Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIO_SC 1500 - INTRO BIOL SYSTEMS W/LAB
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Francesca Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO_SC 1500 - INTRO BIOL SYSTEMS W/LAB at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by David Schulz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Discussion Notes Learning Objectives 0 Distinguish between inference and assumptions 0 Develops hypotheses describe relationship between hypotheses and predictions 0 Recognize dependent and independent variables describe role of control 0 Distinguish between experimental and sampling error 0 Make histograms bar graphs and sampling error 0 Distinguish between interpolation and extrapolation Scienti c Method 0 Hypothesis PredictionsExperimentsDObservations and lnferences Hypothesis 0 Statement of why something happens Prediction 0 Statement of what will happen if the hypothesis is correct 0 Experiment Test of a hypothesis lnferences and Assumptions 0 What is an inference Conclusion derived from observation This is why you collect evidence 0 What is an assumption Unsupported conclusion or claim 0 What do certain animals eat Herbivore 0 Lots of at surface 0 No sharp points on teeth 0 Good for grinding Designing an Experiment 0 Control Group Removes the independent variable manipulation or keeps it as in nature compare other groups to this one 0 Treatment groups Alterationsvariations of the independent variable 0 Replication Builds evidence provides greater support foragainst hypothesis minimizes error Common Errors 0 Sampling error Sma sample size unrepresentative sample 0 Experimental error Improper procedure wrong units What Type of Graph to Use 0 Histograms Frequency distributions The dependent variable on the yaxis will always be a numberpercent of individuals that fall into selected ranges of the independent variable IV is always continuous numerical 0 Line graphs Functional relationship Can compare but not combine columns 0 Bar graphs Categorical data Shows the relationship between 2 or more variables implying that one variable in uences the other 0 Best t line Shows the trend Connect dots left to right Avoid zigzagging Avoid extrapolation Interpolation vs Extrapolation 0 You can use a line graph to estimate values even though the actual data was not collected Interpolation Conclusions that you can draw based on the data Extrapolation Conclusions that fall outside the range of the data Discussion Notes Learning Objectives 0 Identify and describe the function of microscope parts 0 Know the difference between eld of view focal plane depth of eld 0 Describe cell membranes 0 Identify parts of animal and plant cells and know their function 0 Describe internal structures of chloroplasts and mitochondria 0 Know relationship between cell size and surface area volume ratio Compound Microscope Parts 0 Ocular Lens 0 Objective Corse adjustment 0 Diaphragm Controls amount of light on stage 0 Coarse adjustment knob Moves stage updownleftright 0 Fine adjustment knob More speci cclear adjustment of stage Focal Plane 0 Within a eld of view is a 2dimensional slice of a 3dimensional object 0 Adjust focal plane move between focal planes with the ne adjustment knob o A stack of focal planes makes up the depth of eld 0 Depth of eld As magni cation increases 0 Depth of eld decreases 0 Field of view decreases 0 Light intensity increases Animal Cells vs Plant Cells 0 Golgi body Packages and transports cell secretions o Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER Protein synthesis and transport Can be used inside cell Makes and packages proteins 0 Sent to Golgi complex to be sent outside cell secretions Smooth ER 0 Lipid synthesis and transport 0 Mitochondria Nutrients in break down nutrients make energy Christae ngerlike projections increase efficiency of diffusion nutrient and energy 0 Ribosomes Protein synthesis building 0 Construction workers of the cell 0 Nucleus Brain of the cell holds DNA and nucleolus o Nucleolus Builds ribosomes o Vacuoles Storage bins of the cell Store water and waste Different sizes for animal cells one large central vacuole in plant cells Plants 0 Chloroplasts Have grana to increase efficiency of making and passing energy quickly Photosynthesis 0 Energy production 0 Cell Wall Outside of cell membrane in plant cell Adds rigid structure Discussion Notes Learning Objectives 0 Describe how temp and concentration gradients affect diffusion rates 0 Describe the role of the cell membrane in regulating movement into and out of cells 0 Recognize how water potential affects the movement of water across membranes 0 Describe the tonicity of solutions 0 Know role of cell wall and vacuole in producing turgor pressure 0 Describe responses of plant and animal cell to hypo or hypertonic environments De nitions 0 Solute The substance dissolved in a liquid 0 Solvent The liquid in which the solute is dissolved o Brownian Movement Random movement of particles in solution due to molecular collisions These random collisions cause the movement of solute particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration 0 Concentration gradient Difference in concentration between two solutions Increasing the concentration gradient increases the rate of diffusion o Tonicity Describes a relationship between two solutions 0 Hypertonic 0 High concentration of solute particles 0 Hypotonic 0 Low concentration of solute particles 0 lsotonic 0 Concentrations are equal 0 Diffusion Movement of solute particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration 0 Osmosis A special case of diffusion in which water molecules a solvent are moving Hypertonic o A solution that contains more solute particles than another solution Hypotonic o A solution that contains fewer solute particles than another solution 0 Water potential The tendency of water to move Hypotonic higher water potential high tendency for water to leave 0 Water with fewer solute particles Hypertonic lower water potential low tendency for water to leave 0 Water with more solute particles 0 Hypotonic solution Greater concentration of free oating water molecules move to an area of lower concentration high WP o Hypertonic solution Water is engaged with solute particles less likely to bounce around and exit the solution ow WP o Turgor Pressure Pressure between the vacuole and the cell wall 0 How does temperature affect diffusion Increasing temperature increases the speed at which molecules move and collide Increasing Brownian movement increases the rate of diffusion o 2 Rules of Thumb The net movement of water is from hypotonic conditions to hypertonic conditions The next movement of solute particles is from hypertonic conditions to hypotonic conditions Discussion Notes Learning Objectives 0 Describe enzyme action in terms of enzymesubstrate interactions and activation energy Describe the effects of temperature and pH on enzyme reaction rates Recognize the importance of cofactors Describe the effects of poisons on enzyme activity Interpret graphs of the effects of pH and temperature on enzymatic rates 0 Describe enzyme activity in terms of the lockandkey model and relate this model to the effects of temperature pH and heavy metals What is an enzyme 0 A biological catalyst a substrate that promotes a chemical reaction Decreases activation energy energy needed to initiate a reaction Shortens time of a reaction Virtually all enzymes are proteins What is activation energy 0 Catalytic effect of enzymes on chemical reactions Enzymesubstrateinteractions o Substrates are converted to products whether an enzyme is present or not 0 Speci c substrates r into speci c enzymes 0 Enzyme and substrate meet up product formed faster than if enzyme absent 0 Active site Speci c region on the enzyme where the enzyme and substrate r together 0 Like a lock and key the enzyme is the lock and the substrate is the key that unlocks the product Chemical reaction formulas 0 Enzyme substrate products enzyme 0 Reaction from lab Iron hydrogen peroxide catalase 02 H20 catalase Iron 0 Reaction in your litter box Urea Urease Ammonia H20 Urease 0 Two rules Enzymes are never consumed always present Cofactor aids in digestion by stabilizing active site 0 What happens to enzymes Liver contains tons of catalase anything ending in quotasequot is an enzyme zz occurs in hydrogen peroxide Enzymes are NOT consumed NOT changed by reactions 0 Why did the lter paper discs oat Live tons of catalase Hydrogen peroxide Substrate l enzyme product 0 Hydrogen peroxide l catalase water oxygen 0 Effect of temperature Substrate meets enzyme more as temperature increases therefore rate increases Optimum at highest rate shortest time Higher temperatures alter shape of enzyme OOOO 100 degrees altered shape so much it stopped it Acidic l basic Acidic 050 o More positive charges Neutrals 5070 Basics 0 7014 o More negative charges 0 What is a cofactor Nonprotein molecules required for many but not all enzyme mediated reactions also not consumed Iron is the cofactor for cataase Hydroxylamine HA binds iron 0 Tons of iron in liver 0 Mercury and other poisons Mercury alters the shape of the enzyme Shuts down the enzyme 0 Factors affecting enzyme shape Temperature pH presenceabsence of cofactor presenceabsence of poisonheavy metals What is the technical name for altering the shape of an enzyme 0 Denaturation
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