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Study Guide - Exam 2

by: Jessica Twehous

Study Guide - Exam 2 PSYCH 3510 - 01

Jessica Twehous
GPA 3.8
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Erika Waller

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About this Document

This is a study guide for chapters 6-10!
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Erika Waller
Study Guide
intro to clinical psychology
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3510 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Erika Waller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Intro to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 10/04/15
Applying to grad school The Guide and Website 0 quotInsider39s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychologyquot Norcross amp Sayette o httpclinicalpsychgradschoolorg 0 created by current clinicall program directors 0 includes postbac position openings Are you sure 0 Are you willling to commit 46 years PLUS 1 year intership PLUS possibly 12 years lincensure postdoc 0 Do you like research enough to do a significant amount of it in grad school and possibly at least some after Have you considered alternatives 0 Social Work 0 School Psychology 0 Psychiatry 0 Master39s degree in psych licensed professional counselor LPC 0 Counseling Psychology 45 years private practice ook into Experiences that will enhance your application The most important thing RESEARCH EXPERIENCE Psychology labs on campus Clinicalvolunteer experience is nice but not absolutely necessary Advanced classes are nice but don39t destroy your GPA taking them What kind of programs PhD vs Psy D Clinical scientest vs scientistpracticioner Only clinical programs or also counseling programs clinical research counseling practice oriented Picking schools and mentors How many schools 815 Research fit Contacing potential mentors GRE and GPA how high do numbers need to be Gpa is ony important for first look application General GRE 7580 Psychology GRE mizzou gre verbal quantitative 1222 analytical writing 43 psychology subject test 640 gpa mean overall 366 psychology 375 juniorsenior 376 75 years Recommendation Letters How many typically 3 Who Letter writers should know you well and have glowing things to say about you At least one should be able to speak about your research experience quotThis person got an A in my classquot is not enough Personal Statement Content not the time to get closure on your personal journey with psychosis and cocaine addiction take your description of your research interests and thinking to the quotnext levelquot create a narrative mention specific advisors you39d like to work with and thingns you think are a good match for your interests for each specific program Personal statement tips draft redraft edit again let others read it better to deal with harsh feedback from people you know than an admissions committee friends gt graduate students gt Pi use the writing center Curriculum Vitae Content research experience lab focus responsibilities clinical experience teaching experience awards posterspublications Interviews Inperson quotinterview dayquot or phone interview interview day is best alternate weekends Interview Process Questions they may ask you What are your career goals What research experience have you had and do you want to have Describe the projects you have worked on Questions to ask potential mentorsadvisors Research topicsopportunitiescoauthorship Program requirements Supervision style Funding Interview graduate students Questions to ask current graduate students what is it like workking with this advisor are students collaborative or competitive living in this community Interview Day likely option of staying with a current graduate student to save money you aren39t being paranoid everyone IS evaluating you ALL the time timeline 0 summer before you want to apply study for and take GRE start working on personal statement 0 fall prepare applications get rec letters wonder how you thought you had time for this with everything else going on in your life winter wait interview wait wait wait spring decide which of your offers to accept by april 15 Chapter 10 Clinical Judgment Intrepretation of Data 0 Clinical psycholgists must collect integrate and interpret data from multiple sources 0 Often asked to make bottomline judgments eg diagnosis or future predictions eg relapse dangerousness Quantitative vs Subjective Approach 0 QuantitativeStatistical Approach to clinical judgment and interpretation quotuses formulas and statistical models to make predictions about clinical outcomesquot 0 Obtain scores for one or more relevant characteristics use previously derived formulas to predict outcome Eg predicting grad school success based on undergrad GPA and GRE score SubiectiveClnical Approach to clinical judgment and interpretation is quotlargely intuitive and experientialquot and quotrequires that the clinician be sensitive to information from a wide range of sources and make a series of inductive or deductive generalizations to link the observations and predict the outcomequot 0 Eg predicting how well someone will fit in a grad school research team based on personal statement letters of recommendation and interview 0 The case for the QuantitativeStatistical Approach More specificity Predictions are quotmechanicalquot Large group application Avoid Barnum effect when a seemingly valid description of an individual could actually apply to almost anyone 0 Why don39t clinicians use quantitative approach 0 Predictors seem shorttermed and not profoud o Clinicians remember their successful predictions and forget their errors 0000 o The case for the SubjectiveClinical Approach 0 Formulas are not available for all prediction situations 0 Judgment can add to prediction in some situations where statistical approach does not allow for flexibility o Clinician as data gatherer Clinical and Quantitative Approaches 0 Many comparison studies 0 Example Goldberg 1965 o Clinicians diagnosed patients as quotneuroticquot or quotpsychoticquot solely on MMPI scores 0 Statistical predictions of diagnosis made with a variety of algorithms using MMPI scores 0 Results of these two approaches compared to actual diagnoses from patients39 records 0 Statistical predictions were comparable Comparing Clinical and Quantitative Approaches o Grove et al 2000 comprehensive review of clinical vs statistical prediction studies 0 Quantitative superior in 50 of studies 0 Clinical only 6 o Objection to findings 0 Studies had limitations 0 Not quottruequot expertsquot 0 Not real clinical prediction tasks 0 Human quotneedquot for predictabilitydon39t want to hear that we are not particularly good at this 0 Clinical approach is valuable when 0 No adequate tests available to gather data 0 Predicting rare or unusual events 0 No statistical equations have been developed 0 Circumstances may negate accuracy of equation 0 Statistical approach is valuable when 0 Outcome to be predicted is objective and specific 0 Interest in an individual case is minimal 0 There is reason to be concerned about human judgment error or bias o Bias in clinical judgment 0 Little evidence that lower SES patients and women judge to be more seriously disturbed 0 Strong evidence for bias that I AfricanAmerican and Latino patients misdiagnosed with schizophrenia I Men more likely diagnosed as antisocial women as histrionic I AfricanAmerican patients more likely to be prescribed antipsychotic meds 0 Experience and training 0 No strong support for increased clinical experience resulting in increased accuracy in prediction 0 One profession not better than another quotMythquot of experience Improving Judgment and interpretation 0 Don39t oversimplify or focus on single pieces of information 0 Don39t over pathologize note strengths too 0 Record your interpretations and predictions to track later 0 Influence of stereotyped beliefs belief despite empirical evidence to the contrary Avoid vague reports concepts criteria be as specific as possible Be aware that knowledge of prediction may influence actions and perceptions of others Prediction to unknown situations risky without knowledge of situational influence on behavior Sample Psychological Report Table 102 922 Notes week 5 Personality Testing 0 Some think declining use or invalid especially projective tests 0 BUT MMPl2 used more often than any other assessments besides interview and IO 0 AND Rorschach used by 82 of psychologists in a recent study Objective Testing 0 Objective Personality Measures 0 Fixed set of responses I Truefalse I YesNo I Dimensional scaling 0 Example item I quotI feel lonleyquot 0 never 1 sometimes 2 always 0 Advantages o Economical Can test large group 0 Computer scoring and interpretation 0 Single dimension or trait can be targeted 0 Objective amp reliable o Disadvantages 0 Questions may be uncharacteristic of respondent Underlying reason for behavior not evident Mixes behaviorsemotionscognitions Can39t qualifyelaborate answers Purposeful incorrect answering 0 May misinterpret questions 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPl2 o MMPlMMPl2 the most widely used and studied selfreport inventory most widely used in the world 0 567 TrueFalse items 0 MMPI2 o Validity Scales I cannot say I F infrequency I L lie I K defensiveness o Addendums I Fb back page I VRIN variable response infrequency I TRIN true response infrequency o MMPl2 PurposeInterpretation O 0000 Originally to identify psychiatric disorder Now also used to infer personality traits based on profiles of which scales are elevated 0 Used for employment screening and forensic purposes 0 MMPl2 issues 0 Developed with an quotempirical keying approachquot which items are answered differently by clinical and nonclinical individuals 0 ComputerBased Test Interpretation CBTI 0 Revised NEOPersonality Inventory NEOPIR 0 Five factor model of personality Qpenness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Projective Testing 0 Procedure for discovering a person39s characteristic modes of behavior by observing behavior in response to a situation that does not elicit or compel a specific response 0 Characteristics 0 Unstructured stimulus o Examinee imposes own structure 0 Indirect Methodology 0 Freedom of response 0 Many variables to rate Presents difficulties with standardization reliability and validity Must consider 0 Incremental Validity degree to which procedure adds to prediction 0 Rorschach inkblots o 10 cards 5 with color 0 Administration I Card is shown quotTell me what you seequot I Responses noted and then ask what on the card prompted each response 0 Sconng I Popularoriginal answers I Loca on I Content I Determinants I Exner39s Comprehensive system of scoring most popular 0 Thematic Apperception Test TAT o 31 cards depicting objects or people in various situations 0 Administration I Assessor usually selects 612 pictures I Asks examinee to create a story about the picture 0 Thematic Apperception Test TAT o Sconng I Rarely formally scored I Lacks empirical data 0 Reveals personality characteristics 0 lnfers psychological needs themes interpersonal styles 0 Sentence completion 0 Individual completes a series of sentence stems 0 Examples I quotI want quot I quotMy best friend doesn39t know quot I quotMy dad quot 0 Most widely used Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank 0 Objective scoring on 7 pt scale of adjustment maladjustment 924 Notes week 5 Chapter 9 Behavioral Assessment DefinitionUse o Behavioral assessment is quotan assessment approach that focuses on the interactions between situations and behaviors for the purpose of effecting behavioral changequot Eg aggressive behavior Often used with childrenadolescents Tradition 0 Functional Analysis 0 BF Skinner I Precise analysis of stimuli that precede behavior and consequences that follow I Learned behaviors Influence of consequence I Can use this knowledge to understand motive and alter behavior 0 ABC model 0 Antecedent eg Mom ignoring child 0 Behavior eg Child hits sibling o Consequence eg Mom gives child negative attention Behavioral Assessment ongoing process before during and after Behavioral Interview 0 What is the problem 0 What factors are maintaining the problem 0 What is the desired ultimate outcome 0 Inventories and checklists o Selfreport questionnaires 0 Identify behaviors emotional responses and perceptions of environment 0 Eg Youth SelfReport o RolePlaying 0 Patients are directed to respond the way they would typically respond if they were in a given situation CognitiveBehavioral Assessment 0 Behavior influenced by cognitionsthoughts 0 Strategies 0 Thinking aloud 0 Reporting thoughts 0 Rating scales 0 Eg Social Thought and Belief Scale Observational Method Settings 0 Home observation 0 Mealtime Family Interaction Coding o Trained coders watch and rate a video of a family meal 0 School observation 0 Direct Observation Form I Assessors rate frequency of 88 problem items eg disrupts other students during several observation periods in morning and afternoon 0 Who is the observer 0 Hospital observation 0 Structured environment 0 Time Sample Behavior Checklist I Observations made at regular intervals I Daily behavioral profile can be constructed by compiling observations 0 What could we learn Observational Method 0 Controlled observation 0 Environmentsituation is quotdesignedquot to trigger specific behaviors so they can be observed 0 Eg marital interaction parentadolescent conflict 0 Controlled Performance Technique O Contrived situations that allow for control and standardization Used for phobia therapy Assess behavioral avoidance with series of tasks requiring increasingly threatening interactions Fear arousal can also be assessed with psychophysiological measures Influence of assessor o Selfmonitoring 0 Records of emotion thought behavior 0 Frequency duration intensity 0 Shows stimulus amp triggers CLASS ACTIVITY 0 Create your own selfmonitoring plan for 1 week for a behavior you want to increase or decrease o How will you operationally define the behavior 0 Electronic or paper record 0 Record every time it happens or random sample 0 Other factors Antecedent situationtriggers presence of others outcomeconsequence 915 Notes week 4 NEW TEST Chapter 6 The Assessment Interview Assessment in Clinical Psychology 0 Definition and Purpose 0 Clinical assessment involves I evaluation of the client39s strengths and weaknesses I conceptualization of the problem amp possible causes I prescription for alleviating the problem 0 Assessment is an Ongoing Process 0 Before during amp after treatment Need to define problem to treat it The Referral 0 Referral by whom I Parent friend teacher psychiatrisit judge o Refferal questions I What aspect of patient39s behavior needs attentionclarification o Influences on how the clinician addresses the referral question 0 Clinician39s theoretical orientation I Psychodynamic behavioral etc I Impacts choice of assessment instruments The Interview 0 General Characteristics of interviews 0 An interaction between 2 or more people 0 Interview falls between conversation and actual psychological test 0 There39s an art to interviewing o Interviewing Essentials and Techniques 0 Training and supervised experience 0 The physical arrangements I Comfortable private professional 0 Notetaking and recording I Moderate notetaking is ideal 0 Communication 0 Beginning a session 0 Language 0 Silence 0 Listening 0 Impact of clinician selfdisclosure appearance values etc o Rappon 0 Definition relationship between patient and clinician 0 Good rapport is characterized by I Acceptance I Empathy I Understanding I Respect I Competence o Challenging situations 0 The Patient39s Frame of Reference 0 Why are they seeking help 0 Goals 0 Understanding of therapyconsultation o The Clinician39s Frame of Reference 0 Be clear about the purpose of the interview 0 Remain focused 0 Provide closure Varieties of Interviews 0 The IntakeAdmission Interview 0 Purpose is to determine I why the patient has come and I whether the agency39s faciIitiespoliciesservices will meet the patient39s needs 0 The CaseHistory Interview 0 Provides broad background to understand the patient and problem 0 Covers I childhood and adulthood I educational sexual medical familial religious and psychological history 0 May include other informants o The Mental Status Examination Interview 0 Assess cognitive emotional or behavioral problems by evaluating several areas I General presentation State of consciousness Attentionconcentration Speech Orientation time place and person Mood and affect mood is how they say they39re currently feeling affect is how their emotion is appearing to the outside world saying they feel depressed but talking about it in a happy way 0 The MSE Interview areas cont39d Thought content Perceptions Memory Intellectual functioningg Insight Judgment o The Crisis Interview OOOOOO Help as the problem is occuring Prevent potential disaster Provide immediate resources Encourage longer term solution with referral or clinic appointment 0 Requires training sensitivity and judgment 0 Structured Diagnostic Interview 0 All patients asked a standard set of questions and followup probes in a specific sequence 0 Covers a wide range of disorder criteria quickly 0 More likely that two clinicians will come to similar conclusions high interrater reliability Chapter 7 The Assessment of Intelligence 0000 Concepts 0 3 ways to define intelligence 0 Adjustment to environment street smarts I Adaptability in multiple and new situations 0 Ability to learn I Educability 0 Abstract thinking I Ability to use symbols verbal numerical concepts Theories of Intelligence 0 Spearman o 9 general intelligence represents elements common to intelligence tests 0 Intelligence is broadgeneralized this was Spearman39s focus 0 Thurstone o 7 group factor called primary mental abilities o Cattell39s Theory 0 Fluid ability geneticallybased intelligence born with o Crystallized ability culturallybased society education 0 Gardner39s Multiple Intelligences o 8 formal groupings I linguistic musical logicalmathematical spa al bodilykinesthetic naturalistic interpersonal I intrapersonal 0 Major critcism quotintelligencequot vs quottalentsquot o Sternberg39s triarchic theory 0 Component I analytical thinking 0 Expenen al I creative thinking 0 Contextual I quotstreet smartsquot 0 Ratio IQ 0 Mental age MA based on test performance 0 Chronological age CA actual age in years 0 IQ MACA 100 0 Limitations for older adults 0 Deviation IQ o Compares performance on IQ test to same age peers 0 Same score will mean the same thing for people of different ages 0 Heritability o Behavioral genetics evaluates both genetic and environmental influences I Studies of heritability using dizygotic twins monozygotic twins and siblings 0 Environmental influences I Raised togetherseparate 0 Stability 0 Youth I IQ less stable for younger people I Environmental influence greater at younger ages 0 Flynn effect I Since 1972 US IQ scores average 3 pt increase each decade I Explanation Clinical Assessment 0 StanfordBinet Scales 0 Ages 2 adulthood o 5 cognitive factors I Fluid reasoning ability to solve new problems I Quantitative reasoning I Visualspatial processing Wechsler scales different tests for different ages Wechsler Adult Intelligence WAlSIV 0 Ages 1690 I 15 subtests I Calculate Full Scale IQ and 4 Index scores 0 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence WEPSllll 0 Ages 27 0 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISQIV 0 Ages 616 o 4 major indices verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory processing speed


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