Week 6 (28 Sept.-2 Oct. 2015) The Other War and the Tet Offensive
Week 6 (28 Sept.-2 Oct. 2015) The Other War and the Tet Offensive HIST 3370
Popular in The Vietnam War
Popular in History
This 39 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 3370 at Bowling Green State University taught by Benjamin Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see The Vietnam War in History at Bowling Green State University.
Reviews for Week 6 (28 Sept.-2 Oct. 2015) The Other War and the Tet Offensive
Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/04/15
Week 6 28 Sept2 Oct 2015 The Other War and the Tet Offensive The Other War Hearts and Minds Which enemy would US confront Which war would US fight Ia Drang OctNov 65 Validating or challenging US strategic concept Cedar Falls Jan 67 creating refugees while struggling to find enemy Ignoring principles of war critique of Clausewitzian Revisionists Intemal critiques of US strategy PROVN 65 66 COIN and Pacification winning hearts and minds by securing the population fundamentals of COIN not search and destroy but clear hold CAPS and build CORDS External Aggression center of gravity is North Vietnam Clausewitzian conventional war Internal Aggression center of gravity are the people of South Vietnam hearts and minds rigid COIN Experience with smallscale COIN Marines Haiti and Nicarauga ArmyPhilippines brutal wars but US didn t pay attention Ia Drang sets stage for NVA fighting as a unit M learned to hug US troops don t take on large units without superiority need to initiate LZ Albany disaster following XRay took lessons from XRay but ignored Albany Operation Cedar Falls Iron Triangle bounded by rivers and a highway thick jungle massive search and destroy operation relocate Villagers because many aren t loyal to South Vietnam in order to get them services and security to get loyalty from them M talk peace on America s terms use firepower to overwhelm enemy move population out of VC base areas main goal eliminate NLF structure from the area by moving whole population seemed to accept it Vietnamese knew what was going on US ended operation and withdrew VC came right back without much civilian help Cold War ideology is driving US strategy think Communists are intimidating South Vietnamese so they take them to safety COIN Clear Search and destroy hold enemy will creep back if left CAPs and build confidence infrastructure etc CORDS didn t get implemented on full scale didn t get priority Iron Triangle attened by US many LZs problem were the tunnels relocate villagers to destroy tunnels Mbecame big US at turn of the century focus on Center of Gravity and follow principles of wargt Summersattack North Vietnam more domestic support China can t get involved Search and Destroy wasted resources not acting decisively air war consistent targets off limits need to at least isolate Vietnam Against Clausewitzians China wanted North Vietnam Clausewitzians ignored Clausewitz fight for politics Center of Gravity is the populationPROVNurges pacification pessimistic about US success by Creighton Abrams after 68 was a better war because of this but search and destroy already discouraged the population PROVN need to get individual Vietnamese to support the South Vietnamese government critical actions at village district provincial levels this is where the war must be fought Westmoreland receives PROVNonly certain number of troops Vietnam needs to destroy the enemy ignoring who the enemy was strengthened VC USMC CAPs workedknew what they were doing interservice rivalry Army wants to take war to the enemy so USMC has to do Search and Destroy M application of search and destroy enemy s all around you never knew who was the enemy vengeance Vietnamese thought they were being punished strategy understandable because it denies the enemy sanctuary but need to adopt a strategy based on political needs M wrote about failure of COIN in Vietnam rewrote Army s COIN manual FM 324 CORDSgtPRTProvincial Reconstruction Team Afghanistan and Iraq The Tet Offensive Tet OffensiveThe NVAV C operational plan Diversionary attacks in the Remote Interior Khe Sahn America s Dien Bien Phu The Main Effort Urban Combat in Saigon Nguyen Ngoc Loan and Hue The Outcome Reaching the crossover point in US public opinion and media Walter Cronkite Reassessing US goals and strategy Escalate or Withdraw The Legacy 45 46 postwar 46 54 French War Slow US escalationgt 65 68 escalation of troops and bombing PostTetgtdeescalation 69 Nixon escalates into Laos and Cambodia US Plan 65 build up troops 66 blunt NLF gains 67coast to countryside endgtCampaign of Optimism that the war s almost won which made Tet seem like more of a shock 68scale down E holiday with significant leave time unofficial truce source of considerable debate in North Vietnampummeled by bombing high casualties in South Vietnam confident that South Vietnam would want general offensive general uprising key to success 29 J an25 Feb 68 initial diversionary attacks on cities in countryside and slowly build up forces around major coastal cities Khe Sanh besieged at early part of Tet captures everyone s attention and is focus of that attention draws US attention from the cities lasts 77 days compared with Dien Bien Phu besieged and cut off in North part of South Vietnam Differences US has air support B 52s every 3 hours Dien Bien Phu was a main effort for the enemy but was just a diversion at Khe Sahn Analogous to the Battle of the Bulge last ditch effort US needed massive offensive after both to achieve victory didn t do this after Tet MTV showing different sight showed disturbing things embassycenter of US power in South Vietnam under fire Hue Videocollateral damage to cultural artifactsbuildings E considered US and South Vietnamese tactical victory but strategic defeat National news was very important CronkiteSupported war until Tet reports Feb 68 mired in stalemate goal to reach crossover point difference crossover point in American public opinionmore think it as a mistake to go to Vietnam leads to year of reevaluation Wise Mensupport containment rejects 206000 troops pause in bombing calls for negotiation With North Vietnam no LBJ re election end of LBJ and Westmoreland start of Nixon and Abrams Who liked COIN Study Guide MidTerm Exam HIST 3370 Week One 2428 August 2015 John McCain vs Chuck Hagel Naval Aviator and POW Army Veteran of Vietnam Prowar Hawk Dove Vietnam was a mistake Republican Senator Republican senator USO Secretary of Defense for President Obama US lift restrictions on Veterans causes use of force What needs addressed 0 Music of Protest 0 Strategy Tactics and Operations Disagreement not conventional enough vs too conventional 0 Media relations lSt televised war lost vs won atrocities vs good 0 Why unsuccessful 0 Different presidential decision making 0 Antiwar movements 0 Aftermath coming home US and Vietnam 0 International implications 0 Credibility of US to defend allies against communism especially in Europe 0 Origin 0 Legality Terms Ho Chi Minh Nguyen Ai Quoc founder of Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League and leader of the Vietminh August Revolution 1945 The Vietminh took control of major cities from the Japanese and declared their independence in hopes that Western Powers and the Chinese would recognize Vietnam as a sovereign nation Vietminh League for the Independence of Vietnam group attempting to win over the Vietnamese people in an effort to gain independence for Vietnam Indochina through WWII Vietnam A Brief Historv Relationship with China and the Age of Imperialism US and Asia Ideals vs EconomicSecuritv Interests Vietnamese view of the US Vietnamese lessons of American Revolution America s Ideas Wilson s 14 Points FDR s Atlantic Charter WWII in Indochina French Vichy Japanese occupations French cooperating with Japanese Formation of Viet Minh and August Revolution Deer Mission The 088 in Vietnam Movie Deep rooted Ho Chi Minh fought for decades with the French and US and their South Vietnamese allies 1St televised war and 1St war that was opposed in large numbers Why US in Vietnam Chinese vs Vietnam Chinese and Vietnamese have fought for centuries Vietnam has history of repelling foreign enemies Cold War threat to US is spread of Communism throughout the world Vietnamese more Nationalist or more Communist North vs South North mining communal tight villages South Farming individualistic Age of Imperialism in Asia British Russian Dutch Japanese French In Vietnam for agriculture rice rubber and proximity with China US with China Protect open door policy for China China is being carved up for European trade no exclusive trading spheres The Open Door Notes 18991900 Idealistic or realistic US is an emerging not great power in 1898 using ideals to get trading sphere in China protector of sovereignty against imperial powers George Washington Inspiration for Vietnamese Revolutionaries Lessons ways to fight superior enemy Chinese history of him states that he fought for the British in the French and Indian War 17541763 because he knew he was going to fight them in the future Social Darwinism prepare self with experiences French were suppressing the Vietnamese from experiences where they could lead themselves His characteristics righteous selfsacrifice courage duty to country M French drew a lot of their troops from their colonies to Europe Wilson thought WWI was caused by scrambles for colonies so he wanted to end colonization Europeans disagreed Nguyen Ai Quoc Ho Chi Minh appealed to US to live up to their ideals asked for things Americans possessed before they revolted against the British Representation freedom of assembly etc rej ected by US so he turned to the Soviet Union considered alternate paths to independence What s the threat of Vietnamese Communism Is Vietnam a Soviet puppet or Nationalist traveled Western countries to study M Japan easily takes over SE Asia because Europeans need to fight in Europe M US embargos Japan because they take French Indochina WWII Japanese Occupation of Indochina 19411945 FDR and Churchill agree to arrange events to bring US into war end to colonies Vietminh1941 different type of Communism compared to the USSR Allclass Nationalism no land reformappropriation had religious base Learned guerilla warfare securedefend revolutionary bases See this as a prolonged guerilla struggle French stayed until March 1945 power vacuum gt August Revolution Vietminh s opportunity to consolidate power Deer Mission OSS agents drop into North Vietnam organize and train hundreds of soldiers in various ways of ghting enemy said the Vietnamese recruits were gungho and that Ho Chi Minh was a Nationalist lSt and Communist 2nd US Has Ambivalence to Vietnamese Independence missed opportunity for friendly USVietnam relations want trusteeship to train Vietnam on administering self Vietnam see America s ideals but US doesn t always live up to them wants to help rebuild Europe end colonialism vs French stability Week Two 31 Aug 4 Sept 2015 1St Indochina War and Dr Gary Hess First Indochina War 19461954 MDRV Democratic Republic of Vietnam the independent Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh s Declaration of Independence North Vietnam after the split Bao Dai puppet emperor under French disliked by people abdicated by the time Ho Chi Minh declared independence Dien Bien Phu Final French defeat resulting in their withdrawal from Vietnam US response to Vietnamese Declaration of Independence The North m and international Communism The South The French and BaoDai Solution The changing international context The Colonial War and the Cold War Battle Analysis Dien Bien Phu l3 Mar7 May 1954 1St Indochina War aka The French War What took priority when ideals collided Assumptions vs Assessments of the enemy Vietnamese Declaration of Independence DOI based on American and French Revolutions 2 Sept 1945 less revolutionarygt similar to US s DOI grievances against tyrannical power restrictions mentioned etc critique of colonialism principles in Tehran and San Francisco Tehran Tehran Conference to establish postwar goals to end colonialism San Francisco UN Charter signed people s right to choose own leader not like a Marxist Manifesto or like it s written by Moscow didn t sound threatening to US US Confronted by DOI how to implement anticolonialization ideals Docment Analysis What are US s options regarding approach to French Indochina 1 Trusteeship go to 3rd party like US or UK like Philippines in American Filipino War 190019023 1946Philippines independent 1947 India independent US better to rule than French had bad ruling practices Vietnamese thought to be inferior and incapable of selfrule Vietnamese unlikely to accept 2 Total Immediate Independence SelfRule could fall to Communism but would end colonialism there Vietnamese already basing ideals off of US which is good to US French oppressed them to the point they aren t thought to be ready for selfrule racism in US believed Vietnamese to be racially inferior 3 Maintain French Colonv Bad ruling practices but are US s ally and US wants stable Europe Postwar Povertv can give rise to what Hitler did Russian Revolution Communist Europe would challenge US trading to avoid Communism France needed to be prosperous and retain Vietnam When US principlespriorities clash which prevailed Support France vs End Colonialism France Prevailed FDR s Four Policemen 4 powers take over Asia to lead it out of colonialism End of WWII North Korea USSR South Korea US North Vietnam Nationalist China clashed looting and attack of political opponents by Chinese South Vietnam UK North vs South Vietnam large disparities equivalent to Detroit vs New Orleans North industrialist mining South agriculture religiously based M DRVNorth minimally supported by Chinese at start Chinese Civil War 46 49 minimal from USSR occupied with Europe and Stalin doesn t think highly of the Viet Minh seeking help from nationalist in Asia Thai etc FranceSouth gave US idea that Ho s a raging communist who doesn t hate the French racially inferior and suppressed so long that they must be in the hands of the USSR US Secretary of State George Marshall end colonies by don t want them to be Communist Factors Outside Vietnam In uencing US between 49 50 Korean War June 50 Soviets discovering the atomic bomb US not only one with bomb now 49 fall of Nationalist China most populous nation now Communist 49 CCRUSSR Eastern Europe recognize DVR NSC 68 Apr 50 concludes USSR Abomb campaign of Soviet aggression US needs to counter to French 10 milliongt 100 million paid for 80 of French war cost recognize Bao Dai in South Vietnam known as The Playboy Emperor unpopular and ineffective Film portrayed French as incompetent outdated weapons low morale no knowledge of terrain wear of uniform My largely equipped by US Class Henri Navarre French Commander in Vietnam Christian de Castries French Commander at Dien Bien Phu Navarre Plan Strengthen Vietnamese Army increase and consolidate French offensive in Red River Delta to hinder supplies like Vietnamization train them to fight as you leave French Homefront tiring of war new prime minister wants peace agreement Operational Situation of Dien Bien Phu N Vietnam W of Hanoi many roads interdict Viet Minh s supplies draw weaker forces into a ght use it as a base of operations use air base Challenge far from supply Vietnamese Vo Nguyen Giap Napoleon Complex history teacher and law student journalist wife hung by French general of Viet Minh and People s Army died at 102 1St 3 days human wave attacks by Vietnamese took 3 outposts put French under siege 50 miles of trenches and tunnels ruined air field so supplies had to be dropped in but AA defenses of Vietnamese were too strong so inaccurate drops were captured by Vietnamese Surrounded Dien Bien Phu with Artillery 55 days 55000 French lose to 50000 Vietnamese who got aura of invincibility Dr Gary R Hess War at BGSU Taught at BGSU 19642009 1965real beginning of US war in Vietnam 2015 50th Anniversary Johnson openended commitment to Vietnam lowkey no address from oval office or to Congress Mission advisorygt combat role bomb N Vietnam combat troops end of 66 200000 troopsgt 500000 by 68 69 Impact that was felt widely and from the beginning was controversial small teachins at BGSU May 65gt Fall 65 larger teachin immoral war Beginning of war at BGSU number protests on campus most on lawn between Williams Mosley and University Halls Notable Speakers Sen Ernest Green voted against Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Jane Fonda antiwar actress Norman Thomas a socialist pacifist 67 National Day of Protest Disrupted ROTC Review Student Groups antiwar SDS Students for Democratic Society Support war Young Americans for Freedom Hawks favorescalate war Dovesantiwar 68 more Americans think the war s a mistake astounded by Tet s impact shortcoming of Johnson s promise that the war would be quick went down in public opinion March 31 deescalation of US in Vietnam and not candidate in Presidential run Enormous enthusiasm at BGSU testimony to how far he d fallen Few day later MLK s death and Robert Kennedy s death in June Exam week students concerned with country s direction concemed over whether there should be commencement William Jerome called together faculty and student leaders Student body president said commencement should go ahead End of 68 Nixon elected plan to end Vietnam students organized telegram campaign 3500 BGSU students signed to remind him to end war 70nation shaken by KSU student deaths beginning of end of war protesting expansion into Cambodia DVRViet Cong used it as a sanctuary Violence in KSU burning of ROTC building Monday May 4th was shooting BG found out by yers being passed around campus 4 KSU students killed President Jerome cancelled weekly class Tuesday was Vigil 7000 people couldn t go back to business as usual many places closed for semester BGSU stayed open but had a programgttake SU grades New Universitygtspecial classes on events in country helped keep university open distinction of being unique in staying open essential arguments debate began in mid 6OS and continued until wars end and into today need to understand the depth of the debate that took place as the war was waged Opinion of New courses shallow exception were those who put time into them Pres Jerome was lame duck President and this was his last act Correlation between campus then and now then concern on campus was much more intense surprising how much students were paying attention to reading about war Support for ROTC then more extreme antiwar movements targeted ROTC disruption of parade in 67 70 movement to abolish ROTC not allow university credit for it led into disruption of spring review roped in area but some protestors broke through and attempted to disrupt it hostility wasn t necessarily widespread Protests most thing were advertised well in advance a lot of music Williams dif cult place to work usually well scripted LIFE Magazine leading magazine BG News 69 70 A Year of Transition week of March 14th President Moore remarked that 70 was good time to leave not enter off1ce Reception staying open criticism especially by Miami University What was it like teaching during the war 90 of the time didn t affect the class faculty more doveish than hawkish teachins discussions on war certain invited because of how outspoken their vies were business college more hawks arts amp scienceshumanitiessocial sciences doves 65 discussion4 on panel and a couple dozen students there expert on panel because he went to Asia hard to find information on Vietnam Fear of being drafted no coincidence that many students stayed in college also married and married with kids Student drafted after graduation antiwar ended up in Germany Conscientious Obiectors documented them before they qualified Draft attitude once drafted worked to disadvantage of lowerclass men major system draft boards had quotas of drafteesvolunteers Attitudes of troops changed at end suffer morale during deescalation more drugsalcohol m Fully balanced analysis on major points of different all wars become the subject of literature different from other wars because of O orthodox Standard vs Revisionists O SpanishAmericanWWIWWIIhad to be fought see wars as good tricked into wars war was mistake somehow Shouldn t of been fought or needed to be fought differently Different Ocritical of war fool s errand mistake unwinnable within any acceptable use of military power wrong war wrong time good war differently if fought differently winnable Tried to select mai or topics full statement of both sides views 1 Bottom line of war vital to security of US Onot necessary war necessary 2 How US got involved 61 Kennedy 65Johnson a Not simple 0 mistake but disagree on what Kennedy would do typical Cold Warrior or experienced negotiator vs R missed opportunities to negotiate instead of war nothing to bargain with vs didn t go for peace 2 more troops and 1nvestment trap O and R agree Johnson did bad job 34 how war could of ended more successfully certain doctrines of warfare need to be followed Klauzwitz coordinate ends with means concentrate power to enemy understand objective clearly Harry Summers agrees Hearts and mind explanationwon if won over Vietnamese villagers over lost them before it even started because Communists won them over already 5 Media s Coverage of Vietnam know there was liberal biasgt more complex than that 6 Tet Offensive US won 0 devastating loss 7 Nixon and war s end promised peace gave S Vietnam chance vs prolonging inevitable loos for 4 years 8 War s lesson doctrines of war from the war Colin Powellnever fight another Vietnam WinebergerPowell Doctrine Certain criteria before war David Betravus counterinsurgency in Vietnam was thesis proponent of Hearts and Minds and Counterinsurgency Kennedy s 1St thing learned in office Never believe experts Opinion of most beneficial thing from war not to make another commitment of that level Week Three 811 Sept 2015 Eisenhower Eases into Indochina 19551960 Terms Ngo Dinh DiemLeader of South Vietnam in its early years of independence not liked by his people and thought to be authoritarian Edward LansdaleAgent sent to Vietnam in order to help the French in their fight against the Viet Minh Geneva AccordsThe agreement that split Vietnam into Northern and Southern sections after the French defeat ordered there to be a unification election two years later never happened US did not signsimply observed Class When did America s war in Vietnam begin Eisenhower s inheritance The US Asia and Cold War Operation VULTURE Dien Bien Phu and atomic weapons Implementing the New Look in Vietnam SEATO CIA Edward Landsale Dismissing the Geneva Accords and trumpeting the success of Ngo Dinh Diem Assessing Eisenhower s legacy in Vietnam 1949 Fall of China Soviet atomic bomb 1950 McCarthyism Red Scare NSC68 Korean War 19501953 1952 Ike elected POTUS 1953 Ike inaugurated 1954 Dien Bien Phu Geneva Accords When did the US war begin 80 of French war bills First US death First US combat death Training South Vietnamese soldiers independent operations in Vietnam American Deaths in VietnamLTC Peter Dewey 26 Sep 1945 mistaken by Vietminh as French TSGT Richard B Fitzgibbon J r 8 June 1956 killed by fellow airmen LCPL Richard B Fitzgibbon 111 Sep 1965 Captain Harry G Cramer Jr 21 Oct 1957 MAJ Dale Buis and MSG Chester M Ovnand 8 June 1959 Watching The Tattered Dress and killed by Vietnamese Current greatest SE Asian ally Japan 45 greatest SE Asia ally China Communist rise ended this Harry Truman lost China destroyed population subsequent president vow to not lose another Asian nation to Communism Soviets were so backward that the only way they could gure out the ABomb was to infiltrate the Manhattan Project American thoughts NSC68 7 Apr 1950 ABomb in USSR end of civilization need to contest Soviet expansion accelerate use of HBomb CIA and military force need psychological scare campaign to convince public of total war End of Korean War elect Ike didn t think US could afford ghting wars around the world focus on air sea and atomic power can threaten China with nuclear weapons and they will back down Avoiding ground war in Asia rely on alliesgt SEATOgtmultilaterally advisors to Indochina increasing aid Presidents Reasons for seeing Vietnam as significant important because it was a symbol Ike is lSt to speak of The Domino Theory Dien Bien Phu warns PRC to stay out of Indochina or else ambiguous Operation VULTURE US plan to supply French Ike wasn t going to recklessly use nuclear weapons g begs to use them released documents You must be crazy quote by Stephen Ambrose came from mid 60s and re ected his views on nuclear weapons at THAT time he rarely met with Ike doesn t want blame for loss or put troops on the ground set impossible conditions so he French could hold the blame to get US airpower had to officially request aid grant Vietnam independence UK and Australia had to assist Congress needed to pass the request Geneva Accords Ike get exibility since US didn t sign it Ike s New Look Means of Containment in Asia SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization regional collective security pact Koreaend conventional war with atomic threats Massive Retaliation South Vietnam Military advisors Landsale Formosa Straits Atomic threats Massive Retaliation 1956 US replaces France as nation pledging to defend Vietnam from Comunism Means Military advisors Ike commits 600 advisors to help South Vietnam insurgency Did Ike make it impossible to not go into Vietnam No unification elections ideals vs national security interests Communism spreading Diemauthoritarian corrupt people not satisfied with him Who Really Started Things in Vietnam for US Truman NSC68 vs Ike escalation commitment Sink or Swim with Ngo Dinh Diem The Collins Mission and the Elimination of Rivals The Battle of Saigon 19541955 Group Discussion and Analysis Pacification of the Countryside and Strategic Hamlets The Enemy Strategy of Indigenous Insurgents and North Vietnamese Dien Bien Phu Geneva Accords 1955 Battle of Saigon Elections to Unify Vietnam IAW Geneva Accords amp Group 559 develop supply trail network NLF formed US election Ike s narrowed JFK s choices 2 billion spent on FrenchManhattan Project Partial end Sept 46 was start Geneva Accords Vietnamese won but m get full independence half of country French leave North Vietnam DRV and consolidate in South Vietnamese Bao Dai 100000 troops move to South Vietnam increase political support for South Vietnamgt appoint President Diem Diemin New Jersey missionary school Catholic during 405 505 not strong nationalistpatriot reputation tough for him to gain support Ngo Dinh Nhu internal security harsh Madame Nhu speaks French and English US not main defender yetgt sends adVisorsgt J Lawton Collins WWII general Pacific and European 75th ID at Guadalcanal 7th Corps in Europe 4th and 9th ID 101St and 82nd ADs trusted to assess situation Mafia vying for control 40000 thugs controlling Saigon CountrysideCao Dai Mekong Delta 2 million supporters 25000 soldiers Hoa Hao Montengnardnomads not subjects to government control Buddhist French and their supportersrefugees Communists Elections in 56 coming up no need for m struggle Le Van Bay Vien Binh Xuyen Crime Syndicate leader and South Vietnam National Police leader Dulles Diem and Collins Saigon Feb 5 5 John Foster Dulles Back Diem but Collins says no strong Cold Warrior Democrat Mansfield support Diem Ike let domestic politics take over Clip Bay Vien and Diem no deal Diem attacked Bay Vien Diem never compromise won but Vien crushed Collinsgtnot confident in Diem Dullesgt not a puppet government Class Battle of Saigon Pivotal episode made Diem look good opportunity for US to look for others but Collins failed crossroadsgtsupport or cut loosegtsink or sink with Diem Purpose of AgrovillesStrategic Hamlets Successful Factors Consequences for Gov Stability Purposetaking refugees and consolidating them to areas where they could get aid and together for unity Consequences need to have credible policies and leaders Clip Fortif1ed villagesstrategic hamlets targets for VC attacks US trying to be optimistic Willing hand volunteers Class M combines Diem s opponents North slowly increasing agitation Week Four 1417 Sept 2015 JFK s Flexible Response to Vietnam and LBJ amp Escalation JFK s Flexible Response to Vietnam Flexible Response JFK s defensive strategy for various types of Soviet attack Counterinsurgech COIN strategy to fight an enemy blending in with the native population NSAM 263 J FK s commitment to withdrawal NSAM 273 Document escalating US involvement in Vietnam 60 US Election NLF formed 61 Jan JFK inaugurated AprJune Bay of Pigs Vienna US Advisors 600gt2000 62 Oct Cuban Missile Crisis US Advisors 2000gt11000 to a combat support role 63 US Advisors 11000gt16000 Jan Ap Bac May Buddhist revolt July JFK Berlin Visit Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Oct Administrative Debates on Vietnam 12 Nov Coup in South Vietnam 22 Nov J KF assassination Waging Cold War in the Third World Vietnam test case for nation building and fighting COIN Counterinsurgency to contain Communism in Third World Growing instability in South Vietnam Buddhist Revolt and CoupAssassination of Diem 63 NSAM 263 Kennedy commitment to leaving Vietnam Kennedy was youngest President and Ike was oldest Shared idea of needing to contain SovietCommunist aggression Differed in how to do so JFKfocus on 3rd World The Iron Curtain is Set already Ike didn t do enough to protect the 3rd World from Communism Fall of Cuba to Communism Too many nuclear weapons doesn t do anything to an insurgency too musclebound no credibility in a guerrilla war Greatest initial concern in Southeast Asia is Laos Weak start as President Bay of Pigs Vienne USSR verbally beat him down Kennedy says the wars in SE Asia aren t national wars of liberation because there are already established governments in place USSR says they are wars of liberation Modernization by J FKPeace Corps can accelerate modernization by intervening With aid make Special Forces and COIN a big deal Hilsman SF trains South Vietnamese to be guerrillas COIN harass insurgents Center of Gravitvgt Secure population and separate from insurgents Doesn t send in a lot of ground troops but advisors to make small footprint but still slowly escalate US involvement Escalation corresponds With Strategic Hamlet Program JFK increasing US rolegt advisors accompany South Vietnamese into combat increasing US casualties and increases air support M Cuban Missile Crisisgt gave JFK Strong antiCommunist credentials Q 122 US dead in Vietnam AM South Vietnamese perform poorly vs insurgents Countryside situation is deteriorating and Diem regime losing credibility Buddhist revolt escalating government losing credibility but not trying too much to Win over the people Proof government isn t living up to US ideals Diem using troops for internal rivals not against the Communists JFKgt Strong credibility and support for foreign policygt strong reception in Berlin Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty New Ambassador to VietnamgtHenry Cabot Lodge Jr Nixon s running mate in 60 gtget on good terms With Republicans and if Vietnam is lost the Republicans Will look bad as well 12 Nov 63Coup in South Vietnam not surprising because many soldiers were Buddhists and Diem used them to suppress the Buddhists hopes that new government will come in and be better opposite happenedgtmultiple coups after this 3 Weeks Later JFK assassinated major whatifs ground troops because Johnson had JFK s advisors also withdrawal didn t use force in other situations would of kept troops in until at least 64 for reelection J FKinhouse deliberations when discussing issues LBJ wants a consensus Why didn t JFK say corrupt regime didn t deserve US help Choosing War LBJ and Escalation Rolling Thunder Bombing campaign aimed at North Vietnam George Ball Main dissenter to escalation of US involvement in Vietnam Tonkin Gulf Resolution blank check given for operations to be conducted in Vietnam M Attack on US base further prompting US escalation of involvement Vietnam 63 64 LBJ s Inheritance Tonkin Gulf Resolution and 64 Elections 65 Pleiku street cars ROLLING THUNDER and deploying US Combat Troops why did LBJ Americanize the war George Ball Voice of Caution and Dissent 63 11 Oct NSAM 263 12 Nov Saigon Coup 22 Nov JFK Assassination 26 Nov NSAM 273 64 May LBJ Russell discussion Aug Tonkin Gulf Nov LBJ reelected 65 Feb PleikugtRolling Thundergt Ann Arbor July White House debates Nov Battle of la Drang Ikegt J FK Ike Advisors for training only JFK went on patrols called in air support etc It s their war Political change would lead to greater political stability NSAM 263 support coup NSAM 273 doesn t really reverse NSAM 263 does escalate US involvement especially covert operations LBJ torn about what to do in Vietnam hesitant to go into Vietnam but doesn t want to lose it LBJ and Russell discussion it s not very important but we re already there do things that are short of sending in combat troops Tonkin Gulf SF train South Vietnamese commandos to sabotage North Vietnam protected by US ships North Vietnamese attack ships 2 attack by North Vietnamese on ships likely never happened confused reports about if attacks ever happened campaigned as peaceful candidate Mattacked escalation needs to happen if we re going to be attacked Rolling Thunder combat troops etc M independently operating troops ghting in Saigon to defend Berlin Europe opposes US escalation Week 5 2125 Sept 2015 Combat Experience Vietnam and Strategy 65 68 Combat Experience Vietnam Guerilla Warfare Aversion to Killing Reality of War Mai Lai Mv Lai Son Lai A lot more to killing than pulling the trigger Ia Drang lSt Conventional battle in Vietnam Brain in Combat Lizard vs Intellectual Brain What brain takes over Lizard in combat high stress situations Lizard Brain programmed to survive thinking will cause death Where does Vietnam fit in WW1 Tactics modern technology Machine guns and artillery caused high casualties airplanes old tactics needed to change gasmajor psychological attack Trenchesshellingsitting there watching bodies rot in front of you WWIIKorea Tactics Airplanes mobile lines and know where those lines are US used supplies to win the war Changing tacticschanging weapons Vietnam Operation Rolling Thunder Helicopter Small patrols guerilla warfare connection to today booby traps no uniforms TLtics Helicopters no lines no uniforms new technology ambushes napalm night attacks US starts Vietnam with WWII techniquesgtOperation Rolling ThunderBomb the crap out of them Helicopters1000 men 68 in one helicopter 20 helicopters 30 minute ride 100 at a time engaged alone a long time Guerilla best way to beat conventional military frustrates soldiers answersmall patrols Booby traps looking for enemy in dense vegetation not on ground sticks with feces designed to incapacitate individual for long period of time Ambushesmake you look where they want you to No uniforms not getting caught means they can blend in Aversion of killing SLA Marshall 10 WWII veterans claimed to fire weapon 90 Vietnam veterans claimed to have fired their weapon Plausible Deniabilitydon t know if they did the killing Michael Kathman Triangle Tunnel Rat Fight or ight humans only animal to willingly kill own species Michael Kathman Didn t kill enemy when given the chance Ranges of Killing Airlong Distancebombing artillery sniper Furthest distance only visible with tool sniper ri elike watching TV instead of killing seeing enemy goes down creates trauma sniper controls where round goes 7 Jan to 24 July 69 Sniper Activitv 1245 confirmed kills 139 rounds per kill 50000 rounds per kill on battlefield Mediumshort distancesoldier can see and exchange fire with enemy ambushes at this range vegetation obscures visiongtf1red at shadows they re people too CloseHandtohand undeniable of who s killed no plausible deniability focused on body count How Aversion overcomeMilgram Experiment obey authority even if it s immoral Fear of Death him or me Want to go home Leadership Group absolution fire as a group plausible deniability Mai Lai Combination of these things leads humans to atrocious things Massacres better start doing your job Just following orders Switches hard to turn off until the job s done pent up frustration Dehumanization make up person closer to animals play submissive into stupid associated with less than human PTSD not big until 85 Strategy 65 68 Divisiongt3 regimentsbrigades 15002000gt3 battalionssquadrons 600gt 3 companiesbatteries 150gt 3 platoons 38gt 3 squads 10 Escalation in 65 Shock and awe or gradualism graduated escalation Air ROLLING THUNDER Ground Search and Destroy Assessing Westmoreland s strategy of Attrition reach crossover pointgt method is search and destroy Validating or challenging US strategic concept Battle of la Drang Oct Nov 65 Clausewitzian Revisionists critique Gradualismdidn t do shock and awe utilizing overwhelming force LBJ wants to focus on the Great Society but thinks he can t legislation if he loses Vietnam takes time to trainraise large army General William Westmoreland stereotypical professional soldier from the Citadelgt 1 in class at West Point 36 Eagle Scout served in WWII and Kores Graduate school at Harvard commander of 101St Airborne Division in charge of Vietnam from 65 68 General Who lost the war or good general bad war have South Vietnamese protect villagescities US out in field against the enemy fighting war of attritionkill enemy forcesreach crossover point kill or capture enough enemy that they can t continue ghting NVA eventually starts feeding into South Vietnam more goal is to stop US escalation main effort is to cut South Vietnam in half along Highway 19 main transit area 1St Cavalry Airmobilehorsesgthelicopters Vietnamgtarmor 435 helicopters 10000 troops M14 heavy large round for long distance engagementgtM16 lighter more damage to esh jammed frequently 10 days to train With M16 and not acclimated to new climate Battle of la Drang OctNov 65 Plei Mei 1925 Oct PAVN Lure and Ambush LZ XRay 1417 Nov LZ Albany 1718 Nov 19 Cavalry Stockton Locates field hospital and sets ambushes 13 Nov NVA 32nd 33rd 66th Regiments US Army 1St Cavalry Division l7 Cavalry Moore LZ XRay 7th Cavalry of Little Big Horn no support there at X Ray artillery every 15 minutes had close air support 96 B52s 25 Cavalry Tully 27 Cavalry McDade LZ XRaylow ground NVA in tunnels of highlands platoon gets isolated and surrounded call in artillery on own position 7 live 12 WIA 8 KIA US Withdrawal LZ Columbus and Albanygtambush lose unit integrity 60 casualties 1 company had gt93 casualties friendly fire get as close as possible to US troops to avoid artilleryclose air support one of worst US defeats in Vietnam External War Clausewitz vs Internal War NVA learned how to fight US httpsstudvsoupcomfbowlinggreenstateuniversitvhist3370studvguidestudvguidemid termexamhist3370id50592 Week 6 28 Sept2 Oct 2015 The Other War and the Tet Offensive The Other War Hearts and Minds Which enemy would US confront Which war would US fight Ia Drang OctNov 65 Validating or challenging US strategic concept Cedar Falls Jan 67 creating refugees while struggling to nd enemy Ignoring principles of war critique of Clausewitzian Revisionists Intemal critiques of US strategy PROVN 65 66 COIN and Paci cation winning hearts and minds by securing the population fundamentals of COIN not search and destroy but clear hold CAPS and build CORDS External Aggression center of gravity is North Vietnam Clausewitzian conventional war Internal Aggression center of gravity are the people of South Vietnam hearts and minds rigid COIN Experience with smallscale COIN Marines Haiti and Nicarauga ArmyPhilippines brutal wars but US didn t pay attention Ia Drang sets stage for NVA ghting as a unit NVA learned to hug US troops don t take on large units without superiority need to initiate LZ Albany disaster following XRay took lessons from XRay but ignored Albany Operation Cedar Falls Iron Triangle bounded by rivers and a highway thick jungle massive search and destroy operation relocate villagers because many aren t loyal to South Vietnam in order to get them services and security to get loyalty from them M talk peace on America s terms use repower to overwhelm enemy move population out of VC base areas main goal eliminate NLF structure from the area by moving whole population seemed to accept it Vietnamese knew what was going on US ended operation and withdrew VC came right back without much civilian help Cold War ideology is driving US strategy think Communists are intimidating South Vietnamese so they take them to safety COIN Clear Search and destroy hold enemy will creep back if left CAPS and build confidence infrastructure etc CORDS didn t get implemented on full scale didn t get priority Iron Triangle attened by US many LZs problem were the tunnels relocate villagers to destroy tunnels Mbecame big US at turn of the century focus on Center of Gravity and follow principles of wargt Summersattack North Vietnam more domestic support China can t get involved Search and Destroy wasted resources not acting decisively air war consistent targets off limits need to at least isolate Vietnam Against Clausewitzians China wanted North Vietnam Clausewitzians ignored Clausewitz fight for politics Center of Gravity is the populationPROVNurges pacification pessimistic about US success by Creighton Abrams after 68 was a better war because of this but search and destroy already discouraged the population PROVN need to get individual Vietnamese to support the South Vietnamese government critical actions at village district provincial levels this is where the war must be fought Westmoreland receives PROVNonly certain number of troops Vietnam needs to destroy the enemy ignoring who the enemy was strengthened VC USMC CAPS workedknew what they were doing interservice rivalry Army wants to take war to the enemy so USMC has to do Search and Destroy M application of search and destroy enemy s all around you never knew who was the enemy vengeance Vietnamese thought they were being punished strategy understandable because it denies the enemy sanctuary but need to adopt a strategy based on political needs M wrote about failure of COIN in Vietnam rewrote Army s COIN manual FM 324 CORDSgtPRTProvincial Reconstruction Team Afghanistan and Iraq The Tet Offensive Tet OffensiveThe NVAV C operational plan Diversionary attacks in the Remote Interior Khe Sahn America s Dien Bien Phu The Main Effort Urban Combat in Saigon Nguyen Ngoc Loan and Hue The Outcome Reaching the crossover point in US public opinion and media Walter Cronkite Reassessing US goals and strategy Escalate or Withdraw The Legacy 45 46 postwar 46 54 French War Slow US escalationgt 65 68 escalation of troops and bombing PostTetgtdeescalation 69 Nixon escalates into Laos and Cambodia US Plan 65 build up troops 66 blunt NLF gains 67coast to countryside endgtCampaign of Optimism that the war s almost won which made Tet seem like more of a shock 68sca1e down E holiday with significant leave time unofficial truce source of considerable debate in North Vietnampummeled by bombing high casualties in South Vietnam con dent that South Vietnam would want general offensive general uprising key to success 29 J an25 Feb 68 initial diversionary attacks on cities in countryside and slowly build up forces around major coastal cities Khe Sanh besieged at early part of Tet captures everyone s attention and is focus of that attention draws US attention from the cities lasts 77 days compared with Dien Bien Phu besieged and cut off in North part of South Vietnam Differences US has air support B 52s every 3 hours Dien Bien Phu was a main effort for the enemy but was just a diversion at Khe Sahn Analogous to the Battle of the Bulge last ditch effort US needed massive offensive after both to achieve victory didn t do this after Tet VideoTV showing different sight showed disturbing things embassycenter of US power in South Vietnam under fire Hue Videocollateral damage to cultural artifactsbuildings E considered US and South Vietnamese tactical victory but strategic defeat National news was very important CronkiteSupported war until Tet reports Feb 68 mired in stalemate goal to reach crossover point difference crossover point in American public opinionmore think it as a mistake to go to Vietnam leads to year of reevaluation Wise Mensupport containment rejects 206000 troops pause in bombing calls for negotiation with North Vietnam no LBJ re election end of LBJ and Westmoreland start of Nixon and Abrams who liked COIN
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'