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PHYS 100: Introductory Physics - Study Guide PHYS 100

Marketplace > University of British Columbia > Physics 2 > PHYS 100 > PHYS 100 Introductory Physics Study Guide
Introductory Physics
Dr. Marcello Pavan

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COURSE
Introductory Physics
PROF.
Dr. Marcello Pavan
TYPE
Study Guide
PAGES
9
WORDS
KARMA
50 ?

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday October 20, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 100 at University of British Columbia taught by Dr. Marcello Pavan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Introductory Physics in Physics 2 at University of British Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/20/14
PlIYSIUU always use MKS metric units convert everything to MKS units before doing CElUEl39l395391UlTs ex KINEMATICS Particle model makes sense to approximate object as just a single point BECAUSE points can t rotate or vibrate Motion diagrams show representation of an object at fixed time intervals great for visual understanding close analogy to everyday experience cons does not easily permit transfer to mathematical description ex I know t1 and t2 but what about t15 Motion defined as the change in an objects position versus time Trajectory path along which object moves Particle object represented as a single mass in space Uniform motion constant speed the constant g represents acceleration due to gravity is always positive g 98ms 2 Scalars have only magnitude Distance cumulative change in position Speed distance travelled in time i Mass 56kg Vectors have magnitude AND direction Displacement vector pointing from the initial to nal position as the crow flies Velocity displacement change in time t Acceleration Velocity change in time t Must define where O is which direction is positive a Velocity changetime deltaV delta t Sample question from class D 5 Hell Acceleration all four are equal in magnitude Deceleration acceleration and Velocity are in opposite directions direction of acceleration is completely independent of the direction of Velocity you can be slowing down in the negative direction and technically have positive acceleration DE CELERAT I ON at NEG ACCELERATION Emu CBltEFltAD FORCES Weight the gravitational pull of the earth on an object Spring push and pull force F313 Tension contact force resembling the pull of a rope Vector is in direction of the pull Normal force exerted by a surface against an object pressing against that surface Friction always exerted by a surface frictional force is parallel to the surface Drag resistive force points in opposite direction of motion Thrust contact force that propels object forward ie rockets Vector travels in direction of movement Electric amp magnetic Newton s 2quot Law The acceleration a is directly proportional to the force F and inversely proportional to the mass m AFm 1N 1 kg X 1 ms2 1 lltgms2 following the concept of F W ma In other words 1 N is the force that causes a 1 kg mass to accelerate at lms2 mass an object s resistance to change in motion related to the amount of stuff in the object weight force caused by gravity N or llthms2 inertia resistance to change in some property force is required to overcome intertia Galileo s law of inertia Job of the seat belt to protect against Newton s 13 law prevent the body from moving at the same initial velocity of the car a force is defined by what it does not what it is 9 changes the state of motions of a body I is a push or a pull I acts on an object I needs an agent I is a vector I acts at contact long range Acceleration change in velocity Velocity is a vector so acceleration results from change in magnitude or direction or both NeWton s 15 Law If an object is NOT accelerating then the sum of all the forces on it balance out to zero NO NET FORCE Without any net force acting on it an object will stay still Motion does not necessarily need a cause even with no forces acting on it a moving object will continue moving forever An object s natural state is that of uniform motions and NOT necessarily the state of rest Net force and NeWton s 21 Law vector sum and NOT a separate force as doesn39t have own agent Normal force is just a spring force the force exerted by the surface atoms a reaction to weightl pressing solid surfaces do not always exert a normal force How to Free I9ody diagrams 1 Divide problem into system and environment System is the object whose motion we are studying Draw a picture show system and everything in environment that touches it Draw closed curbed around just the system Locate all points on curve where environment touches system Identify long range forces ex gravity Draw force vectors corresponding to all forces on system onto a free body diagram one diagram for each system 3 U 39E 2 ND law gives you all forces acting on a single object Newton s 0 Law At any instant of time an object only responds to the forces it feels at that instant it has no memory of previous forces slinky demo FORCE OF DRAG is proportional to relative velocityfluiddensityrelativevelocityareadrag coefficient For objects not too small or fast FD 12pCDAv2 Where Across sectional area front surface P density of air 129kgm3 In a free fall FD increases until FDW at whichpoint terminal velocity is reached and there is no acceleration F D mgm 0 As you go faster the drag increases Newton s 3 Law Distinguishing interaction pairs from free body diagrams Interaction forces 1 are of the same kind 2 Act at the same time Pitfalls of 3 law Fnormal does not always equal w normal force can be smaller and at a different angle than the weight Can be as a result of the weight OR something else ie hand press NORMAL FORCE AND WEIGHT ARE NZOT ACTION REACTION PAIR 3 rd law gives us force pairs exerted by two objects on each other ENERGY AND WORK Energy transformations are changes of energy within the system from one form to another Tvpes of Energv K Kinetic energy The energy of motion the heavier an object and the faster it moves the more kinetic energy it has U g Gravitational potential energy Stored energy associated with a given object s height above the ground As the object descends its stored energy is converted to kinetic energy Us Elastic spring potential energy Stored energy in a stretched object such as a string or elastic band Em Thermal energy Defined as the sum of the microscopic kinetic and potential energies in molecules hot objects have more thermal energy than cold objects because molecules are vibrating more rapidly Echem Chemical energy Energy stored in chemical bonds that can be harnessed for use Emlear Nuclear energy Energy resulting from breakdown of nuclei energy transformations happen within the system without loss to the environment change in type of energy The basic energy model shows how energy can be transferred into and out of a system as well as transform within a system Heat thermal transfer of energy tofrom a system system does not move Work The process of transferring energy from the environment to a system or from a system to the environment by application of mechanical forces pushes pulls WFd Given this the larger the displacement and the larger the force the greater the work done The unit of work is 1 joule J l Nm Nmefmm lecmm Propulsion is impossible to explain without Newton s 3 law Force at an Angle to the Displacement forward motion is due to an exerted force in the backward direction ex therefore work is reduced when the force is at an angle to Rockets expel billions of atoms of the displacement rocket fuel downwards to move Work done at an angle is given by the parallel component of the force multiplied by the distance which is given by dcosQon an incline W Fparallel dcos Q Kinetic Energy W Kf Ki KmV the relationship between kinetic energy and the velocity is quadratic It also follows that Kf 12 mvf2 and K 12 mvf Potential Energy Can be stored converted into other forms of energy Conservative force one that can store energy as opposed to a nonconservative force that cannot such as friction W AUg Uf U1 Since W Fd for problems Ug can be further broken down such that W mgd or mgAy Ay being the change in vertical distance of an object In general MIDTERM INFO Conceptual questions LC Short 12 line calculations like Mastering Physics Longer problem like in Tutorials One covering lab content PREP units worksheets mastering physics tutorials Examples The skater starts from rest at the position shown in the diagram Do you think the skater will make it over the hump No according to conservation of energy his potential energy at the 2 hump cannot exceed his potential energy at the initial position 4 The 75 kg skater starts from rest 53 m above the ground What is his kinetic energy at 40m above the ground Ignore friction and air drag Enter answer in joules J but do not include the units Enter an integer no decimal places E mgh l2mv2 E mgh 75kh98ms253m 38955 134 38955 75984 12mv2 38955 75984 Ek 956 J A skater moving on a track reaches his maximum speed at the bottom of the track At a certain time t his energy chart looks like the one shown How would you describe his sspeed at that time Assume that Ug O at the bottom of the track FD 097 Enargyr i g 4 hi He is at his maximum speed He is at rest He is moving at v12vmaX He is moving at vlt12vmaX He is moving at vgt12vmaX l r liz f Ihemnnll Tnquot E is ampl39 E

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