PSY 272: Study Guide 2
PSY 272: Study Guide 2 PSY 272
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Derek Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 272 at Purdue University taught by Caitlin M Porter in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
PSY 272 Intro to IO Psych Study Guide for Quiz 2 gt quotquot Once again I would like to make clear that I have made this study guide without looking at Caitlyn s study guide in an effort to make the material presented here unique there would be no point after all in posting the same review as the instructor Things to Know From Week 4 Things to have a basic understanding of 0 g and Spearman 0 Factor Analysis 0 Thurstone Splitting g into separate components 0 Fluid and Crystallized intelligence 0 Triarchic model of g Carroll To know for sure 0 Bandwidth vs Fidelity 0 What is the bandwidthfidelity problem 0 It is the problem of determining how broad and how speci c a test needs to be 0 Incremental Validity 0 R2 AND how the similaritydissimilarity of IVs in uences the change in R2 0 If two IVs predictors are similar in nature the change in incremental validity R2 is minimal 0 If two IVs predictors are dissimilar in nature the change in incremental validity is much larger a good thing 0 The De nition of Personality 0 A person s characteristic way of thinking feeling and behaving that generalizes across a wide variety of situations 0 Terminology confusion this is referred to as the Jingle Jangle Fallacy 0 J J Fallacy simply put the use of different words to describe the exact same thing or the use of the same words to describe completely different things Names Connected to Personality Research 0 Walter Mischel 1968 Why should personality be studied in relation to JP when situations can dominate our personalities at any given moment 0 Guion and Gottier 1965 0 Sir Francis Galton 1884 Lexical hypothesis 0 httpwwwpersonalityprojectorgrevellepublicationsgaltonpdf 0 Thurstone 0 Allport and ODbert Mattel Tupes and Christal 0 Norman 0 Goldberg Costa and McCrae l980 s creators of the Big Five Personality Traits To Remember the Big 5 0 OCEAN Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness and Neuroticism 0 OR you can use CANOE if you like Barrick and Mount 1981 Metaanalysis correlations between Job Performance and the B5 http peopletamuedumbarrickPubs l 99 lBarrickMountpdf 0 0 O3 0 C 23 0 E 10 0 A 06 N 07 0 THEREFORE Conscientiousness is the holy grail of the Big Five in terms of correlating with job performance 0 Other personality traits brie y mentioned in lecture 0 Machiavellianism cunning deceptive especially in advancing oneself Narcissism extreme absorption in oneself Optimism we all know what optimism is Integrity Tests correlate to job performance with r46 0 They are created by taking the good parts of Conscientiousness Agreeableness and Neuroticism and combined them into on test A big plus for personality measures they are considered unbiased between groups Criterion Related Validity and how it ties directly into Bandwidth vs Fidelity CriterionRelated Validity 0 When measuring for broad outcomes focus on the bandwidth of the test as that will better predict broad outcomes 0 When measuring for specific outcomes focus on the fidelity of the test The answer to the issue of faking on personality tests ignore it The test scores can still be used reliably even with the faking However there ARE some tests being developed today that are supposed to be fakeproof The definition of BIAS FAIRNESS and the effect of CULTURE in testing in terms of IO Psychology 0 Bias when a test systematically over or underpredicts for a given subgroup Faimess a value judgement about actions or decisions based on test scores 0 Culture to what extent has the test taker had the opportunity to become familiar with a test s material 0 For example an immigrant from Indonesia comes to America and is tested on American history upon his or her arrival would their culture affect the scores they received on the test 0 Keep in mind that knowing the de nition of this term will most likely be more useful than remembering my example Biodata instruments designed to collect biographical information from job applicants 0 Past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior 0 JP 34 0 Supervisor Ratings 37 0 Promotion 26 0 Training success 3 Notice how Biodata is more highly correlated with job performance than any individual family type Problems with Biodata 0 What is being measured 0 If biodata is based upon biographical information then the measures being assessed change from person to person 0 Fairness 0 If the measures change from person to person then are they fair 0 Faking 0 Construct Validity 0 What construct is being assessed and if thats unclear how can we assess its validity Situational Judgment Tests 0 Measure more contextuallybased reasoning than cognitive ability tests By looking at for example social competence emotional intelligence con ict management skills leadership skills etc 0 These can be administered through pencil and paper but with changes in technology using computervideo is becoming more common 0 SJ Ts can be confounded by g however SJ Ts have incremental validity that is greater than both personality and g Biodata vs SJ Ts 0 Biodata focuses on past actions 0 SJ Ts focuses on future actions 0 can be combined through several methods including 0 factor analysis 39 empirical keying 0 rationalizationtheory Empirically Keying What is it 0 Spaghetti Method throw stuff at the wall and see what sticks 0 Just give people a ton of SJTs and see which ones best predict job performance Factor Analysis 0 Design a massive test and then determine what items hang together Those items de ne a dimension and the strongest items for a dimension are kept Rationalization Theory 0 Design biodata SJ T items based on a theory or eXpert judgements job analysis required rst Types of Interviews 0 Jobrelated vs Conversational 0 focuses on job vs focuses on applicant 0 Structure vs Unstructured 0 set of questions vs random questions 0 behavioral vs situational 0 past eXperiences vs future eXperiences IF there were an interview that best correlated with job performance it would be 0 Job related 56 0 Structured 50 0 Situational 39 0 All of these provide incremental validity over g Assessment Centers Today 0 Based upon job analysis researchers run participants through multiple assessments simulations and systematically record behaviors of all participants 0 Based upon observations of what the researchers deem to be workrelevant material they determine who best fits into the role they are trying to fill 0 AC validities in relation to 0 JP 37 0 g 67 Openness to Experience 5 0 Extraversion 5 KEY IDEAS SO FAR Methodsassessment tools 0 Biodata SJTs 0 Interviews 0 Assessment centers Things to know from Week 5 The Definition of JP Actions or behaviors relevant to the organization s goals 0 it is what people do not their results their results are referred to as E ectiverzess 0 Performance based on what employees do Effectiveness based on the results of performance Productivity effectivenesscost ratio Assessing JP 0 The Criterion Problem JP is the Ultimate Criterion of IO psych however we re still unsure on how to accurately assess JP 0 Ultimate Criterion the ultimate criterion is Job Performance but obtaining the true Ultimate Criterion for any job is impossible Ultimate vs Actual Criterion The actual criterion are our measures in relation to assessing Job Performance The Ultimate Criterion is a theoretical construct the true construct of JP for a particular work environment The following chart should look highly familiar Actual g Criterion i JP 39 De ciency Contamination Relevance Criterion Types 0 Hard scales objective measurements 0 Soft supervisor and coworker ratings subjective measurements John Campbell s model of performance involves eight components 0 jobspeci c task pro ciency nonj obspeci c task performance 0 written and oral communication demonstrating effort 0 maintaining personal discipline 0 facilitating team performance 0 supervisionleadership managementadministration The three highlighted components are used in all jobs and need to be MEMORIZED Determinants of Performance 1 Declarative Knowledge understanding what is required to complete a job 2 Procedural Knowledge knowing how to perform a job 3 Motivation choosing to work A diagram explaining the multiplicative nature of the determinants of JP DeClaratiVe Procedure Knowledge Knowledge Motivation i gt quotquot In other words the three determinants of i performance are multiplicative amongst one another But the first two determinants are directly Ability moderated by variables such as ability g and personality Borman and Motowidlo s Model of JP 0 Contextual Performance more discretionary than task performance and also includes organizational citizenship behaviors OCBs 0 Some facets of OCBs Conscientious Initiative developing own skills 0 Organizational Support Demonstrating loyalty within and outside of the organization 0 Personal Support helping others within the organization Types of OCBs OCBO behaviors that happen within the context of the organization 0 OCBI behaviors that happen within the context of interpersonal relationships gt quot Intelligence is the best predictor of JP however contextual performance is better through contextual measures such as personality rather than g Counterproductive Work Behaviors CWBs 0 all forms of deviant behaviors theft harassment etc Sackett s Model of CWBs CWB Interpersonal Deviance Organizational Deviance Property Deviance Production Deviance Harassment verbal abuse Theft Sabotage Absfmce Tardmess Sloppiness Name to know Reeshad Delal Purdue 0 According to his metaanalysis relationships between OCBs and CWBs are not inherently on opposite sides of the spectrum meaning that it is common for employees to eXhibit both CWBs and OCBs Employee Withdrawal Considered a type of CWB 0 Important to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary withdrawal 0 work withdrawal remain in job 0 job withdrawal ringquitting job Progressive Model of Withdrawal Baby steps compound upon one another and lead up to eventual withdrawal from organization This model includes outside variables such as economic downturns and the job market Another type of J P Adaptive Performance AP 0 AP exibilityadaptability with changing circumstances 0 Determinants of AP 5 0 Achievement Motivation Typical vs Maximal Performance 0 Typical Performance determined by motivation 0 maximal performance determined by human capital KSAOs 0 KSAOs knowledge skills abilities and other characteristics 0 honeymoon effect an individual performs well over the rst six months or so and then performance begins to decline Kevin Murphy s Job Stages 0 Transition stage in uenced by g Where individuals learn the new tasks and skills required to perform well 0 Maintenance stage in uenced by personality Where individuals focus on applying all that they have already learned 0 The transition stage obviously is the learning stage and therefore occurs first implying that performance over long periods of time is better determined by personality while maximal performance over the short term is better predicted by g Performance Variability 0 performance uctuates 0 sports teams with the most consistent players win more games 0 this implies that what is even more important than g which predicts maximal performance is personality which helps to predict typical performance SO what kinds of performance does g best predict 0 Task performance 0 Maximal Performance 0 Performance during the transition stage What kinds of performance does personality best predict Contextual performance 0 Typical performance 0 Performance during the maintenance stage Definition of Job Analysis 0 How we define what JP is for speci c jobs Realistic Job Previews 0 They do not sugar coat their pitch to potential employees and sometimes require applicants to spend time observing someone else on the job 0 These methods are good for recruiting as they generally increase commitment and satisfaction within the organization Job LadderJ ob Family 0 A job ladderfamily is a cluster of positions that are similar in terms of the human attributes needed to be successful These allow the organization to identify logical career paths Terms to know 0 Job evaluation used for pay decisionscomparisons Compensable Factors factors that can be linked to compensation 0 Comparable Worth pg 193 of text in essence a person should be paid in accordance with their worth in the organization Litigation 0 legal defensibility of a personnel selection tool requires validity evidence 0 this validity evidence comes from processes such as job analysis the first step to providing a solid defense is to provide knowledge of critical tasks and attributes related to the job Things to Know from Week 6 Sources of Data for Job Analyses SME s subject matter experts 0 job incumbents supervisors 0 job analysts Types of Job Analysis 0 TaskOriented describes tasks that are performed topical analysis 0 more objective and topical WorkerOriented focuses on what is required tot perform the job personalitycharacteristics cognitive processes involved 0 subjective 0 Why might worker oriented JA be better 0 It is more versatile with better generalizability Consider that tasks change drastically from job to job however workeroriented JAs look at mental processes that are used in many different jobs and contexts Functional Job Analysis 0 Used by the US employment service 0 Aspects of the job are examined and are scored in terms of how connected they are to the concepts of data people and things Position Analysis Questionnaire Developed by Ernest J McCormick from Purdue University 0 The FAQ is one of the most famous of job analysis surveys perhaps the most famous It uses the workeroriented approach to assess all jobs on a common set of behaviors by judging the relevance of those behaviors 0 Criteria the FAQ analyzes 0 Information input 0 mental processes 0 work output 0 relationships with others 0 job context 0 other characteristics Critical IncidentsWork Diaries 0 Critical Incidents SMEs are asked about the critical aspects of the job by being asked to recall particularly greatterrible job incidents 0 Work Diaries SMEs write down what they are doing at specific times throughout their days Two Advances in J A 0 Electronic Performance Monitoring don t have to be physically present anymore to monitor people 0 Cognitive Task Analysis looks specifically at the mental processes that are used inj ob definitely workeroriented approach and often uses thinkaloud protocol which asks people to describe the mental processes they use to complete a task Competency Modeling 0 Competencies another term for KSAOs Competency modeling looks at the KSAOs that are most important for success in a specific organization 0 How does this differ from JA 0 JAs are more specific They are more closely linked to the KSAOS tasks and faculties needed to perform a job 0 Competency models are less specific They are more closely linked to the KSAOs that defmee an organization s overall goals and strategy 0 Since both CMs and JAs are used how are they most often used effectively 0 CMs matching people with the goals and strategy of the organization 0 JAs Staffing and planning Compensation Hiringfiring Dictionary of Occupational Titles DOT 0 Used in the 1930s to match people with jobs 0 httpwwwoalfdolgovlibdothtm 0 it is precisely what it sounds like and was last updated in the 1990s ONET 0 It is a bunch of databases that have been compiled together in an effort to better facilitate job matches for people searching ONET can be updated instantaneously much unlike DOT 0 DOT was expensive and took a lot of man power to update periodically Also it was largely taskbased analysis which made job comparison difficult if you wanted to look deeper than the surfacelevel tasks performed Six Dimensions of ONET 1 Worker Characteristics 2 Worker Requirements 3 Experience Requirements 4 Occupational Requirements 5 Occupation Specific Requirements 6 Occupation Characteristics Types of Fit at Work 0 PersonVocation 0 PersonJ ob 0 Does your personality match your job 0 PersonOrganization 0 PersonGroup PersonSupervisor gt quotquot Quick side note the two conceptualizations of how fit works Complementary is when a person provides the KSAOs needed Supplementary is when people are similar and therefore
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