essay Questions 1 The Revolutionary War has come down to modern Americans as a mythladen series of actions and events What is that myth What was the reality First describe the myth and the reality then select five or more key personalities and events that establish what you have described in terms of myth and reality Myth We won the Revolution because for 8 bloody years every virtuous patriotic embattled farmer who could pick up a musket did so This myth overlooks several key realities 1 The rage militaire that incited the siege at Boston in 1775 which brought tens of thousands of militiamen to take up arms against the British wore off by the end of the year 2 If Washington had had an ample supply of troops it is likely he would not have had to resort to a Fabian Strategy in the hopes of wearing down the enemy by continuing to retreat into the countryside after his defeat in New York in 1776 3 At Vally Forge scores of infantry and officers deserted not least because of the miserable conditions much of them due to a combination of indifference by the citizenry who wanted almost nothing to do with the soldiers who were considered lower sorts and rabble and who refused to provide any support in the form of food or clothing but due also to the rampant corruption among quartermasters in charge of supplies to say nothing of merchants themselves often peddling in rancid and spoiled foodstuffs 4 The majority of the infantry was fought by the poor those at the lowest end of the economic ladder induced into fighting more often for the cash and land bounties they would receive than for any noble ideas able liberty and virtue 5 Despite Congress having imposed quotas for enlistments on each Colony at Washington s insistence for a much larger army sensing a protracted war especially after the debacle in New York in 1776 few colonies were ever able to raise the number of troops required Those that came forward often did so out of economic desperation lured by the opportunity for pecuniary and land bounty rewards Scores of middle class colonists stayed home preferring to pay a substitute to fight in their stead which they were permitted to do 2 The British developed two fundamental strategies in their attempt to bring an end to the American rebellion What were these strategies Describe them Through a judicious selection of historical evidence discuss and evaluate the reasons why the British failed to execute those strategies in many ways making it impossible for them to win the War for American Independence Northern and Southern strategies A Northern campaign called the Hudson Highland campaign crafted by Burgoyne involved a mass of British troops coming down the Hudson from Canada and rendezvousing at Albany with another mass of troops coming up from New York lead by Clinton and Howe The objective was to decapitate New England along the Hudson and isolate the epicenter of the rebellion in Boston from the southern colonies support and thereby end the rebellion Failures 1 lack of communication between Clinton Howe and Burgoyne 2 1776 G Washington s Fabian Strategy forced the British to divert inland 3 1776 B Arnold provided delay at the Battle of Valcour Island on lake Champlain 4 1777 The battle of Saratoga wiped out nearly half the British forces with the capture of nearly 5K troops Which brought the French into the war The Southern British strategy amounted to a step bystep plan to sweep from south to north and re capturing the southern colonies and rewin Loyalists support and end the rebellion It likewise failed for several reasons 1 After the siege of Charleston and the American defeat at the Battle of Camden in S Carolina General Gates who edwas replaced by Nathanial Green who divided the rebel army into three detachments an unheard of move by the standards of military protocol of the day At the head of one detachment was Danial Morgan who lead a detachment sent after him though S Caroline but where he engineered a trap at the Battle of Cowpens and defeated Tarleton thereby severely reducing British troop strength 2 N Green meanwhile at the head of his troops lead Cornwallis on a chase through S Carolina which culminated in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse and the decimation of British Troops there More significantly as well as Green having divided the British army and completely undermine their step bystep plan it caused them to take their eye off Washington who was holding the center in New York 3 Outraged and humiliated the impetuous Cornwallis went next to Virginia where he was met by not only by Washington s troops but by the French Navy eet which finally showed up and there trapped at Yorktown with no escape out manned and outnumbered surrendered 3 Some scholars have claimed that the American rebels succeeded because their amateurism proved to be more innovative than British professionalism Do you agree or disagree with this conclusion Discuss the merits of this interpretation based on a presentation of key leaders and events of the Revolutionary War Offer at least five detailed examples to back up your argument An argument can be made that revolutionary leaders sometimes made up strategy as they went along which appears to have been more effective in their case that the carefully laid plans of the British such as Burgoyne s Hudson Highland strategy which failed more often than it succeeded 1775 G Washington Fabian Strategy wear down the enemy by a series of retreats 1777 B Arnold Battle of Valcour Island slow down the enemy by staging a naval battle 1780 N Green Divide and Conquer the enemy negating their stepbystep plan and take their eye off Washington 1781 D Morgan Battle of Cowpens run the enemy off their plan lure them into a trap 1781 N Green Battle of Guilford Court House Capture a huge portion of the enemy reduce their number Cornwallis Which also played to Cornwallis impetuous nature causing his to chase after N Green into Virginia where he is met by Washington s army and the French Fleet which finally show up and trap him unable to escape He surrenders at Yorktown VA ending the revolution
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'