AP Bio: AP Biology - Study Guide
AP Bio: AP Biology - Study Guide AP Bio
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bobby Snape on Monday October 20, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to AP Bio at a university taught by Ullrey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 1474 views.
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Date Created: 10/20/14
Communication communication cyclic AMP cAMP Gprotein linked receptor phosphorylation cascade Cell Energy absorption spectrum accessory pigment acetyl coA action spectrum activation energy active site anabolism anaerobic metabolism allosteric regulation ATP autotroph Calvin cycle catabolism catalyst cellular respiration chemiosmosis chemoautotroph chlorophyll Questions and Practice protein kinase quorum sensing receptor second messenger chloroplast citric acid cycle coenzyme cofactor compartmentalization consumer cyclic electron flow denaturation electron transport chain entropy endergonic reaction enzyme exergonic reaction feedback inhibition fermentation glycolysis heterotroph induced fit model signal cascade signal transduction signal transduction pathway light dependent reactions light independent reactions metabolic pathway mitochondrion NAD NADP negative feedback noncyclic electron flow oxidative phosphorylation photolysis photosynthesis positive feedback ribulose bisphosphate substratelevel phosphorylation thylakoid membrane 1 How do the laws of thermodynamics relate to the biochemical processes that provide energy to living systems The first law states that energy can never be created or destroyed only transferred or transformed We see this when looking at food chains and webs The energy in one animal is transferred to its predator and when that predator dies the energy is taken in by the decomposers and put back in the soil for the plants The second law states that entropy occurs when energy is transferred We see this when animals taken in energy use that energy and then release heat and waste 2 How do enzymes regulate the rate of chemical reactions Enzymes lower the activation energy required to start a reaction In feedback inhibition the end product of a metabolic pathway becomes an inhibitor to an enzyme earlier in the pathway This stops the reactions and ensures no more products are created 3 How does the specificity of an enzyme depend on its structure Enzymesubstrate collisions are highly specific like a lock in a key Only a specific substrate can fit into an enzyme s actives site When the enzyme denatures its active site loses its shape and reactions can no longer occur 4 How is the activity of an enzyme regulated A competitive inhibitor can bind to the enzyme s active site before the substrate collides and binds preventing a reaction from occurring This can be combated by increasing the substrate concentration Allosteric enzymes can either be in the active form which allows for reactions or the nonactive form which is caused by an inhibitor binding to one of the enzyme s subunits and preventing collisions and reactions from occurring An enzyme will denature when temperatures become too hot or too cold or when pH levels are to acidic or too basic For example if pepsin were to escape the stomach it would denature because the body has different pH levels in different areas 5 How does the cell cycle assure genetic continuity When a cell divides every chromosomes is replicated so that the new daughter cells have the exact same genetic material as the parent cell If a chromosome is missing the cell will have a lower chance of survival 6 How does mitosis allow for the even distribution of genetic information to new cells The cell grows replicates its DNA and chromosomes and grows even more in interphase In prophase the nuclear envelope disappears and spindle fibers begin to form Then in metaphase spindle fibers attach themselves to the chromosomes and the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell During anaphase the spindle fibers pull the chromosomes apart to opposite sides of the cell In telophase and cytokinesis the nuclear membrane forms and the cytoplasm splits to form two identical cells 7 What are the mechanisms of cytokinesis In animals a cleavage furrow develops separating the two nuclei formed in telophase In plants a cell plate forms which develops into a cell wall separating the two nuclei 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 How is the cell cycle regulated In order to ensure cells do not undergo cell division too frequently and that the cells divide when they re supposed to Cdks and cyclins are used Cdks are enzymes which stimulate phosphorylation signaling the cell to move from one stage to the next Cdks will only function properly when bound to cyclins Cell checkpoints are also used by the cell to prevent the cell cycle from progressing at certain points if information was not replicated properly or if there are too manytoo few organelles There are checkpoints in between G1 and S as well as How can aberrations in the cell cycle lead to tumor formation If tumor suppressor genes like p53 do not function properly and inhibit cell division a tumor may be formed Additionally if the cell escapes apoptosis and continues to divide an unlimited amount of times it becomes immortal and cancerous If protoncogenes which normally activate cell division become mutated and form oncogenes a tumor is formed Tumors are not necessarily cancerous though Benign tumors have their growth halted by p53 and are not dangerous Malignant tumors continue to divide and spread Why is meiosis important in heredity Meiosis ensures genetic variation which means that each offspring will be genetically different than the parents Genetic variation is caused by crossing over in prophase I where homologous chromosomes exchange bits of their genes and random alignment in metaphase I where the homologous chromosomes line up double file along the cell s equator Genetic variation is also caused by a random sperm fertilizing a random egg during fertlization How is meiosis related to gametogenesis Meiosis is the process in which a gamete is created Gametogenesis involves meiosis and is the process in which haploid cells are converted into functional sperm and eggs What are the similarities and differences between gametogenesis in animals and plants In animals pregametic cells multiply by mitosis and divide by meiosis In plants pregametic cells divide by meiosis and then divide by mitosis In both animals and plants the end result is genetically different haploid cells created by a small mobile male gamete fertilizing a larger nonmobile female gamete What is the role of ATP in coupling the cell s anabolic and catabolic processes Catabolic pathways are metabolic pathways that release ATP by breaking down molecules into simpler ones cellular respiration while anabolic pathways are metabolic pathways that absorb ATP in order to build molecules from simpler ones photosynthesis The energy released in catabolic pathways powers anabolic pathways and the molecules built in anabolic pathways power catabolic pathways How does chemiosmosis function in bioenergetics NADHFADH2 in cellular respiration and NADPH in photosynthesis transport electrons to ETC where the electrons are used and pumped to create an H gradient The gradient causes H ions to flow through the ATP synthase and are used to power phosphorylation ADP is joined to P and 3234 ATP molecules are created How are organic molecules broken down by catabolic pathways Organic molecules lose their oxygens and hydrogens in dehydration synthesis causing them to break down What is the role of oxygen in energyyielding pathways Oxygen is brought together with hydrogen in cellular respiration to make H20 Electrons in ETC cascade down the chain from one carrier molecule to the next until it reaches the final electron receptor oxygen The oxygen is highly electronegative and pulls the electron down the chain How do cells generate ATP in the absence of oxygen In anaerobic environments glycolysis can still be performed and 2 ATP molecules can be created Following glwcolysis fermentation will occur in order to generate NAD Alcoholic fermentation will convert pyruvate into ethyl alcohol and CO2 Lactic acid fermentation will reduce pyruvate to lactic acid How does photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy Protons from the light energy from the sun hit photosystem II exciting electrons and moving them down ETC in the lightdependent reactions The electrons travel to photosystem I where NADPH captures them and the H ions are pumped into the thylakoid membrane A concentration gradient is formed and the H ions flow through ATP synthase to create ATP ATP and NADPH are used in the light independent reactionsCalvin cycle in the stroma of the chloroplast 6 cycles of the Calvin cycle will create 1 glucose molecules 5 of the 6 are recycled and turned in RuBP while the extra 1 is used to build sugars and starch for the plant How are the chemical products of the lighttrapping reactions coupled to the synthesis of carbohydrates ATP and NADPH produced by the light dependent reactions are used to fuel the light independent reactionCalvin cycle which will produce one G3P molecules When enough G3P are produced carbohydrates can be formed What kinds of photosynthetic adaptations have evolved in response to different environmental conditions C4 photosynthesis allows plants living in environments with low levels of CO2 to keep their stomata open less often by using PEP carboxylase CAM plants found in dry climates close their stomates during day and open them at night What interactions exist between photosynthesis and cellular respiration The oxygen and water released by cellular respiration are used as reactants for photosynthesis while the CO2 and glucose produced by photosynthesis are used as reactants for cellular respiration 22 How was photosynthetic rate measured in the photosynthesis lab The faster the spinach leaves took to float in the vial the faster the photosynthetic rate 23 What was the IV in the photosynthesis lab DV Control Controlled variables The independent variable was the presence of bicarbonate The dependent variable was the number of disks floating The control group was the vial with nothing affecting it like having no light on it 24 How was respiration rate measured in respiration lab Cellular respiration rate was determined based on oxygen consumption 25 What was the IV in the lab DV Control Controlled variables The independent variable was germinating or nongerminating and the temperature The dependent variable was oxygen consumption The control group was the vial with only plastic beads so no cellular respiration would occur no matter the temperature or CO2 level 26 Make a concept map to relate the following terms high free energy low free energy entropy enzymes photosynthesis light dependent reaction light independent reaction cell respiration glycolysis krebs etc and fermentation Photosynthesis process of converting solar energy to chemical Cellular respiration process of converting glucose to usable energy energy Glycolysis Light dependent reaction Glycolysis Light independent reaction Krebs ETC if aerobic environment Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell Fermentation if anaerobic environment 27 Make a concept map to relate the following terms cell cycle interphase growth dna replication mitosis meiosis homologous chromosomes separation of chromosomes cancer checkpoints regulatory proteins Cell c cle lnterphase growth DNA replication more growth cancer is caused if checkpoints during and after interphase are ignored Regulatory proteins switch genes on and off to regulate the transcription of a gene Mitosis where chromosomes split and genetically identical cells are formed or meiosis where homologous chromosomes separate and new cells are formed 28 Make a concept map to relate the following terms unicellular multicellular local regulators long distance regulation contact receptor signal transduction enzyme cascade response Cells unicellular prokaryotes or multicellular eukaryotes Communication short distance performed with local regulators long distance with long distance regulators Contact ligand bonds to receptor on cell s membrane Signal transduction cascade occurs in cell s cytoplasm to amplify the signal Response signal causes a reaction to occur like the transcription of a gene or the synthesis of a protein
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