Exam 1 Study Guide: The Beginning of Electronic Communication
Exam 1 Study Guide: The Beginning of Electronic Communication Com 2400
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rio Frohriep on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 2400 at Western Michigan University taught by Kayany in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media and Telecom in Communication Studies at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Comm 2400 Study Guide Note This guide may or may not cover every topic in the exam It would be beneficial to also go over the extra content featured on ELearninq TelecommunicationCommunication at a Distance Preelectricity Telecommunication Shout Become an orator and speak to large crowds Transportation Systems ie Messengers Broadcasting eg Smoke Signals When using a telecommunication system via message transportation the message could only travel as fast as the transportation system allowed Semaphore Tower System aka OpticalTelegram system Tall towers constructed connecting two cities People stood atop towers and relayed messages via flag signals all the way from one city to the other like the elementary game of Telephone but much more reliable DEF Semaphore Flag System is an alphabet signaling system based on the waving of a pair of handheld flags in a particular pastern from a line of high towers connecting two points Messages could travel much faster than the fastest mode of transportation Link to some more information on Semaphore Flags as well as an image of the Semaphore alphabet httpsflagexpressionswordpresscom20100323history behindsemaphoreflags Telecommunication postelectricity Telegraph writing at a distance William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone in England developed a Needle Telegraph which was used by sending different currents of electricity through a wire to cause a needle on the other end to move and spell out a particular message It was not very reliable however and was made obsolete by Samuel Morse s invention the Morse telegraph String a wire between two points and send a constant electric current through the wnre Periodically break up the signal in a certain code of dots and dashes morse code signals could travel at the speed of light 186000 msec and the telegram became the dominant means of communication Telegraph Network Instant communication between two points is possible provided there is a wired connec on Western Union dominant telegraph company Ended telegraph services in 2006 Submarine Telegraph Priority for the United Kingdom Atlantic Cable the submarine telegraph cable laid across the Atlantic Ocean connecting North America to Europe Telephone How the Telephone works Air vibrations produced by the vocal chords vibrate the ear drum The brain recognizes these vibrations as sound Air vibrations created by the vocal chords is converted to a proportionate electric charge The electric current is sent through the wires to the receiver set where it is again converted to air vibrations History Alexander Graham Bell was a teacher of the deaf when he got the idea to try and invent a technology that would help the deaf communicate over long distances when they couldn t use sign language He set to work trying to create what he called a Harmonic Telegraph He soon fell in love with one of his students named Mabel Hubbard Her father was not keen on the idea of his daughter marrying a poor teacher as their family was well off and Bell would not be able to care for her properly But he was also not happy with the current state of the telegraph He felt that Western Union was monopolizing the industry When he found out Bell was working on an invention that could rival the telegraph he became interested in it and agreed to fund his work but only gave his blessing to the wedding between Bell and his daughter after he saw that Bell s invention was making money Bell took on an assistant named Thomas Watson who was an engineer and could design the technology where Bell had no knowledge how to The pair worked diligently and finally learned they had a breakthrough when while working Bell accidentally got some of the acid he was using onto his pants and called out Mr Watson Come here at once His voice was carried over the transmitter he was working on and through the receiver where Watson heard it clearly Bell was not the only person working on a way to transmit voice however Another man by the name of Elisha Gray had created a similar prototype but had set it aside deeming it scientifically impossible When Gardiner Hubbard discovered that his soninIaw was not the only person working on this device he rushed it down to get a patent 12 an hour later Gray also took his prototype to get patented but arrived to find out he was 30 minutes too late Gardiner Hubbard later offered to sell the telephone to Western Union for 100000 but Western Union said no They felt the invention would not take off since the telegraph seemed to be the superior business tool as it transcripted every sent message One year later Western Union regretted the decision They went to Elisha Gray agreeing to fund his version of the telephone Bell sued but Western Union had anticipated this They had lawyers on the ready prepared to fight with Bell for years to come until the little inventor went bankrupt However courts quickly sided with Bell and Western Union was forced to give up the telephone business Telephone Exchange The vertex where all the wires connected where the operator would then connect the caller s wire to whichever the caller wanted Bell Telephone company was established in 1877 Bell and Watson built local telephone networks in cities around the USA American Telephone amp Telegraph Company ATampT Belle telephone Company established ATampT as a subsidiary to build longdistance connections between local networks In 1990 Bell telephone company transferred all assets to ATampT making it the parent company of the Bell system ATampT developed the concept of leasing the telephone equipment to the customers Subscribers to the service paid for the used of the network per month Long Distance calls were paid for by minute ATampT set up 22 Bell operated companies called Baby Bells responsible for local telephone services in their respective stateregion Long Distance Network responsible for domestic longdistance communication Public vs Private Carriers Common carrier public is a network that carries the messages of anyone willing to pay the fee Common carriers are regulated by appropriate state or Federal agencies Private carriers only carries messages from the owners of the network television radio cable networks Bell Labs Belle Telephone Laboratories was ATampT s research and development company They developed such technologies as the first transistor the first laser the first communications satellite etc The Fall of ATampT In November of 1974 the justice dept brought a major lawsuit against ATampT for monopolizing the telephone business This law suit went on for 10 years In 1984 the courts broke up the ATampT empire Effective January 1 1984 ATampT was ordered to divest or spin off it s 22 subsidiaries ATampT was allowed to keep the long distance service but local was unrelated to their business The Gov t hoped the split would cause competition in the telephone business however this didn t go as planned Telecommunication Act of 1998 The government eradicated the previous telecommunications structure The gov t allowed all the companies to offer any kind of telephone service anywhere in the country Therefore instead of three longdistance companies and 7 shortdistance companies there were now 10 companies that could compete for any kind of business However that didn t work either as the 10 companies instead of competing began consolidating Soon only three telephone companies were left Qwest ATampT Verizon Map of where each corporation operated httpicronticcomuploadsfeaturestech200909RBOCmappng ATampT again took over most of the country but this time the gov t did nothing to stop it Why Landline was no longer profitable Cellular phones were now starting to catch on and all three companies wanted to leave Landlines behind but the gov t wouldn t let them The Lanline telephone market has become more competitive and less profitable for companies like ATampT and Verizon because of direct competition from Cellular Technologies Internet Phones Voice Over Internet Protocol Cable Companies Wireless Heinrich Hertz The first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic radiation by building an apparatus to produce radio waves Radio Waves Electromagnetic energyElectromagnetic radiation that travels through space in waves Guglielmo Marconi Developed a transmitter in his attic Prepossessed to the Italian government who turned it down Went to the British government who saw the use for it and bought it up immediately The British gov t then equipped every ship with Marconi s tech The transmitter could not send human voice yet but could send messages via morse code Marconi patented his wireless system in England in 1897 and established the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Other countries began to develop their own systems to equip their ships with Marconi monopolized the wireless business with his noninterconnection policy a policy that forbid ships carrying Marconi systems to relay messages for ships with other systems Marconi was later forced to revoke this policy after the Titanic disaster Marconi traveled to America and established a subsidiary company in 1899 Advantages of Wireless Communication between two points without a wired connection eg Ships at sea Disadvantages of Wireless Signals eventually loose strength Huge antennas required to receive signals Still used morse code as oppose to human voice Lack in Privacy Lee De Forest s Audion Tube Lee De Forrest is known as the father of modern broadcasting DeForest added a third element to a Fleming valve and patented it as an audion tube Audion tube made the wireless receivers more sensitive and improved signal recep on Howard Armstrong s Regenerative Circuit Howard Armstrong was able to explain how the Audion Tube worked because DeForest had stumbled upon in on accident and was able to improve upon it to make it better calling it a Regenerative Circuit Armstrong s invention amplified the signals by feeding the signals back through the audion tube repeatedly Many con sitter Armstrong the true father of modern broadcasting There was a long legal battle between Armstrong and DeForest over who was the true inventor of this amplifier In the end it was determined that DeForest was the inventor legally but in the scientific community Armstrong is the inventor Wireless Communication Becomes Popular The British Marconi Company dominated the wireless communication business Encrypted wireless became an essential tool in the management of wars Transmitting Human Speech How it was Done Create a very powerful electromagnetic wave that could travel many miles called a Carrier Wave Combine this wave with the human voice Separate the voice form the carrier wave on the receptor end Reginald Fessendenfirst person to come up with a way to transmit human speech Canadian inventor Fessenden used his alternatortransmitter in 1906 to transmit music and voice Ernest Alexanderson Developed the Alternator Fessenden used Electrical engineer at General Electric GE Broadcasting Wireless pointtopoint communication Broadcasting point to many points Experimental Radio Broadcasts Lee DeForest started his first broadcast in 1907 Charles Herrold started his first broadcast in 1909 And many others WWI Government Control of Radio The Government took control of all the wireless broadcasting equiptment so they could develop better technologies for the war Naw took over all radio operations Naw assumed all responsibility for patent infringement Naw s engineers put together a working radio communications system After the War When the war ended the naw didn t want to give the technology back but congress forced them to When the Naw went to give the technology back they found that all the inventors had given their patents to their corporations The Naw didn t want to give the tech back to the American Marconi Company since it was a subsidiary of a foreign name American Marconi Company created RCA Radio Corporation of America to take the tech back Four corporations agree on a crosslicensing agreement ATampT GE RCA and Westinghouse This crosslicensing agreement allowed all these companies to use and profit from each others technologies It also meant that the four corporations would divide the radio business among them and each would start up their own station Corporations replaced individual inventors as owners of patents Dividing up the Radio Business GE and Westinghouse manufactured radio receivers and parts ATampT made leased and sold radio transmitters RCAmarketed and sold receivers A would eventually start their own radio stations mainly to get people to buy receivers First Stations Dr Frank Conrad s KDKA Westinghouse Advertised Westinghouse products on the air making sales in other products rise ATampT WEAF New York Westinghouse WJZ Newark RCA WDY New York General Electric WGY Schenectady NY Detroit Times WWJ Detroit Read the headlines over the air hoping to boost newspaper sales University of Wisconsin WHA Madison Wl Broadcast lectures so people would not have to come to campus and could learn in the comfort of their own home The Purpose of Broadcasting To increase the sale of receivers To increase the sale of newspapers To increase the membership in churches To deliver course content To increasepromote on existing business No one knew how to make money from broadcasting ATampT tried Toll Broadcasting in their network WEAF Charged people to come onto the air and talk However no one wanted to take the chance yet they feared no one would listening Brief product announcements between programs became common by 1929 Amateur Radio Receivers Because receivers were so expensive many young people took to making their own models Crystal Receiver Sets Built with galena crystals lead sulfide in an empty quaker oats can Tuned to a signal by touching the crystals surface with a thin wire Cat Whisker WEAF First Radio Network Was the first station that broadcast to towers that then resent the signal out at each city making the broadcast reach all across the country ATampT used their long distance telephone network to distribute their programs It was soon discovered it was more cost effective to produce better programs with bigger talents and distribute to the whole country rather than just locally Advertisers were more willing to pay more for a larger audience While ATampT had the first national network others had built smaller networks ATampT s monopoly of both the telephone and broadcasting business started to bother the government ATampT quit broadcasting Sold their network to RCA RCA also aquired WJZ from Westinghouse NBC NBC first company formed exclusively for broadcasting Renamed WEAF the Red Channel Formed another network by combining to channels calling it the Blue Channel CBS 1927 William Paley started Columbia Broadcasting System from a failing network United Independent Broadcasters consisting of 22 stations ABC The gov t feared that NBC was becoming like ATampT that is that they were gaining a monopoly in broadcasting They stepped in with the Communications Act of 1934 This act mandated that a corporation should not own more than one network NBC was forced to sell one of their networks They sold the Blue Network because it was smaller The Blue network was bought by Edward Noble and renamed it ABC American Broadcasting Company Government Regulation Radio Act of 1912 Mandated that all vessels must have a wireless communications system and licensed operator on deck at all times Established Call Letters as an ID Regulated the tech for pointtopoint communication Radio Act of 1927 At first all stations were allowed to broadcast at whatever frequency they wished However this led to transmissions being all on the same frequency and washing each other out with noise The FRC Federal Radio Commission was developed The FRC would issue a license and specific frequency to each station Each station was only allowed to broadcast on the frequency designated to it Communications act of 1934 Because of the release of television FRC changed its name to FCC Federal Communication Commission The FCC became the authority over all forms of electronic communication media Edward R Murrow Most renown figure in broadcasting journalism history His public affairs program Hear it Now radio and later See it Now television set the bar for journalists Notes from PBS Documentary Empire of the Air if possible rewatch this video on the internet 1901 Human voice was first transmitted over the air waves Reginald Fessenden Lee DeForest Resolved to be an inventor like his heroes Wrote to Marconi asking for a job Marconi didn t even bother to reply Made a deal with a shady businessman named Abraham White in order to sell his product but white turned out to be nothing more than a swindler Determined to establish what he called the Invisible Empire of the Air Armstrong Read the Boy s Book on Inventions as a child and became determined to be like the people in it Set out to discover how the Audion Tube worked Improved upon the Audion Tube s design and called it the Regeneration Tube Patented it in 1913 Found out how to transmit signals as well as receive them Was encouraged by David Sarnoff to license his device Sarnoff Became Marconi s personal messenger Established the first Radio Network NBC DeForest and Armstrong spent 20 years arguing in the courts about who had actually been the inventor of the audio tube Armstrong and Sarnoff were considerably good acquaintances None of the three men that had the most to do with the development of Radio listened to it Sarnoff was busy with his work as president of NBC DeForest didn t like the commercials Armstrong didn t like the static Armstrong s Little Black Box Sarnoff allowed his friend Armstrong to develop his tech on the top floor of the Empire State building Armstrong developed FM radio A broadcasts up to this point had been in AM Amplitude Modulation FM Frequency Modulation was new and better but required all new equipment Armstrong showed his newly developed radio transmitter and receiver to Sarnoff for him to develop it and though Sarnoff had been hoping for a way to eliminate noise he declined FM would require years of work and marketing to be restarted from scratch and it was not an very economic choice Sarnoff then requested Armstrong remove himself and his technology from the empire state building claiming he needed the space Armstrong complied determined to develop FM radio alone Armstrong created the Yankee Network as a competitor to Sarnoff s CBS Sarnoff was adamant in crushing his old friend s network under his large monopoly s heel The two quickly became archrivals At the 1934 World s Fair Sarnoff introduced what he had been working on Television DeForest quickly declared himself GrandFather of Television When WWII started the war forced Armstrong and Sarnoff to set aside their differences for a while Armstrong offered his patents to the US gov t s use Sarnoff joined the war as a supervisor after his return he insisted everyone call him General Sarnoff Radio s golden age lasted only about 10 years as Television quickly overtook it Armstrong later killed himself byjumping out of his apartment window from the 13th story His old friend Sarnoff lead a group of mourners at Armstrong s funeral
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