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PSY 150 Midterm 2 Study Guide

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by: Lorelei Wong

PSY 150 Midterm 2 Study Guide PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > PSY 150 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Lorelei Wong
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Midterm 2 Study Guide
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Study Guide
Psychology, Structure of Mind & Behavior, memory, cognitive, learning, sleep, States of Consciousness
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"Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!"
Keira Dietrich

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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 296 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 03/19/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Midterm Exam #2 Chapter 5: States of Consciousness  Match words & definition: 1. Consciousness 10.Theta waves 19.Insomnia 2. Magical thinking 11.Sleep spindles 20.Stimulus control 3. Restorative 12.k-complexes 21.Narcolepsy theory waves 22.Hypocretin 4. Evolutionary 14.REM sleep 23.Sleep apnea theory 15.REM rebound 24.Night terrors 16.Manifest content 25.Hypnosis 5. Cognitive theory 6. Pineal gland 17.Latent content 26.absorption 7. Melatonin 18.Activation- 27.Blindsight 8. Circadian rhythm synthesis theory 28.Visual neglect 9. Alpha waves of dreams a. Phenomenon in which blind n. The biological “clock”—occurs people can “see” within an approximate 24hr b. Person’s awareness of own cycle existence, sensations, o. Difficulty falling asleep, staying cognitions, & environment awake, staying asleep, or c. Less regular, longer wave waking up too early lengths p. Single high-amplitude waves d. Obvious, memorable content of q. Expresses & fulfills unconscious a dream desires e. Vivid, frightening experiences r. Neurotransmitter that keeps us while asleep—different than alert s. Damage to more primitive nightmares f. Brief bursts of rapid activity visual track—deficits in g. Capacity to concentrate totally attention to (and perception of) on material outside of oneself one half of visual field h. Helps body to recover from t. Belief that you can influence wear and tear (energy) events at a distance with no i. Hormone that makes people obvious explanation of how feel sleepy u. State of mind characterized by j. Rapid eye movement—rapid increased suggestibility, irregular breathing & heart rate, decreased awareness of quick eye movements, brain environment, and increased activity focused awareness of vivid k. Dream is a product of random experience bursts of neural activity v. Slow high-amplitude waves l. Longer more frequent REM associated with deep sleep following sleep deprivation w. Helps consolidate memories m. Keeps people out of trouble at x. Endocrine gland that secretes night melatonin PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz y. Symbolic content & meaning of ac.Create association between bed a dream & sleep by using a bed for sleep z. Person stops breathing while only sleeping aa.Waves when still awake but ad. resting ae. ab.Uncontrollable “sleep attacks”  Define the stages of sleep 1. Stage 1 is about _____ minutes long & contains _____ waves. 2. Stage 2 is about _____ minutes long & is definable by _______. 3. Stages 3-4 are about _____ minutes long combined & contains _____ waves. 4. _____ sleep is when _____.  How is REM helpful and important to us? What are some characteristics of it?  Dreams are important because _____.  Fill in sleep disorder to treatment or symptoms: 1. Decreased oxygen wakes person up repeatedly—treated with CPAP machine 2. Sedatives  depress central nervous system activity OR keep regular schedule every night and give body cues to sleep 3. Happens usually in stages 3&4 in the first 1/3 of the night, but kids usually grow out of them 4. Deficit in hypocretin – cataplexy, triggered by extreme emotion af. Chapter 6: Learning  What is the difference between learning and conditioning?  Classical conditioning is _____ which includes both _____ & _____ stimuli and _____ & _____ responses  _____ is the elimination of a CR when it is no longer a reliable predictor of the US  Reacquisition is when US & CS happen _____ than the initial learning  What is the difference between stimulus generalization and discrimination?  Who is little albert and why is he important?  Five applications of classical conditioning & define.  How is operant conditioning different from classical conditioning?  _____ reinforcement increases future behavior by reward, while _____ reinforcement increases future behavior by removing an unwanted stimulus  Punishments _____ behavior  Positive punishment _____ unpleasant stimulus, while negative punishment _____ unpleasant stimulus  4 schedules of reinforcement 1. _____ after a set number of desired behaviors, give reinforcement 2. _____ after a changing of intervals of time, reinforce behavior 3. _____ set interval of time, reinforce behavior 4. _____after a changing number of desired behaviors, give reinforcement PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  What did BF Skinner do and how does his box work?  Cognitive map is a _____ map inside the brain  Latent learning is _____  Insight learning is _____  Observational learning is _____  Mirror neurons are _____ ag.Chapter 7: Cognition  Steps to create a memory _____  _____  _____  Define memory: _____  The 3 stages of memory & define what they do: 1. _____ memory 2. _____-term memory (aka working memory) 3. _____-term memory  Chunking is good for _____ in working memory, while _____ is repeating info over and over again to retain it  What happens when a memory is encoded? Retrieved? Does the memory change every time and what influences it?  Imagery makes things _____ to remember  Self-referent effect is making information relative to _____  Deep vs. shallow ways of thinking is called _____  Good memory for beginning of list is the _____ effect while a good memory for the end of the list is the _____ effect  Match these: 1. Declarative memory a. Memory of how to do 2. Episodic memory something 3. Semantic memory b. Memory of word 4. Semantic networks meanings, concepts, 5. Spreading activation facts model c. Activation of one unit 6. Procedural memory spreads to related ah. concepts d. Can be consciously ai. retrieved at will e. Memory of events & their aj. contexts f. Associated with related concepts  Reasons we forget things: 1. _____ failure 2. Storage _____ 3. _____ failure  What is repression?  A flashbulb memory is _____ PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  How many phonemes and morphemes do these words have? 1. Cats 6. Completed 2. Aerospace 7. Lovely 3. People 8. Pumpkins 4. Preempted 9. Picked 5. Postcard 10.Unaccepted  Language is ____, _____, or _____ words & the way we combine them to communicate  _____ is a set of rules that govern language and consists of _____ which rules word order and semantics which _____  Pragmatics are _____  How do we develop an understanding of language?  When is the critical period for learning language?  How does Broca’s area affect us?  Chapter 8: Motivation & Emotions  Motivation is _____  Sources of motivation are: 1. Instincts which are _____ 2. _____-reduction theory which states a physiological need & the drive to meet those needs 3. Optimum _____ theory which is _____ 4. Priorities among needs a. _____ hierarchy of needs (what are the elements and in what order?) b. Self-actualization is _____  Match the definitions 1. Physiology of hunger 6. Psychology of hunger 2. Lateral hypothalamus 7. Obesity 3. Ventromedial 8. Anorexia nervosa hypothalamus 9. Bulimia nervosa 4. Set point theory 10.Purging type 5. Leptin 11.Non-purging type 12. a. Fasting, excessive exercise b. Suppresses hunger c. Produced when eating—more=less hunger, less=more hunger d. Binge eating, guilt & depression, attempt to prevent weight gain e. BMI > 30 f. Feedback from stomach, intestines, and liver – brain also monitor glucose levels g. Initiates hunger h. Hypothalamus strives to maintain optimum body weight i. Memory of last meal j. Refusal to maintain even low normal weight k. Intentional vomiting, excessive use of laxatives  The motive to strive for and achieve goals is _____  Emotions are _____  Why does fear affect us and how is it different nature vs. nurture?  What are the different theories of emotion?  What are the benefits of anger?  How do we achieve happiness?


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