150c3: Politics of Happiness - Study Guide
150c3: Politics of Happiness - Study Guide 150c3
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nikolai Phalen on Monday October 20, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 150c3 at University of Arizona taught by Willerton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 256 views. For similar materials see Politics of Happiness in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/20/14
Premodern World View Took place before the 1500s Characterized by All knowledge is communal Passed down via myths and folklore Room for mystery Natural and Supernatural coexist Class system God was a distant supreme being Church was institutionalized Survival is a struggle There is a fear of disease animals and seasons Though often chocked up to angry godsdeities Morality governed by the power of the ruler Modern Worldview1500s1900s Characterized by Knowledge or understanding is influenced by scientific process Role and responsibility of individual gains importance Truths are seen as empirical objective and evidence based Supernatural phenomena sees less importance The Heavens and the Material Universe are distinctly separated Modern Worldview1900s and beyond Characterized by Everything is contingent Nothing is ever set in stone Knowledge or understanding returns to a more communal sense as individual experience is considered biased Combines reliance on individual mind w global experience No one has any facts its all interpretation No absolute truth Religon and science have both failed neither can be fully trusted to provide answers to life s mysteries What Modernism and PostModernism are and are not ARE Cultural Shifts Made up of both positives and negatives Define worldviews Shaped by values ARE NOT Generational Thought of in terms of right and wrong on a moral compass Comprehensive Categories Worldview How one sees life and the world overall The values that influence a culture or a society Worldview is a society organizing its knowledge in an attempt to understand the world around it It is an attempt to have a comprehensive view of others It is in short the comprehensive point of view through which an individual or society develops its understanding of the world Usually shaped by values or beliefs Happiness in Denmark GDPis 36450 USD meaning there is a relatively low amount of inequality High levels of trust High level of Social Security Free Health Care Maternity and Paternity Leave Contentment with life overall No expectations Danish Perspective in a quote I always expect the worst so if anything good happens I am pleasantly surprised Conversely if something goes wrong I was expecting it and therefore not disappointed Benjamin Franklin Procedural Rights and Substantive Rights Procedural Rights Are those that concern the mechanics of democracy elections freedom of speech freedom of assembly and freedom of religion Substantive Rights Concern the quality of life of citizens education healthcare and eldercare Benjamin Franklin is responsible for bringing the issue of substantive rights to the forefront The other founding fathers were far more concerned with procedural rights and Ben Franklin reminded them to keep their citizens in mind That it was the duty of the government to protect and take care of its citizens Empathy The capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from a frame of reference of the other person the capacity to sample anothers feelings The American Dream A strong belief in freedom and the powerful desire to consume Individuals have the power to bring about change Opportunity for everyone to achieve success G Bill solidified a contract that gave an entire generation free tuition at any school the applicant could get into Home building skyrocketed Number of children per household sky rocketed The American Exceptionalism Belief that America is different and unique from other nations when compared historically America glosses over the bad history we do not focus on our own misgivings and there is always a justification given for atrocities committed The US is supposed to be an example for the world promoting freedom and prosperity aka the right way to govern Moral superiority This all results in a worldview resentment of the USA Positive Liberty and Negative Liberty Positive Liberty P0sitiVe liberty is the possession of the power and resources to fulfill one39s own potential as opposed to negative libertv which is freedom from external restraint A concept of positive liberty may also include freedom from internal constraints ll The concepts of structure and agencv are central to the concept of positive liberty because in order to be free a person should be free from inhibitions of the social structure in carrying out their free will Structurally speaking classism sexism and racism can inhibit a person39s freedom and positive liberty is primarily concerned with the possession of sociological agencv Positive liberty is enhanced by the ability of citizens to participate in their government and have their voice interests and concerns recognized as valid and acted upon Wikipedia Positive Liberty The liberty in choosing the government granted to the citizens Citizens want to participate in the government One had a role in choosing who governs society Negative Liberty NegatiVe liberty is freedom from interference by other people Negative liberty is primarily concerned with freedom from external restraint and contrasts with Dositive libertV the possession of the power and resources to fulfill one39s own potential According to Thomas Hobbes quota free man is he that in those things which by his strength and wit he is able to do is not hindered to do what he hath the will to doquot Leviathan Part 2 Ch XXI thus alluding to liberty in its negative sense An idea that anticipates the distinction between negative and positive liberty was G F W Hege 39s quotsphere of rightquot furthered in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right which constitutes what now is called negative freedom and his subsequent distinction between quotabstractquot and quotpositive libertyquotliquotll In the Anglophone tradition the distinction between negative amd positive liiberty was introduced by Isaiah Berlin in his 1958 lecture quotTwo Concepts of Libertvquot According to Berlin the distinction is deeply embedded in the political tradition In Berlin39s words quotliberty in the negative sense involves an answer to the question What is the area within which the subject a person or group of persons is or should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be without interference by other persons39quotl11 Restrictions on negative liberty are imposed by a person not by natural causes or incapacity Helvetius expresses the point clearly quotThe free man is the man who is not in irons nor imprisoned in a gaol nor terrorized like a slave by the fear of punishment l it is not lack of freedom not to y like an eagle or swim like a whalequot Absence of obstacles barriers or constraints Individual agents Restrictions are imposed by the individual not by an outside force Susan B Anthony and Emma Goldman Susan B Anthony Played a large role in womens suffrage Was opposed to slavery Abolitionist Embraced social equality Womens National Loyal Leaguesupported the 13quot Amendment that banned slavery Emma Goldman Believed whole heartedly in absolute freedom Renowned lecturer on anarchist philosophy womens rights and social issues During her life Goldman was lionized as a free thinking quotrebel womanquot by admirers and denounced by critics as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution Wikipedia Thomas Jefferson 339 39 President of the United States of America Owned Slaves Advocated freedom and equality for everyone however did believe that blacks were born inferior to whites He believed in the abolishment of slavery but wanted to deport all blacks to Haiti or Africa Abraham Lincoln Abolished Slavery Modernized the economy Led the nation through Civil War Managed to preserve the union Ronald Reagan Reinvigorated the American People and reduced their reliance on the government Renewed National Confidence Improved our relations with Soviet Union FDR Passed the GI Bill Was going to make an economic bill of rights Brought back American Exceptionalism Created the FDlC secures individual accounts Renewed trust in banking systems Formed the Civil Works Program paced unemployed workers back into the workforce National Industrial Recovery Act improved work standards Alexander Hamilton Lead an important assault on Yorktown Believed collection of taxes should be done by federal agents Secretary of Treasury Ben Franklin Founding father Was able to get the French to support the Americans in fight against the British Was revered in France Helped plan our system of government Signed Treaty of Versailles Politician Statesman Author Published Scientist Philosopher Considered the only American President who was never an American President LBJ Supported voting rights No American should be denied this simple pleasure Martin Luther King Jr Envisioned that blacks and whites would live together in harmony That men would be judged on their character and not the color of their skin Wants to see significant change Obtain equality through nonviolent intervention Urges his fellow African Americans not to carry hatred in their hearts Lincoln Second Inaugural Identified Slavery as the cause for War Mentions reconstruction Mourns the loss of life on both sides of the war Garrison on Slavery Abolitionist Considered Slavery a sin All men are created equally Demanded complete freedom of slaves Started magazine called the liberator Stopped magazine after 13quot Amendment was passed Savery Stringfelow Pastor Supported Slavery Used Bible to support slavery Believed African Americans were inferior Savery Fitzhugh Believed strongly for Slavery Published literature about his theories concerning slavery African Americans do best while they are slaves in captivity Slavery Douglass Escaped Slave African American Writer Statesman Leader of Abolition Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass An American Slave Star Trek One of the first programs that utilized the media as a platform to address key issues Every episode of Star Trek had a philosophical social or spiritual issue that it addressed Through the plots of Star Trek Gene Roddenberry was able to openly discuss ideas that were difficult to talk about in a different medium Entertainment and Worldviews are inherently linked Entertainment is a graphic demonstration of beliefs philosophies and ethics Jeremy Rifkin Empathy has shaped us as human beings Humans and advanced mammals are soft wired to experience the empathic distress of another Emotions create solidarity and social ability for survival Shifts occur when there are new energy influences with new communication influences Romance novels played a big role in the gender shift as previously marriage was not about love and sex was not about love either Marriage was merely a property exchange and sex was in order to have a family The creation of the novel allowed people to experience their inner feelings 2 industrial revolution is on life support This occurred when oil prices went through the roof the earthquake the financial market collapsed the aftershock Each communication revolution extends our central nervous system Empathic surges can become entropic crashes Campbell The Power of Myths We live in a de mythologized world Myths help you put to your mind in touch with this experience of being alive Rollo May says there is so much violence in American Society because there are no great myths that allow young men and women relate to the world or understand beyond what is seen References Mythological Roles in our society When a judge walks in a room everyone stands up they are not standing up for the judge but for the robe he is wearing When a man in the army puts on his uniform and citizens salute him they are saluting his uniform He has become a mythological character as they respect the idea of his job rather than the person themselves Star Wars has certain mythological perspective t shows the state as a machine and asks is this machine going to crush humanity or serve humanity When Luke Skywalker unmasks his father he is taking off the machine role that his father played and revealing the human inside Machines are inherently based off humans While not being exactly human in the sense that we strive to use them It is the creation of slavery on a technological scale A device is created to serve you When dollars are spent on the device they do not go to the device but rather the human who created the device Every Myth we tell today has some point of origin in our past History repeats itself mythology attempts to end this cycle by telling the stories or tales of souls who made mistakes and the repercussions they experienced Myths and dreams come from the same place they come from realizations that have then to find expression in symbolic form
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