WMST 4600 EXAM 2 Study Guide
WMST 4600 EXAM 2 Study Guide WMST 4600
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Date Created: 10/04/15
WMST Exam 2 Study Guide 10042015 Chapter 5 Gender Comparisons in Cognitive Abilities and Attitudes About Achievement Background Cautions About Research on Gender Comparisons o Biased samples can in uence results College students tend to be the samples yet they are not representative of people around the world We miss the lower class and nonwhite view 0 People s expectations can in uence the results both researchers and participants expectations 0 The scores of males and females on a measure of ability typically produce overlapping distributions 0 Researchers seldom nd gender differences in all situations 0 The cognitive gender differences are not large enough to have a major in uence on a person s career choice There are so many other things in uencing that Cognitive Abilities that don t show signi cant Gender Differences General Intelligence G IQ Test 0 Complex Cognitive Tasks multi tasking Coonitive Abilities MemoryAbiity women tend to score higher as a whole but the context matters 0 Lists of words research shows that the particular words in the test matter the words stereotypically associated with men will be easier for men to remember and vice versa 0 Memory for events women tend to be more accurate in remembering events from their own lives researchers think this is because women tend to talk more and practice makes for better recollection Nonverbal material women are more accurate than men in remembering faces and details of an individual s clothing but when it comes to abstract shapes women and men score the same VerbaAbiity overall the average difference is 11 0 General Verbal Ability women somewhat higher than men in some things but not a conclusive thing 0 Reading Disabilities men are more likely to have reading disabilities 0 Objective vs subjective classi cation a test determining whether there is a reading disability vs a teacher makes the call that a child has a reading disability Objective classi cation takes away general intelligence and just focuses on the reading Objective classi cation shows that there is a much smaller difference between men and women and reading ability A lot of times teachers report boys with reading disabilities if they are acting out as opposed to actual reading disabilities this could result in the discrepancy between men and women and reading disabilities Mathematics Ability General Mathematics Ability there is a small difference between male and female 05 gender difference favoring men 0 SAT math is the only test that shows that men score substantially higher than women 0 Studies suggest that the test took out problems that women are consistently better at answering o The SAT tends to overestimate how well boys will do in college and underestimate how well girls will do 0 Grades in Mathematics Courses females tend to do better in class and on tests tend to get higher grades 0 Studies show that women perform better in a familiar environment with test taking and men do better when shown new problems Social and Attitudinal Factors 0 Parent s belief that math is harder for girls 0 Selfful lling prophecy Tendency for father s to help children with math homework more than mothers 0 Greater number of men than women as teachers of advanced math courses Stereotyping of math textbooks materials and math games Teacher s higher expectations for boys than girls in math performance 0 Teachers tend to overestimate the boys and underestimate the girls Spatial Ability mixed research ndings on who scores higher because of how the researcher decides to measure it 0 Spatial Visualization Spatial Perception Mental Rotation tends to show the biggest gender difference men score better than women 0 The instructions are written in a masculine fashion this makes a difference between who scores better 0 Experience with video games is a speculation as to why boys score better than girls 0 A study was conducted to have males and females imagine themselves as either a stereotypical man or woman and then perform a spatial rotation task they found that those women and men primed to be the stereotypical man had no gender difference in spatial ability Was gender stereotype threat erased here Attitudes About Achievement Achievement Motivation the desire to do well relative to a standard of excellence 0 Shows that men and women score the same on need for achievement we ve de ned it as career success but haven t looked at it in achievement in the home or in social groups Stories about drawings 0 lntrinsic Motivation wanting to do something because you love doing it research nds that this tends to be similar as well 0 Fear of Success a way to explain that there are less women in certain elds they don t strive for the best positions 0 Discredited lately because there are other factors such as women not having role models in the job promotion affects etc 0 Con dence in your own achievement and ability men tend to be more self con dent 0 Levels of selfcon dence change due to The setting gender difference are larger when stated publicly Type of task whether the task is stereotypically masculine or feminine Personal characteristics of the individual if a person holds stereotypes in gender ability it affects levels of selfcon dence about themselves 0 Selfcon dence and evaluation provided by others girls and women are more likely to believe other people s evaluations of them than boys and men 0 Studies show that negative feedback makes women s selfesteem plummet Men tend to disregard negative feedback 0 Attributions of success and failure Benbow and Stanley 1980 1983 Studied SATM scores for 7th and 8th grade gifted students those scoring in top 2 to 5 of any standardized math achievement test 0 Found that overall the boys scored higher than the girls 0 Conclusion quotSex differences in achievement in and attitude toward mathematics result from superior male mathematical abilityquot 0 This studyarticle ultimately has been severely critiqued due to their sample their results and the other factors they didn t consider 0 The sample was too small to generalize it for everyone 0 There were way more boys in the sample than girls 0 The title of the sample quotTalent Searchquot is intimidating to the individuals participating Google lnquiries For every 10 Google searches about a son being overweight there were 17 about girls 0 For every 10 Google searches about a daughter being gifted there were 25 about boys Chapter 6 Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristics Theoretical Background social setting factors related to size of gender differences in social and personality characteristics 0 Gender differences are usually largest when other people are present 0 Gender differences are generally largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are minimized Gender differences are usually largest when the behavior requires speci c genderrelated skills Communication Patterns Verbal Communication Talkativeness there is a talkative female stereotype when data was actually analyzed there are very small statistical differences very little practical signi cance 0 The Content of Language women mention emotions social words and cognitive processes men were more likely to mention work men and women are equally likely to talk about most things except sports and work 0 Language Style women talk less con dently but this only shows when they are talking with men 0 quotSorryquot a hesitant phrase that is also unconscious in many women 0 Uptalk phrasing a statement as a question Studies show that people think people who talk like this are uncon dent timid Women are more likely to be interrupted than men while speaking Non verbal Communication 0 Personal space and body position 0 quotManspreadingquot goes beyond personal space 0 Women are more likely to cross their legs Facial expression 0 Women tend to smile more Potential Explanations for Gender Differences in Communication 0 Power and Social Status Explanations men have traditionally had more power and social status consequently the less powerful must listen to the power those in power don t have to smile to please others women are good at decoding facial expressions because they must pay more attention to those in power 0 Social Learning Explanations certain behaviors in children are reinforced that coincide with their behavior girls are reinforced to recognize facial expressions Characteristics Related to Helping and Caring o Altruism Nurturance o Empathy Moral Judgments Attitudes about Social Justice Empathy and Leadership Overall hypothesis Higher ratings of empathy will be related to lower career derailment potential Competing hypothesis 0 Women s display of empathy will be positively related to ratings of career derailment potential while men s displays of empathy will be negatively related to career derailment potential 0 Women s display of empathy will be even more strongly related to career derailment potential than men s displays of empathy 0 There will not be any gender differences in the relationship between empathy and career derailment potential Empathy What we know 0 Females and males are equally empathetic when the operational de nition requires physiological measures 0 Females and males are equally empathetic when the operational de nition requires nonverbal measures 0 Females are more empathetic than males when the operational de nition is based on self report A study showed that gender matters when it comes to gender and derailment When looking at leadership with these other factors leaders with low level of empathy are less likely to derail o Empathy is an important quality for successful leaders 0 For men although levels of empathy changed there wasn t much of a change when looking at who is more likely to be derailed o Empathy was a more important factor for women there was a stronger relationship between empathy and derailment Women rated low on empathy have particularly higher ratings of derailment This study suggests that when women are more communal they are more highly rewarded in other words conforming to stereotypes is reinforced 0 Men are not held to these same expectations Leadership Perceptions of Men and Women 0 Previous research indicates that the same behavior by men and women leaders results in different perceptions Women are seen as more bossy and dominating Men are seen as having greater ability skill and intelligence 0 Gender stereotypes in uence our reactions even without awareness Study where people were shown pictures of men and women leaders all showing either no emotion anger or sadness comparing the emotion faces to the no emotion faces on whether they were an effective leader 0 Found that women were rated lower when expressing anger whereas men were not rated lower when expressing anger 0 Found that both women and men were rated more negatively when expressing sadness 0 Overall found that for women to be rated as an effective leader they needed to show no emotion while men could either show no emotion or anger to be deemed an effective leader Leadership Style 0 More common among men 0 Taskoriented characterized by organizing taskrelevant information Transactional characterized by exchange of goods relationship LaissezFaire characterized by uninvolvement o Transactional and laissezfaire are least effective and least handson More common among women 0 lnterpersonallyoriented characterized by maintaining relationships between coworkers and employee morale o Transformational characterized by mentoring and empowering coworkers through a vision of the leader getting employees to embrace the vision as their own Transformational is the most effective leadership style Key Barriers to Women s Advancement in Business 0 The Glass Ceiling women may have the skills but as they move up the organization to higher levels there is this ceiling that they hit and cannot overcome o The labyrinth the multiple barriers that women face there are paths to the top for women but in order to get there women must navigate through this huge maze Many decision points 0 Glass ceiling not appropriate anymore cause it assumes women have equal access to all entry positions Implies that there is one barrier at the top Implies that all barriers are difficult to detect Fails to recognize the many different paths women take to become leaders Major Organizational Barriers to Women 5 Advancement Think Manager Think Male Stereotvpe when we think of the qualities a leader should have those qualities are very masculine making it easier for a man to be associated with leader 0 DifferentialOpportunities 0 High Stakes Assignments women get less exposure to the types of assignments and experiences that could help prepare them for the upper level positions women also accept them less than men result in high riskhigh reward 0 Women offered relocation assignments expatriate less often than men these are important in future business opportunities because it gives individuals the opportunity to show that they are great leaders Family dynamics make these types of jobs very dif cult they play a huge role in the success of that assignment 0 Common belief in many women is that doing lower stakes assignments and doing really well at them move them up but studies show that doing that keeps them exactly where they are Balancing a Career and Familv the societal roles of women being the caretaker in the family prevails over everything 0 510 years after being hired is the critical period when it is important to prove yourself at work yet this clashes with the biological clock Women must decide whether they want to advance or have a family 0 Building Social Capital people tend to build social networks with others that are similar to them gender is an important similarity many women in social networks are similar in their status at the lower levels in jobs and vice versa for men 0 Therefore women are building less powerful social networks than men Chapter 7 Women and Work 0 Research shows 40 of households have women as the breadwinners 0 Society polls say that about half of people believe that it s ok for a mother to stay home instead of work and only 8 believe its ok for fathers to stay home Background Factors Related to Women s Employment 0 Discrimination in Hiring Patterns 0 Access Discrimination When does AccessDiscrimination Operate a Employers who have strong genderrole stereotypes are more likely to demonstrate access discrimination w Access discrimination is particularly likely to operate when the applicant s quali cations are ambiguous n Employers often discriminate against women candidates who are assertive rather than feminine Research shows women who are assertively strong lack social skills 0 Employers prefer feminism over assertiveness w Access discrimination is particularly likely to operate when women apply for prestigious a position w Access discrimination often operates for both women and men when they apply for quotgender inappropriatequot jobs How doe Access Discrimination operate a Employers may have negative stereotypes about women s abilities I Employers may assume that the candidate must have certain stereotypically masculine characteristics to succeed on the job a Employers may pay attention to inappropriate characteristics when female candidates are being interviewed a Genderrole spillover these beliefs in society that we hold about gender roles carry over into the work place Studies a Trix and Psenka 2003 0 Letters about women were more likely to refer to compassion teaching and effort and less likely to include traits about stereotypical things for men n MossRacusin et al 2002 0 Male and female science faculty biases against students received the same materials for kids applying to be a lab manager but the only thing different was their genders 0 Both rated females lower in competence hire ability salary offers and willingness to mentor 0 Legal Context Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 originally stipulated ve protected groups age later added a Race a Color D Religion U Sex 0 Originally added because they thought adding sex would kill the bill and it wouldn t pass a National origin a Age added with the ADEA 1972 Title Vll was amended to establish the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC created the Uniform Guidelines 1978 to guide companies in how to make employment decisions What is Discrimination Disparate Treatment applying a hiring requirement to one group but not to another group Adverse Impact Disparate Impact same criteria is applied to everyone however it disproportionately excludes a higher proportion of one group than another 0 Example test of upperbody strength lf adverse impact is shown in an organization 0 Organizations have two options Demonstrate the validity of the test I Must also show that the job has a BFOQ Bona Fide Occupational Quali cation Use a test that does not show adverse impact even if it is less valid Affirmative Action Not a requirement under the civil rights act but a social policy 0 Four goals 0 Correct present inequities o Compensate past inequities 0 Provide role models 0 Promote diversity 0 Required of all organizations contracted with the government who have gt50 employees or who have government contracts gt 50000 0 Three interpretations of affirmative action 0 Passive interpretation focusing recruitment to make sure to bring in the widest pool of applicants 0 Preferential selection interpretation if everything between two candidates is equal whatever the goal of the company whether it be the company needs more women or more diversity you pick the applicant that meets those standards 0 Quota interpretation having a set percentage of whatever minority needed in the organization most controversial 2003 University of Michigan court cases rule on group membership criterion 0 Gratz v Bollinger suing for reverse discrimination two white students said that they didn t get in because UM used the quota system to admit people 0 Awarding 39points for protected groups ruled unconstitutional Grutter v Bollinger young white lady sued because UM used preferential selection to admit people 0 Group membership could be used as a favorable factor in admission decisions Discrimination in the Workplace Treatment Discrimination Discrimination in Salaries there is still a wage gap between en and women it has gotten better but is currently stagnant 0 Studies show gaps are within each and every ethnicity When compared within ethnic subgroups white women earn the most compared to their male counterparts 0 When race plays into it the pay gap progressively gets largely for each minority Women make less at any completion of education level 0 Comparable Worth men and women should receive equal pay in jobs of equal work Amendment to Civil Rights Act Prohibits sex discrimination in equal work What we nd is occupational segregation some occupations pay more and are male dominated and vice verse 0 Reaction to Lower Salaries women more likely to ask for less money women are offered less money on average 0 Male dominated occupations always get paid more even if they require the same skillseducation level 0 Studies show that if we continue at the same pace we will not have pay equity until 2059 shows how slow the progression has been over the last 50 years 0 Discrimination in Promotions 0 Glass Ceiling 0 Labyrinth Metaphor o Sticky Foor women being more likely than men to be hired in low paying jobs that they aren t getting paid well for 0 Glass Escalator when males enter female dominated professions they are shot up to the top for being underrepresented in the organization Essentially the opposite of the Glass Ceiling Heterosexism when looking at sexuality compared to heterosexual men homosexual women and homosexual men heterosexual women still get paid the least amount 0 Possibly because it is more acceptable in society to discriminate against women than homosexuals 0 Could be related to more masculine qualities resulting in greater pay Sexual Harassment O EEOC definition unwelcome sexual advances that interferes with ability to do work or creates a hostile work environment 0 Quid Pro Ouo Harassment quotthis for thatquot unwelcome sexual advances that interferes with ability to do work go out to dinner with me or else I want to fire you More clear cut Always back up complaint with an email very important to have it in writing as evidence in case the organization does nothing about it o Hostile Environment Harassment what the reasonable person would think constitutes as a hostile work environment and does it interfere with a reasonable person s ability to do their job Must think about how material could adversely affect their employees 0 Sexual harassment can come from customers as well if the boss does nothing about it it constitutes sexual harassment o A particular problem in the military women report sexual harassment 5x more likely than men can be same sex sexual harassment Covered under Title VII 0 Includes intergender sexual harassment Oncae vs Sundo wner Offshore Services 1996 0 Newest victims are blue collar and immigrant women 0 Filings by men were 163 in FY 2011 o Payouts in FU 2011 523 million 0 Typically class action lawsuits many people coming together to sue a company 0 Some of the largest payouts in history 0 Mitsubishi 34 million 0 TWA 26 million Edual Pav Act 1963 quotEssentially equal workquot comparable worth 0 Prohibits sex discrimination in wages o Skill responsibility effort working conditions Exceptions include o Bona de merit systems 0 Seniority systems 0 Differences in qualityquantity of performance 0 Differences based on quotfactors other than sexquot Lily Ledbetter Fair PayAct 2009 sued GoodYear for paying her signi cantly less than men in the same position as her in a previous case 0 The Supreme Court ruled against her through a loop hole because they said you must report any unequal pay acts within 180 days 0 This act removed the 180 day constraint Paycheck Fairness Act TBD developed by Congress to x certain things 0 Says companies must prove why they are paying people of different sexes different pay 0 Prevents retaliation against employees inquiring and talking about pay 0 Gives harsher penalties for equal pay violations 0 This bill hasn39t passed yet has been brought forth 4 times and failed 4 times Other Legislation 0 Family Medical Leave Act 1993 private sector employers with 50 employees 12 weeks unpaid leave and job security Employees must be working there for at least 12 months Used a lot for pregnancy also used for sick leaves vacations etc The fact that this legislation is unpaid is a huge problem the US is one of only 2 countries that doesn t have any national paid leave Most families can t afford to take 12 weeks of unpaid leave 0 Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978 speci cally protects women affected by pregnancy childbirth or related medical conditions Would be covered under Civil Rights Act Young v United Parcel Service 2014 UPS driver who was pregnant her doctor gave her weight lifting restrictions yet her job description requirements says she has to lift up to 70 lbs a Proposed to the company that whenever a heavy package comes through someone else could deliver it a UPS as a company makes accommodations for injured workers yet UPS said no to her requested accommodations Forced her to take an unpaid leave of absence until she wasn t pregnant anymore 0 UPS said it would be discrimination to only make accommodations for women who are pregnant 0 Supreme Court reversed it and ruled in her favor 0 There is still no national federal protection for sexual orientation Only applied to affirmative action What is WorkLife Con ict Occurs when available resources of time and energy are insufficient to meet the demands of multiple roles we must allocate our time and energy towards whatever roles we think are more important than the others 0 The term worklife emphasizes that it doesn t just refer to people with families 0 Empirical evidence has supported the bidirectional nature of work life con ict 0 Your work can interfere with your life your life can interfere with your work 0 Timebased con ict inability to be in two places at the same time o Strainbased con ict stress being carried over from one environment to the other 0 Behaviorbased con ict the behaviors required of you in one role could be con icting of the behaviors required in you of another role 0 In general research shows that parents with younger children experience more worklife con ict than those with older children 0 Prevalence 0 Over time families with dualearner employees have reported higher percentages of worklife con ict Due to more mothers in the work force more dual earner households 0 The quotSandwich Generationquot there are more adults caring for their parents as well as their children elder care responsibilities This responsibility to care for both generations is extremely stressful 0 Changing nature of today s workplace Global economy interaction with people all over the world in different time zones Technology gives workers the ability to always have contact with their work a All of these things blur the lines between work and family life we can t separate the two 0 Research also shows that men s worklife con ict has been increasing steadily over time but women s are remaining fairly stable 0 The quotNew Male Mystiquequot the idea that in our society there are a lot of changing expectations about the ideal man traditionally there has been the idea that men should be the breadwinner and always working but now there is an increasing expectation that the ideal man is expected to be very involved in the family and with the children Men are beginning to experience what working women have been experiencing all along therefore making it new for men Men spend more time on average with their children Men spend more time on average on household chores Outcomes extensive con ict can produce dissatisfaction and distress within the work and family domains 0 Workplace Outcomes Decreased job performance decreased job satisfaction job burnout 0 Family Life Outcomes Decreased life satisfaction decreased marital satisfaction crossover of stress and strain 0 Organizational Initiatives goal is to help employees lower worklife con ict this will never work if the organization does not have the culture of everyone wanting to balance work and life 0 Telecommuting working from home or an offsite location Really works for some people in terms of eliminating commute time saving money on gas helps the environment the individual must be selfmotivated in order for this to work 0 Compressed workweeks the workweek is shortened to fewer than 5 days by having employees work longer hours on the days they do work 0 Flextime employees have discretion as to what time they arrive andor leave work Usually have a band of time where all employees are required to be at work Research shows this is the most favorable o Coordinating Employment with Personal Life 0 Work Family Policies 0 Individual Strategies 0 Segmentation keep work at work and home at home quotBeing able to shut off ne stress factor where it is and pick up with it the next day as you go back to work If your stress factor is homel don t carry it to work when I get to work I ll let whatever else happened at home stay at homequot According to boundary theory individuals create and maintain quotmental fencesquot around various life domains Individuals have their own preferred approach for meshing work and family roles that re ects their values and the realities of their lives a Integrators doing work while caring for the family nding a way to integrate between the two and make it ow together nicely I Segmentors people who absolutely separate work from home won t even bring up anything from any parts of their lives and integrating them Recent research suggests our boundary management is much more complicated than previously thought a quotWork Warriorquot these people allow greater work interrupting family but never viceversa U quotFamily Guardiansquot allow greater family interrupting work but never viceversa n quotFusion Loversquot people allow equal interruptions true integrators Integrators n quotDividersquot allow absolutely no interruptions either way Segmentors The success of any of these depends on the amount of control you have over your situations in life a A match between personal preferences and what you are actually able to do WorkLife Enrichment there is a growing body of research focusing on positive spillover from one domain to another 0 O O 0 Developmental gains acquisition of skills and knowledge Affective gains alteration in moods and con dence Capital gains acquisition of economic social and health assets Efficiency gains enhanced focus and attention Chapter 8 Love Relationships Heterosexual relationships are the most frequently encountered relationships in the media 0 Dating two people who are romantically involved and spend substantial amounts of time together 0 Still common on many college campuses but still rare on other campuses The Ideal Partner 0 Young adolescents tend to emphasize physical attributes and older adolescents emphasize their compatibility with their partner 0 Both women and men emphasize sexual physical attractiveness when judging an ideal sexual partner however studies show that men are more likely than women to rank physical attractiveness as the most important characteristic 0 Women are more likely to emphasize the nancial status of an ideal partner however research also shows that both men and women tend to specify that an ideal partner should be warm romantic kind sensitive and also have a good personality 0 When people judge an ideal marriage partner the preferred characteristics shift Both men and women value honesty good personality and intelligence Physical attractiveness is still somewhat more important for men 0 Physical appearance is extremely important when people rst meet a potential romantic partner 0 College women are also more satis ed with their romantic relationships if their male partner is low in traditionally masculine characteristics Other cultures 0 In many developing countries couples are not expected to marry for love 0 Different cultures value somewhat different characteristics in a romantic partner 0 In general however women are more likely than men to believe that a partner should be well educated and have good nancial prospects men are more likely than women to believe that a partner should physically attractive o This is generally true for women and men across multiple cultures Explanations for Gender Differences in Patterns of Preference E voutionaryPs ychoog y Approach 0 Various species gradually change over the course of many generations so that they can adapt better to their environment o This approach explains the different views between men and women because they have different views 0 Both men and women have an evolutionary advantage if they succeed in passing on their genes to the next generation 0 Speci cally men should prefer young attractive healthy looking women because those women are most likely to be fertile Contrary to this perspective ratings of women s attractiveness are not correlated with either health or fertility 0 Women try to select a partner who will be committed to a longterm relationship women look for reliable men who also have good incomes The SocialRules Approach 0 Men and women often occupy different social roles they are also socialized differently and they experience different social opportunities and disadvantages o In countries where women have limited educational and nancial opportunities they are especially more likely to prefer higherincome men 0 In contrast in more egalitarian countries women can earn their own incomes and do not need to seek wealthy husbands Gender Comparisons 0 Women are more likely than men to report that they have a relationship based on friendship when describing their relationships more likely to report more sadness depression hurt andloneHness 0 Women tend to experience a wider range of both positive and negative emotions Gender similarities are more striking 0 Both typically say that the essential features of their love relationships are trust caring honesty and respect 0 Both believe that acting cheerful and expressing love toward their partners is a way to maintain romantic relationships Breaking up 0 When couples break up women and men experience similar negative emotions Women are better at decoding the emotions in a person s facial expressions and tend to be better mindreaders Women are more likely to experience joy and relief they are also more likely to blame their partner for the breakup Men are more likely to try and distract themselves from thinking about the breakup Marriage and Divorce Research shows that college women are signi cantly more likely than men to eagerly anticipate getting married yet those who are nontraditional tend to say that they will keep their own last name rather than adopting their husband s last name Marital Satisfaction Surveys show that young married couples are probably the happiest people in any age group People who have been married 2024 years tend to be the group that least satis ed with their marriage 0 Marriage satisfaction generally improves during the next decade once the children have left home 0 This could be due to reduced con ict over parenting issues after the children leave home as well as increase in economic resources Women are more likely to wish they could change some aspects of their marriage they are also more sensitive to problems in their marital relationships Characteristics of happy stable marriages o Emotional stability 0 Good communication and understanding skills 0 A greater number of positive comments and expressions of affection Strong con ictresolution skills Trust in the other person Mutual support The belief that each spouse is genuinely concerned about the other person s wellbeing Flexibility Equal sharing of child care and household tasks 0 Equal sharing in decision making 0000 00 Distribution of Power Traditional marriage the husband is more dominant than the wife and both partners maintain traditional gender roles o The wife makes most of the decisions about housework and child care but the husband has the ultimate authority in family decisions 0 The husband protects the wife and he also controls the money 0 Common among people from a conservative religious background Egalitarian marriage both partners share power equally without traditional gender roles o The wife and husband have equal responsibility for housework child care nances and decision making 0 Emphasize companionship and sharing marriage based on a true friendship in which both partners really understand and respect one another Marriage and women of color Latinas and Latinos emphasize men showing their manhood and women being chaste until marriage but many advocate more egalitarian patterns Black families may be more egalitarian than families from other ethnic backgrounds Asian American families are likely to experience con icts between traditional Asian values and contemporary North American gender roles Divorce Divorce is more common in North America the highest rate is for blacks and the lowest is for Asian Americans lower for college educated people Couples who live together before marriage are more likely to get divorced than those who have not lived together Wives initiate divorce more often than men do for three major reasons 0 Physical or emotional abuse 0 ln delity 0 Drug or alcohol abuse Almost always stressful because it creates depression and anger 0 Women may experience some positive effects such as relief and a sense of strength 0 Most divorced women experience nancial problems that can have serious implications for their wellbeing Lesbians and Bisexual Women Lesbian a woman who is psychologically emotionally and sexually attracted to other women 0 Sexual minority refers to anyone who has a samegender attraction Lesbians and heterosexual women are similar on almost all psychological dimensions except that lesbians have higher self esteem Characteristics of Lesbian Relationships 0 Balance of power is extremely important couples are happier if both members of the pair contribute equally to the decision making Psychological intimacy is likely to be strong in lesbian couples oWith breakups lesbian couples don t have cost of divorce joint investments in property and children to worry about like many heterosexual couples do o In addition lesbian couples are less likely to have support from their family members which is another reason heterosexual couples tend to stay together Lesbian Women of Color 0 We must consider intersectionality when thinking about lesbians of color in the US 0 Many lesbians of color face an extra barrier because their culture has even more traditional views of women than does mainstream European American culture 0 Many are reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation in their ethnic communities Bisexual Women Illustrate that women can be attracted to both women and men 0 May face rejection by both the lesbian and heterosexual communities Theoretical explanations about Sexual Orientation The Social Constructionst Approach emphasizes that female sexual orientation is typically exible and women can reconstruct their identity to make transitions between heterosexual and lesbian orientations Diamond s Dynamical Systems Approach argues that a woman s sexual orientation is often complex because it involves nonlinear cycles of sexual feelings and interpretations of those feelings Single Women Researchers typically do not study single women however these women are reasonably similar to married women on measures of adjustment and health o5ingism refers to bias against people who are not married o Studies show however that remaining single is more acceptable than in earlier decades 0 Tend to value their freedom to pursue their own leisure activities o Loneliness seems to be a disadvantage o Most single women creative alternative social networks
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