Study Guide Ch. 1-5
Study Guide Ch. 1-5 PSY 205 - M001
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Dominguez on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 205 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Ch 1 Evolution of Psychology 1 This founder of the Functionalist movement in psychology thought we should study the purpose of consciousness not just its structure a Wilhelm Wundt b G Stanley Hall c Edward Titchener e John B Watson This technique was used by the Structuralists to examine the component parts of consciousness a psychoanalysis b talktherapy d behavioral observation ehypno s Initiated by John B Watson the Behaviorist movement argued that psychologists should only study this type of behavior a conscious b unconscious c positive d deviant This professional specialty is currently the largest eld in psychology a Counseling b Forensic c EducationalSchool e lndustrialOrganizational wists 0 Professional and Research areas of Psychology 0 As a profession Clinical psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Experimental Counseling Educa onal Developmental Psychometrics Social Forensic Engineering Heath PoH cal other 0 Historical gures in Psychology 0 G Stanley Hall 18261924 established rst research lab in psychology in Johns Hopkins and APA American Psychological Association 0 Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems 0 De nition psyche logos 0 Scienti c study of behavior of living organisms o Plato idealism o Aristotle empiricism Psychologists your classmates presented on in recitation Key TermsNames o Structuralism leadership of Edward Titchener was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related 0 Identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience such as sensations feelings and images 0 Mental chemistry 0 Content of the mind 0 Depended on method introspection o Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure lead by William James stream of consciousness how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around them 0 Behaviorism late 1313 19205 John B Watson 18781958 o The mind is not an organ o Is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scienti c psychology should study only observable behavior Proposed psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether veri ability Psychology as science of behavior Behavior any overt observable response or activity by an organism Nature vs nurture Attempt to relate overt behaviors responses to observable events in the environment stimuli stimulusresponse psychology 0 Associationists 0 Edward L Thorndike 18741949 Puzzle box Law of effect 0 Ivan P Pavlov 18491936 Classical conditioning Discovery of conditioned re ex o lntrospection o Gestalt Psychology 0 Max Wertheimer 18801943 0 The motion picture 0 The phi phenomenon o Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 German professor who eventually changed this view He mounted campaign 0 make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology Established rtst foma laboratory for research in psychology at University of Leipzig 1879 quotpsychology s date of birthquot Founder of psychology 0 goal of psychology 0 technique introspection o psychology modeled after elds such as physics and chemistry 0 focused on scienti c study of conscious experience and then subject was asked to analyze what they experienced 0 Edward Titchener English degree in Leipzig laboratory taught at Cornell Structuralism 0 William james 18421927 0 Functionalism Goal of Psychology the function of the mind Formal training medicine Principles of Psychology 1890 Illustrates how psychology is embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual in uences Sigmund Feud unconscious psychoanalysis 0 john B Watson Behaviorism the mind is not an organ left academia because of divorce scandal resigned Johns Hopkins became successful in advertising industry quotpop psychologistquot O 0000 0000 o Rene Descartes founder of modern philosophy 0 Cartesian hydromechanics o The pineal gland Vocabulary Consciousness the awareness of immediate experience 0 lntrospection or the careful systematic selfobservation of one s own conscious experience 0 Natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to the subsequent generation and thus come to be selected over time Unconscious contains thoughts memories and desired that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great in uence on behavior Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior 0 Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge 0 Empiricism the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation Ch 2 Research Enterprise in Psychology This is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables a questionnaire b operational de nition d theory e psychological test This is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations a questionnaire b operational de nition c hypothesis e psychological test This is the condition or event that an experimenter manipulates in order to see its impact on another variable a extraneous variable b control group c dependent variable e random assignment Researchers have found no relationship between hair color and intelligence If a correlation between these two variables was calculated the correlation coef cient would most likely be a 1 b 5 d 5 e 1 Key Concepts 0 Experiment design experimental design is the design of any information gathering exercises where variation is present whether under the full control of the experimenter or not 0 Experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result 0 Case studies is an indepth investigation of an individual subject 0 Surveys researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about speci c aspects of participants background attitudes beliefs or behavior 0 Naturalistic observation a researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects Key Terms 0 Independent amp dependent variables 0 Independent a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable 0 Dependent the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable 0 Theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations 0 Hypothesis is tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables 0 Operational de nition describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable 0 Correlation coef cient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables Ch 3 Biological Bases of Behavior In Text SKIP pgs 108125 This is a brief upward spike in a neuron39s electrical charge that travels along the axon therefore causing the neuron to re a resting potential its stable negative charge when the cell is inactive is a very brief shift in a neuron s electrical charge that travels along an axon c terminal button d synaptic cleft e absolute refractory period minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin After experiencing an emergency you gradually start to relax once this division of your nervous system becomes active b parasympathetic c somatic d peripheral e central The site at which two neurons communicate with each other a terminal button b neurotransmitter caxon edendrte The brain structure which is primarily implicated in sleep and wakefulness is the a thalamus b pituitary gland c hypothalamus d corpus caosum This location in your temporal lobe enables you to understand speech and language a somatosensory cortex b Broca s area d Charlie s area e hypothalamus Which lobe of the brain is responsible for processing of visual input a Temporal c Parietal d Frontal e Cerebral Key Concepts 0 Neuron anatomy Neurotransmitters Dopamine Noradrenaline Acetylcholine Divisions of the nervous system PNSCNS Key TermsNames 0 Four brain lobes o Frontal temporal parietal occipital Know some important structures in each region 0 Eg hypothalamus thalamus limbic system cerebral cortex reticular formation 0 Cartesian hydromechanics o The pineal gland 0 Father of biopsychology 0 Julien Offrey de la Mettrie o 1748 the enlightened machine 0 Message to understand the mind study the brain 0 video 0 Luigi Galvani Otto Loewi o Luigi Galvani o 1792 animal electricity 0 frog legs 0 Otto Loewi 18731961 0 1936 Nobel Prize 0 The Loewi experiment Heart rate Without Broca Wernicke m39a om Santiago Ramon Cajal 18521934 o Camillo Golgi 18431926 0 1906 share the Nobel Prize 0 the nervous system consists of individual cells Stimulator lrlrc lr lrquot1er39l39lrlr irwlr MWwwwawr wmlwlwvnlw wwwwwv Brain 0 O Cranial nerves nerves that enter directly into the brain rather than through the spinal cord Hindbrain the midbrain and the forebrain three major regions of the brain Hindbrain vital functions 0 Midbrain sensory functions 0 O O Medulla which attaches to the spinal cord controls largely unconscious but vital functions ex Circulating blood breathing maintaining muscle tone and regulating re exes such as sneezing coughing and salivating Pons involved in sleep and arousal bridge has a bridge of bers that connects the brainstem with the cerebellum Cerebellum quotlittle brainquot structure that coordinates ne muscle movement balance rst depressed by alcohol Medulla llamaHum Concerned with integrating sensory processes such as vision and hearing tectum tegmentum central grey colliculi Important system of dopaminereleasing neurons that projects into various higher brain centers originates in the midbrain Involved in sensory functions amp locating where things are in space Contains structures that are important for voluntary movement Reticular information Group of bers that carry stimulation related to sleep and arousal through brainstem i Contributes to the modulation of muscle re exes breathing and pain perception Forebrain emotion complex thought o Cerebrumthe center of complex thought complex mental activities responsible for sensing thinking learning emotion consciousness and voluntary movement remembering Cerebral cortex wrinkled surface of the cerebrum the outer layer of brain looks like cauli ower intricately folded outer later of cerebrum o Thalamus relay center for cortex handles incoming and outgoing signals sensory relay station where sensory information passes o Hypothalamus part of limbic system involved in learning and memory basic biological drives regulator of biological needs four F s o Limbic system emotion and memory and motivation center of emotion border Erzrrlriml Harri ilspiflrrc 7 39r lz IrII Ii f Fnr ebram I a v lllu39lfii m f IIINEZI W39Hllnlli 39 l 1 l quoti39391l1ll 1 Figure 214 Diagram showing sa ital section all the humJan brain 1 Cerebrum divided into two halves called hemispheres cerebral cortex 0 Cerebral Hemispheres two specialized halves connected by the corpus callosum E Corpus callosum bridge of bers passing information between the two cerebral hemispheres o The left hemisphere usually is better on tasks involving verbal processing such as language speech reading and writing 0 The right hemisphere exhibits superiority on many tasks involving nonverbal processing such as most visualspatial and musical tasks and tasks involving the perception of others emotions 0 Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four parts called lobes Frontal temporal parietal occipital o Occipital lobe VISUAL signals are sent and visual processing begins primary visual cortex 0 Parietal lobe registers the sense of TOUCH somatosensory 0 Temporal lobe AUDITORY processing o Fontal lobe control MOVEMENT of muscles primary motor cortex Left hemisphere Language Processing 0 0 Paul Broca 1861 French surgeon Left side Frontal lobe Broca s area important role in the production of speech 0 Wernicke Temporal lobe left side Wernicke s area lingual comprehension o Biopsychology 0 Building blocks of the nervous system 5 Frontal lo e if 7 x K 1 Elk 1 I Parietal Ocelpltal W 39 l lobe ya i I Temporal lobe o The neuron nerve cell Denidr39ile Neuron anatomy o Nervous system is living tissue composed of cells Cells in the nervous system fall into two categories neurons and glia o Neurons individual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit quot Sonic Nucleus l Axum hiillocllk Myelin slhecillil Presynalpli feminine s Demdrilic spines information 0 Communication links of the nervous system 0 Types of neurons sensory in skin motor muscle and inter 0 Structure of the neuron Information is received at the dendrites is passed through the soma and along the axon and is transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapses o O Soma cell body contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery Dendritic trees branched feelerlike structures Dendrite individual branch parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information specialized receptor areas Axon for many dendrites information ows into the cell body and then travel away from the soma along the axon i A long thin ber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands I lmpulses are transmitted Myelin many axons are wrapped in cells with a high concentration of a white fatty substance called myelin Myelin sheath insulating material that encases some axons and that acts to speed up the transmission of signals that move along axons defects if sheath deteriorates multiple sclerosis loss of muscle control Terminal buttonssmall knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters release chemical messengers that carry signals to other neurons E Neurotransmitters serve as messengers that may activate nearby neurons Synapsepoints at which neurons interconnect is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another Cell bole Synthesis of neurotro ntsm itter and formation of vesicles s r 9 Transport citE 0 neurotransmitter dOWn axon V Presynopt39ic 9 Action term I mol poteintiol tlroVels cllown tll39le CillXDlt39l Actionn Potential cause calcium to enter evoking release ellt neurotransmitter 39 S no tic a Reuptel ce oF lleer f transmitter to lbe CLH39 7 i b r p 39 recycled I 39939 Neurotransmitter HI a pit Vesicles without 3931 nleulrotr39emsmitter Mr it Neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another chemical messengers that communicate information between neurons 0 They are fundamental to behavior playing a key role in everything from muscle movements to moods and mental health 0 Speci c neurotransmitters regulate behavior o Acetylcholine Ach released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles Contributes to the regulation of attention arousal and memory typing walking talking breathing cholinergic transmission at the heart E Some Ach receptors stimulated by nicotine E Disorders associated with Dysregulation Alzheimer s o Dopamine DA contributes to control of voluntary movement Cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity at DA synapses Dopamine circuits in medial forebrain bundle characterized as quotreward pathwayquot E Parkinsonism schizophrenic addictive disorders 0 Noradrenaline NA adrenergic transmission at the liver 0 Others include i Serotonin SE i GABA Endorphins peptides amino acids endocannabinoids Divisions of the nervous system 0 PNSCNS 0 Peripheral nervous system PNS made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord E Nerves are bundles of neuron bers axons that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system Two primary systems Somatic and Automatic nervous system 0 Somatic nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors 0 Automatic ANS nerves that connect to the heart blood vessels smooth muscles and glands o Sympathetic division mobilizes the body s resources for emergencies o Parasympathetic division conserves bodily resources i Ex slow heart rate reduce blood pressure and promote digestion 0 Central Nervous System CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord I Spinal vs cranial The spinal cord re exes AampD bers Gray matter While mailer Sensory nerve Central canal Dorsal root on lion 9 g Dorsal Motor nerve Ventral Ch 4 Sensation amp Perception In Text SKIP pgs 142148 color and 159173 auditory taste touch smell The illusion of movement that occurs when stationary visual stimuli are presented sequentially in rapid succession is called the a gureground distinction b wave d Gestalt perspective e binocular depth cue Viewing the cars in a parking lot as grouped by rows due to how close they are parked next to each other is an example of which Gestalt principle of perceptual organization a closure c similarity d simplicity e continuity This pictorial depth cue explains why objects that mask or overlap others are perceived as being closer a linear perspective b texture gradient c relative size e light and shadow The function of the lens in the eye is to a color the eye c convert the light into neural energy d regulate the amount of light entering the eye e improve farsightedness The blind spot is the space where the leaves the back of the eye a amacrine ce b vagus nerve c neurotransmitters d horizontal cels Key Concepts 0 Structures of the eye Gestalt principles of perceptual organization 0 Eg proximity closure similarity gure amp ground Key TermsNames Optic nerve Iris Pupil Lens Retina Cells in the Retina RodsCones Ganglion Bipolar Blakemore amp Cooper Balloon video Sensation the stimulation of sense organs 0 Involves the absorption of energy such as light or sound waves by sensory organs such as eyes and ears Perception the selection organization and interpretation of sensory input 0 Involves organizing and translating sensory input into something meaningful Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave moving naturally enough at the speed of light 0 Light waves vary in amplitude height affects the perception of brightness and wavelength the distance between peeks affects perception of color Eyes serves two main purposes they channel light to the neural tissue that receives it called the retina and they house that tissue 0 Light passes through the cornea pupil and lens and falls on the light sensitive surface of the retina where images of objects are re ected upside down 0 The lens adjusts its curvature to focus the images falling on the retina The iris and pupil regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye 7W1 lllustles r0 anl39wlsbl lht lg1 Curlle39u 39 I Upliftiisk 4 lancl ljlintl spam 0 pl in name 0 brain Cornealight enters the eye through a transparent quotwindowquot 0 the cornea and the crystalline lens form an upside down image of objects on the retina Lens Transparent eye structure that bends light entering the eye and focuses the light rays falling on the retina 0 Made up of soft tissue capable of adjustments that facilitate a process called accommodation i Accommodation occurs when the curvature of the lens adjusts to alter visual focus The eye can make adjustments to alter the amount of light reaching the retina o The iris the colored ring of muscle surrounding the pupil regulates the amount of light entering the eye because it controls the size of the pupil o The pupil the opening in the center of the iris that permits light to pass into the rear chamber of the eye size of the pupil determines how much light will enter the eye Receplor cells loos and Rod Bipolar coll Amatrlne cell OWE Upiicdlsk and blind spot Ganglion coll f Horizontal tell Retina is the neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye it absorbs light processes images and sends visual information to the brain part of central nervous system The axons that run from the retina to the brain converge at the optic disk blind spot a hole in the retina where the optic nerve bers exit the eye and send signals to the brain 0 Optic nerve Transmits information from the retina to the brain a collection of axons from ganglion cells connects the eye with the brain Ganglion cell receives visual information collects the electrical messages concerning the visual signal from the two layers of nerve cells preceding it in the retinal wiring scheme 0 Receptor cells located in the innermost layer of the retina are sensitive to light Rods specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision outnumber cones Cones specialized visual receptors that play a key role in color and daylight vision 0 Visual acuity sharpness and precise detail o Dense at the center of retina and disperse outward o Fovea a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones visual acuity is greatest at this spot 0 Retina and the Brain Visual information Processing 0 0 Rod miter segment Light striking the retina s receptors rods and cones triggers the ring of neural signals These neural signals pass into the intricate network of cells in the retina 0 Which then send impulses along the fmt 39 g t m c optic inmL39IEiii LEM F m w rat i a c L nerve 0 These Visual A39sErna iill39l K quot1 77 7 U T311 g V 1 Ceilbmly C l ipit lube 1 jumifzqugj JEFF Rf which depart I through the optic disk carry visual information stream of neural impulses to the brain 39 Ianpun 1 I39ll in rm from the eye encoded as a E pimail EEii ld o The visual system perceptual process 0 O Reversible gure a drawing that is compatible with two interpretations that can shift back and forth The same visual input can result in different perceptions Perception set a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way 0 Principles of Perception O Gestalt Principles topdown processing Gestalt psychology emerged in Germany rst half of 20th century Gestalt form and shape the whole can be greater than the sum of its parts Phi phenomenon by Max Wertheimer 1912 the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession Gestalt principles of form perception How the visual system organizes a scene into discrete forms O 0000 0 Figure and ground Proximity Closure Similarity Simplicity Pragnanz good form Continuity Depth Perception involves interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are three dimensions 0 Binocular cues are clues about distance based on the differing views of two eyes Retinal disparity refers to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations of the right and left retinas so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object o Retinal disparity increases as objects come closer Convergence sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer object o Monocular depth cues clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone 0 Can you modify your cells 0 Plasticity as a function of sensory selection 0 Blackmore and Cooper In Text SKIP pgs 206211 hypnosis Pictorial Depth Cues Clues about distance that can be given in a at picture Linear perspective Depth cue re ecting the fact that lines converge in the distance Texture Gradients Can provide information about depth lnterposition If an object comes between you and another object it must be closer to you Height in a plane Re ects the fact that distance objects appear higher in a picture Light amp Shadow useful in judging distance I I I Debbie Cora and Ladd Experiment cats In vertical and horizontal lvoKohlet lines Ch 5 Variations in Consciousness These biological cyces last roughly 24 hours and are easily disrupted by air travel a Biorhythms b Slowwave sleep d REM stages e mood swings The pineal gland releases this hormone that plays a key role in regulating our sleep wake cycles a testosterone b adrenaline c melatonin d oxytocin Ate your cells modi able Plasticity due to sensory deprivation Max von Sebden39 3 Patients e dopamine Slowwave sleep or quotdeep sleepquot is associated with which type of brain wave a beta b EEG c theta e alpha Which of the following classes of psychoactive drugs generates an increase in CNS activity bsedaUves cnarcoch dhaHudnogens e benzodiazepines Morphine methadone and oxycodone characterize this class of psychoactive drugs a stimulants bsedaUves d hallucinogens e cannabis The euphoric effects that cocaine produces are generated primarily by increasing the activity of this neurotransmitter along the brain s quotreward pathwayquot a Acetylcholine ACh b Norepinephrine NE c Serotonin SE d GABA e Dopamine DA Key Concepts Sleep stages Types of EEG waves Categories of psychoactive drugs and primary effects 0 Eg stimulants sedatives narcoticsopiates anxiolytics hallucinogens Key Terms People Circadian Rhythms Melatonin John Searle Drug Withdrawal Tolerance Consciousness the awareness of internal and external stimuli 0 Your awareness of external events 0 Your awareness of your internal sensations 0 Levels of awareness 0 William james stream of consciousness o Freud unconscious people s feelings and behavior are in uenced by unconscious needs wishes and con icts that lie below the surface of conscious awareness o Sleepdreaming research Consciousness arises form activity in distributed networks or neural pathways 0 EEG monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time records electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings brain waves Tracings vary in amplitude height and frequency cycles per second cps Frequency Beta 1324 cps epha wir ewu lwwWM Welrenew normal waking thought aiert Beta 3539 i W Ra if f rg k tg l problem solving 0 Alpha 812 cps Theta 39 deep relaxation it I blanlllt mind Della l we wmw meditation 0 Theta 47 cps lSE lC light sleep 0 Delta lt4 cpsdeep sleep Different patterns of EEG activity are associated with different states of consciousness Biological rhythm period uctuations in physiological functioning 0 Daily alternation of light and darkness 0 Annual patter of the seasons 0 Existence of internal quotbiological clocksquot monitor the passage of time Circadian Rhythms 24 hr biological cycles 0 Regulation of sleepother body functions 0 39 39 can leave individuals physiologically primed to fall asleep most easily at a particular time of day 0 Regulated by many mtemal CIOCkS Sleep Stage5 Circlin T11th Sleep I Stage 1 brief ttenettienel eteg e taillight sleep LEI 13 Itljltutee j Sleep deep stage of l Mpha wavee IThetawawee Sleep marked rapid eye ll E i tlerks thiefmueeular eemtraetienethet nemespeeple fell 51 movements highfrequency a gap lowamplitude brain waves and vivid Stage 2 Eileen Spindlee ID 35 memes dreaming reticuiar information is I SleepSpindles tiefljulete efMghet equencyl ein wastes important to Sleep and I Stages 23 451ewweve lleep 30 mimttee wa kefu39 n 955 II el te Weves Bram waives beeeme higher in a mplimde amt lewer in Ascending reticular Equal Of the Incoming nerve bers ll EEG Ei lllt39llilall39 te awake i eg39iller breathing tpulse late running through the reticular lwmmem e formation that in uence physiological quot DEEPSIEEP aousal II In llet peeple are hard to wake frem iEEllllli eleep ll First time you enter REM sleep it lasts fer a few minutes then lemger ll Dewelepmemttel fereneee in REM Sleep 0 Spreads into many areas of the cortex 0 Other brain structures involved pons medula thalamus hypothalamus limbic system Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine and serotonin 0 Also norepinephrine dopamine and GABA Why do we need and slotsr LIE55 wave sleep REM it slowwave 51eep Gontailmte to memmy consoli a on rming tip leaaningr that takes place during the day subjectsquot memory oi speci c learning activities timing the do REM Eleep ppeaurs to teeter the procew of the touristicn oi newr neurons neural matmation Illlayr promote cleative insights related to previous learning ccumnlating evidence suggests that sleep I loss can a ect physiological physical Link between short sleep duration Dhesity Diabetes Hypertension c p disease People who consistently sleep less than seven hours exhibit an elevated mortality hot so do those who routinely sleep more than 3 homes ltering Consciousness with Drugs Drugs are eonnnonljr in deliberate e orts to alter consciousness I how a n w fl the linoler I Psyc hoac ve drugs chemical that modify mental emotional or behavioral innc omng I Narcotics opiates II Seda ves sleep inducing decrease ENS activity I S rlnulants activity I Hall ucinogens distort and peroeptnal experience Di erent from book u n epressants renptake inhibitors u n pspclm cs manage egscl1isophrenia u Emisalytics anmt39ety
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