Mid - Term Study Guide
Mid - Term Study Guide Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
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Date Created: 10/04/15
HIST 1302 History of the US Since 1865 Mid Term Studv Guide I Psychological Reconstruction of the Nation 1865 Present A After the Civil War slaves were free by law 1 In reality they were still slaves B The 13th Amendment 1 Abolished forced servitude for anyone with the exception of criminals a That s why chain gangs aren t illegal II Wartime Reconstruction A Lincoln encouraged former slaves emigration to Central America in order to create their own societies and colonies 1 Problem a During their period of slavery African Americans lost their culture 1 4th generation slaves had lost their language and beliefs a They only knew slavery Northerners wanted slaves freed for two reasons 1 Moral Standpoint a Several Northerners believed slavery was morally wrong because no human being should be viewed as property by another 2 Economic Standpoint a Northerners wanted to rid the South of free labor so their profit margins and wealth would not be higher than that of the North However African Americans were not welcome in the North 1 Forced to create their own separate societies from the whites in order to survive III Proclamation of Amnestv and Reconstruction of the South A Southern states were required to 1 Abolish slavery 2 State and oath of allegiance to the Union a Especially Confederate officials B It was first implemented in Louisiana Arkansas and Tennessee due to the fact that they had the least amount of slaves 1864 C Reconstruction spread rapidly through the south in 1865 1 Union would aid South in rebuilding the cities destroyed in the war D Many Republicans opposed Abraham Lincoln 3 Reconstruction plans 1 They thought he was being too lenient 2 They wanted to provide the former slaves with equality E Radical Republicans came up with their own Reconstruction plan 1 WadeDavis Reconstruction Bill a Gave former slaves political and economic power 1 The Radical Republicans thought that they could easily manipulate the African Americans to do what they wanted them to do b Required that Confederate officials partake in oaths of loyalty 2 Vetoed by Lincoln IV Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction A After Lincoln was assassinated the radical Republicans thought Johnson would go along with their plans for Reconstruction 1 They were sorely disappointed B Johnson created and pursued his own policy D 1 Distributed amnesty to virtually all of the Confederacy a With the exception of Confederate Officials 2 All the Southern states had to draft new state Constitutions a Including the abolition of slavery within them 3 Former slaves and upper class whites were excluded from the profits of Reconstruction Republicans were not found of Johnson s plans 1 They still believed that former slaves should be included in politics and the economy Several Southern states were shocked and attempted to refused to add the abolition of slavery to their constitutions nor ratify the 13th Amendment E F 1 They did ratify the amendment after threats of military occupation by the North Former Confederates were deeply involved in their perspective state governments 1 These individuals and many others thought that the former slaves should still be slaves therefore many states passed the Black Codes a A form of quasislavery virtual slavery 1 Designed to separate whiteblack relations 2 Former slaves were free to go however they had nowhere to go 3 Solution a They could stay and continue to do the work they had done previously and get paid b Because they were no longer slaves they had to pay for food clothes rent etc c The former slaves could never leave because they would always be in debt with the plantation owner North response to Black codes 1 Disgusted by them 2 Republicans put the South under military control in an attempt to stop the Black Codes a Poor often illiterate whites were extended suffrage b The New government repealed the Black Codes 1 Unfortunately the Black Codes were still used widely throughout the South V Advent of Congressional Reconstruction A The military occupation of the south was not working 1 By 1865 Republicans were determined to take control of the South and institute strong federal control in order to protect African American s rights a The Republicans refused to acknowledge any new state government or its leaders Con ict commenced between the President Johnson and Congress 1 Congress was overstepping its boundaries and partaking in roles reserved for the president a They overruled the Johnson s veto and extended the life of the Freedmen s Bureau 1 Defined freedmen as citizens with equal legal rights 14th Amendment 1865 1 It states that all individuals born in the United States are United States citizens 2 This amendment includes a Due Process Clause b Equal Protection Clause c Privacy D Debate over Reconstruction carried over to the elections of 1866 VI Agencies of Westward Expansion A 2 modes of transportation to get to the west 1 Railroads a Between 1869 and 1893 VII Mining 1 5 Transcontinental railroads were constructed 2 In this time frame there was no electricity and no electric machinery therefore building five transcontinental railroads in 24 years is amazing Sodbusters and Bonanza Farms a b Sodbusters 1 Families would travel in covered wagons to the Wild West to stake out land and start farms for sustenance farming 2 Partly responsible for taming the Wild West Bonanza Farms 1 Entrepreneurs sought to make a profit by traveling west staking out large amounts of land and beginning commercial farming A The California Gold Rush sent thousands ocking west in search riches 1 The California Gold Rush was huge to the economy because during that time frame the US was using the gold standard 2 People were in search of gold silver and other precious metals a Silver became more precious than gold in the 1870s because 1 Silver could be exchanged in businesses While gold went into a bank s vault VIII Ranching Frontiers A Prime time for cattle driving 1 The demand for beef was extremely high in the eastern US 2 The construction of railroads significantly shortened the routes cattle drivers had to drive their cattle 3 Cattle driving was a very profitable business a Threatened to put local farmers out of business IX The Realities of the Frontiers A Very different than what is depicted by pop culture 1 Extremely tough life a Child mortality rates were high due to 1 Lack of food 2 Lack of medicine medical care b Life expectancy was about 30 years old for men 1 Childbirth dangers Women life expectancy less a Many women died in childbirth or shortly thereafter 2 Treatable diseases today caused many in the west to die a Such as chicken pox measles pneumonia etc 3 Hard labor a Every member of the family that could walk had to pull his weight on the farm b This lead to wives knowing each other i The other women in the area acted as midwives and did the hard labor on the farm while the wife was taking care of the baby 4 Unexpected climate changes a Sowing seeds won t do a farmer much good if there is no rain to water them 5 Hostile Encounters a Apache i Had a bounty on their heads which lead to confrontation with Americans b Mexicans i Discontent with the Americans stealing their land out from underneath them c Law in the west was very subjective 1 The good and honorable lawmen was rare 2 Fell victim to bribes X The Last Indian Frontier A The Americans who traveled west purposely appropriated Native American Territory and concentrated their population onto small reservations 1 The Northerners wanted to teach the Native Americans a lesson for siding with the Confederation during the Civil War 2 Due to the fact that the Native Americans sided with the wrong side in every war most Americans thought of them as untrustworthy B Small exceptions were made if the Native Americans were acculturated 1 Acculturated assimilate the American culture and reject their Native American heritage a Become WASPs White AngloSaxon Protestants b Native American schools were created for that purpose 1 Students were not allowed to speak their language wear their dress or do anything related to their heritage XI Con ict with the Sioux A Americans had several violent clashes and wartime disagreements with the Sioux 1 During westward expansion the Sioux were moved from Minnesota to the Dakota Territory 2 After the discovery of gold in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory 1870s Americans began to encroach on their land again a The infuriated Native Americans were trying to figure out ways to keep their land 3 The Battle of Little Bighorn June 1876 a The battles leaders were Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse the Native American leaders and Brevet General George Custer b The Americans lost this battle at a high price to thousands of Native Americans 4 Wounded Knee Massacre 1890 a While the Native American warriors were out practicing their warrior rituals the Americans attacked their settlement killing the women and children there XII Suppression of Other Plains People A Sand Creek Massacre 1 Black Kettle Cheyenne Native American leader tried to resist American settlement in Colorado and Kansa 2 200 Native Americans were massacred Buffalo Herds Destruction 1 Buffalo was the Native Americans main food source 2 Americans destroyed the population of buffalo almost to extinction a Mainly for sport b The Americans only took the fur and a little bit of meat from the buffalo c Worst form of environmental destruction in westward expansion Nez Perce Native Americans 1 Chief Joseph struck a deal with the Americans in order to save his people from destruction XIII The New South A This time frame was not just for rebuilding the South but for rebuilding the country as a whole and unifying the Union once again B C D The Southern states stuck to their Democratic ideals after 1877 By 1880 the South became more susceptible to Northern aid and investment 1 Several Northern industries expanded to the South such as textile mills tobacco planting railroad construction iron mining and more a Cotton was still an important product of the South however it was no longer the backbone of Southern economy The investment of the North in the South created a colonial relationship between the North and the South 1 The South did not like this relationship however they realized it was necessary due to the fact that the war and the freedom of slaves destroyed their economy and industry The South s main shortcoming was its agriculture system 1 2 systems both ineffective a Crop lien system 1 The switch from free to wage labor cut farms profits significantly 2 The farm owners became unable to buy seeds from the cotton gins therefore they had to take loans from the local banks 10 b 3 If the farmer lost the crop or didn t sell enough of it they would lose their farm to the bank as collateral for the unpaid loan OneCrop System 1 Farmers would focus on the production of one crop due to the fact that buying seeds for just one crop was cheaper than buying a variety of seeds 2 Led to overproduction which caused the price of the crop to plummet 3 This surplus of certain crops forced the US to import food at in ated prices Race relations were still icy in the New South 1 Uneducated African Americans became the scapegoats for all the South s shortcoming and hardships a They were in essence being blamed for leaving slavery 2 Punishments a Jim Crow Laws b Plessy v Ferguson 1896 1 Supreme Court ruled that white and African American people can be segregated as long as they are separate but equal a In reality the two were never equal 2 Law of the land until the 1950s a Overturned in Brown v Board of Education i Forced the integration of school systems through a bussing system 3 African American growth a Booker T Washington 1 One of the last generation of African Americans born into slavery 11 b 2 help 3 4 Stressed the importance of development through self a Encourage social change by not looking to anyone else for help b Do it yourself Founded the Tuskegee Institute 1895 a One of the first all African American colleges Atlanta Exposition Speech 1895 a During this speech Washington stressed the importance of education as the road to equality and a good work ethic will lead to success b He also stressed the need to forget about the injustices of the past and work towards the future Criticized by E B Dubois 1 DuBois View was to punish whites for generations of mistreatment 2 Don t listen to Uncle Tom Booker T Washington XIV The Politics of Stalemate A US politics became stagnant between 1873 and 1893 1 The economy was static which meant low interest rates a Similar to today s economy Presidential elections were close a President Grover Cleveland the winner of the election was inefficient b The only legislation that passed into law was made through bipartisan two party majorities 12 XV The Force that Drives the World A B C Economics 1 Economics and history are completely intertwined a Most moments in history are determined by economics Nothing can take priority over economics We all depend on economics in order to survive 1 We need food clothing water and shelter to survive 2 In order to meet these needs we must trade barter or buy XVI Economic Growth and Expansion A All industries were growing 1 Especially the manufacturing industry Railroads 1 Most significant contributor to economic expansion a Unfortunately this lead to the railroads having more power in the government b This in turn lead to the corruption within the railroad industry The Grange or the Patrons of Husbandry 1867 1 This organization became the first Political Action Committee PAC in the US a Advocated political and economic advancements for farmers b United farmers under a single organization which gave the farmers a voice that the government would actually listen to 1 More people more voices more power to be heard and listened to by the government 2 This organization lead to the beginnings of workers unions 13 3 Known today as The National Order of the Patrons of Husbandry Munn V Illinois 1877 1 This Supreme Court decision allowed states to govern certain business that were within its borders 2 One of the businesses included was railroads a This allowed for fairer pricing with which the railroads would charge packages delivered based on distance traveled Technology played a key role in economic expansion 1 This can be said for all technology since the Agricultural Revolution XVII The Formation of the American Middle Class A Brief History of the Middle Class 1 Originated in Europe during the Middle Ages a After the Black Death AKA Plague killed off most of the population the lords of the land switched to a wage labor economy at the urging and threatening of the surviving serfs B In America 1 The class you are in depends on how much money you have a Upper Class b Middle Class c Lower Class 2 The lives of African Americans and women improved drastically through the formation of the middle class and middle class companies XVIII Cities A Grew rapidly due to the fact that was were all the jobs were 1 All the industries were based there 14 2 This lead to the development of suburbs a An area to escape the overcrowded and bustling city but still be close enough to the action B Emergence of department and mail order stores 1 Cater to the cities increasing populations needs and wants a Sears emerges 1 Sends its catalog to every household through the railroad system 2 Provided goods that the middle class could afford and buy b Advertizing became a huge industry C Differences in wealth created incentives for people to earn more money and gain more property 1 Caused the subdivisions of the middle class a Upper Middle Class b Middle Middle Class c Lower Middle Class 2 Conspicuous consumption a People would buy unneeded luxury goods as long as they had the funds in order to display their wealth D Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller 1 Andrew Carnegie founded the US Steel industry 2 John D Rockefeller founded the US Oil industry E The Antitrust Movement 1880s 1 Came about due to robber barons a These individuals owned tried to control the market by being the only company in that market monopoly 15 b They tried to put smaller businesses out of business 1 This way they could charge what they wanted with no competition 2 Lead to a The Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 b US V E C Knight company 1895 1 The Supreme Court ruled that the government s power controlling monopolies would be limited 2 States would regulate the monopolies 3 The government could intervene only if the monopoly made offenses a For example The American Telephone and Telegraph AT amp T was broken into smaller companies baby bells by the government for that reason XIX Consumer Economy A The economy works and is driven by the consumer 1 Simple case of supply and demand a If the consumer doesn t by the product then the producer can t sell it B Advertizing 1 Extremely important industry 2 Keeps the economy going by advertizing things that a consumer doesn t need but can afford XX Labor Strife A Workers were unhappy due to 1 Dangerous working conditions 16 2 Loss of selfgovernment amongst the workers a Workers became numbers instead of individual people National Labor Union 1866 1 The depression in the 1870s caused it to disintegrate The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 1 More and more laborers called for changes in the railroad company system 2 More people Bigger power base Knights of Labor 1864 1 Lead by Terrance Powderly 2 The goal of this organization was to unite all the workers from all the different fields of labor into one large workers union a They stood for workers rights economic reform and social reform in order to improve conditions in the workplace 3 Employers viewed this organization as a form of communism The Haymarket Square Riot 1886 1 The workers in Haymarket Square were protesting so their employers used violence in response a Casualties 10 dead 50 wounded 2 This also hurt the Knights of Labor by making workers unions look bad in general The Problem 1 No regulation of how companies treated their workers a In order to improve conditions in the workplace workers would go on strike and picket the company b Employers in response would fire all of its employees and higher new ones called scabs 17 c In order to protect themselves employers would also hire police officers to protect them by shooting any over rambunctious picketers G The American Federation of Labor 1886 1 This federation was a roughly connected group of trade and craft unions who wanted everyone who was who had to deal with employers to take part in it H Critics of the Wage Labor System 1 Henry George Progress and Poverty 1879 2 Edward Bellany Looking Backward 1887 a These to works were written individuals who thought the wage labor system was awed b Their theory was that if wages go up prices will go up c These people don t last very long due to the fact that without wagelabor the US would revert back to slavery or serfdom and the US government would never allow that to happen I Homestead Strike 1892 XXI The Depression of 1893 to 1897 A This depression negatively affected all areas of the economy 1 It was a domino effect a Due to the fact that wages fell production fell consumer consumption fell etc B The railroad collapse started it all 1 The economy slowed down figuratively people aren t buying or selling as much and literally a Railroads were the main source of transportation in the US during that time frame C Coxey s Army 1894 18 1 Jacob Coxey a populist lead a group of unemployed workers on a march on Washington D C D Pullman Strike 1894 1 Employers at the Pullman Palace Car Company cut their workers low wages due to the depression 2 Desperate laborers of went on strike for higher wages a Were supported by others who refused to ride the Pullman train cars 3 They grew violent when their strike was being threatened 4 This nearly stopped the railroad industry in its tracks literally and figuratively 5 The government intervened to stop the violence and get the railroad industry back on track XXII Farmer s Movements A The expansion of production decreased agricultural goods prices which lead to an extended period of de ation B Farmers accused banks commission merchants railroads and overall the monetary system 1 The farmers accusations were well founded due to the fact that these organizations were trying to make a profit at the farmers expense C Greenback Party 1 The new US currency system that was off the gold standard a The money was backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government b This system is the same we have today D Free Silver Movement 1 BlandAllison Act 1878 19 2 Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890 Repealed in 1893 a These two government acts tried to change the gold standard to the silver standard 1 Economists believed that the in ation of silver could be the start of getting the US out of the depression a Manufacturers could produce more goods because they had the funds to do so which would lower the prices of said goods b The issue was that this system would drive gold out of circulation 1 Due to the fact that no one wanted gold out of circulation both acts inevitably failed 1 This organization consisted of local and regional alliances who were going a When a political party is divided they lose whatever they are E The National Farmer s Alliance and Industrial Union 1890 out of business because they had to sell their produce at next to nothing so that people could afford it deficit 2 In order to get politicians to listen and act the farmers created a political agenda for them a This gave the farmers a voice within the government XXIII The Rise and Fall of the People s Party A In 1896 a nationwide farmer s organization was formed 1 Left Democrats divided on who to nominate for their presidential slot fighting about history had proven this XXIV The Election of 1896 A Populists joined forces with the Democratic Party and nominated William Jennings Bryan B Republicans nominated William McKinley 20 1 The election was very invigorating C McKinley won the election 1 McKinley s popularity would grow when he won the SpanishAmerican War lead to reelection a Gained Cuba Puerto Rico and the Philippines 2 The US was starting to make its way out of the depression D McKinley was assassinated on September 14 1908 1 Therefore he didn t meet all of his political promises XXV Industrial Society A The economy relies on manufacturers for its Gross Domestic Product GDP B Ideological beliefs are not really an issue in this sort of society 1 The world s leading capitalist economy and manufacturer China has a socialist AKA communist government C Religion can exclude certain aspects of an industrial society but overall religious beliefs don t really interfere with this type of society 1 In India cattle are considered sacred therefore there is no beef industry within India a Other industries take over for the lack of a beef industry D The United States industrial society 1 The economy and society evolved into an industrial society over the years 2 How a One company gives rise to several other companies 1 A car company gives rise to a tire company a car parts company an engine company a mining company for the metal used to build the cars etc 21 XXVI Sources of Economic Growth A New technological developments 1 Thomas Edison harnessed electricity to create the light bulb 2 The gasoline powered internal combustion engine was produced a Gave rise to the eventual development of cars b The basic concepts of this engine are still what we use today 1 Started up related industries a Oil industry battery recycling plants etc B The emergence of large corporations 1 In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a These corporations allowed for national markets to emerge 2 In the 21St century a These corporations allow for international markets to emerge 3 Both results are caused by the development of an industrial society C Mass production and distribution 1 Corporations began this technique in order to take advantage of the entirety of the national market D Corporate consolidation 1 In order for corporations and business to solve some of their competition issues they started the a Merger Movement 1 Companies would join forces in order to grow larger and reduce the competition between them and other companies 2 Thus increasing the revenue of both companies E Revolution in management 22 1 Complex corporate hierarchies became necessary as companies grew larger than ever before a Compartmentalize everything 1 Emergence of the management pyramid 2 Formation of a new middle class a Upper Middle Class 1 White Collar Workers a Top Tier Management i President ii Vice President b Middle Class 1 Blue Collar Workers a Laborers in factories c Lower Middle Class 1 Commoners a Farmers and ranchers Scientific management is widely adopted 1 The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor contained key information on how to use scientific management a The information provided in this book was ahead of its time b However once it was applicable to industrial society it became extremely valuable to corporations 2 It was sometimes difficult to apply the principles from Taylor s book to actual companies a Employers cared more about their employees 23 1 Employers began to invest money in their employees through training programs due to the fact that employees needed to know how to use the latest technology 2 Raises work perks and paid vacation days increased due to the fact that employers did not want their trained employees to be stolen by another company 1 Gave excess wealth from his company back to the people in XXVII Robber Baron Corporations are No More A Emergence of new large scale charity work among corporate heads 1 Andrew Carnegie a Founder of US Steel b Wrote the Gospel of Wealth the form of trusts parks education and more 2 John D Rockefellar a Founder of Standard Oil Company b Also gave excess wealth to the community XXVIII Obsession with Physical and Racial Fitness A Started as a positive 1 Many people believed in the idea that being physically fit was paralleled with being prosperous a Followed along the lines of Theodore Roosevelt s strenuous life b Health means wealth initiative Resulted in the creation of national parks Gave women more freedom than they possessed previously a They were allowed to participate in this movement in society 24 B Turned negative 1 Racism makes another appearance a Many Americans began to believe that WASPs were superior 1 White Anglo Saxon Protestant b Emergence of Social Darwinism 1 Survival of the fittest a Society s sneaky racism under the guise of science 2 Grew in popularity over the years of industrial growth a Social Darwinist stated that this ideology was founded in science 3 The most popular application of Social Darwinism was a Nazi Germany c Social Darwinism Expansion 1 Educated professional claimed they knew what was scientifically sound and what was not because of their higher educations 2 Reality a They were not in their fields therefore they were just spreading their beliefs and passing them off as fact 2 Eugenics reappeared once more with the authority of the state behind it a Eugenics is the belief that there is a dominant race and that biology can be modified to create said race XXIX Immigration A From the late 1800s to the early 1900s 1 23 million immigrants ocked to the US a Mostly from Europe 2 5 B Differences between new immigrants and old immigrants 1 New immigrants a Came to the US in hopes of acquiring land and a better standard of living due to the fact that Europe had no land available b However they were considered foreigners in the US just like the old immigrants 2 Old immigrants a Escaping persecution C New immigrants were welcomed into the US as much needed laborers 1 Typically worked at back breaking difficult and unskilled jobs a Hard factory labor ditch digging etc b Many of the jobs they accomplished did not even require the workers to speak English 2 Many immigrants grouped together in professions by ethnicity a Germans were known for their carpentry skills Irish for their leatherwork etc 1 Within this ethnic domain the immigrants sorted themselves into professions 3 The immigrants were confronted with opposition by workers unions as well as old immigrants a Unless you were part of the workers union you did not work D In the late 1800s 500000 Japanese and Chinese immigrants ocked to the US in search of a better life 1 Met with immediate racism by Caucasians a Why 1 The Asian population that moved to the US were different 26 a Their dress speech food utensils and other things were different than the traditional European standards of the US 2 The majority of Chinese and Japanese accomplished the hard labor required to build the railroad system many died in dangerous accidents 3 After the railroads were completed the workers unions and others began to put pressure on the government to get the Chinese and Japanese out of the US a Lead to the Chinese Exclusion Act 1 Today this law would be unconstitutional because it is discriminating against immigrants of a particular race 2 However the US can pass a law barring all immigrants entrance into the US 4 The living conditions for the Asian immigrants were extremely difficult and subpar a Many reformists believed that this was wrong and should be corrected 1 Unfortunately they made very little headway because they were viewed as siding with the enemy XXX Building Ethnic Communities A Immigrants created their own networks and communities amongst each one s ethnicity 1 The recreated their old Country groups however they made modifications to them in order to better adapt to their situation in the US a Italians would go to Little Italy 2 Another reason the immigrants stuck with their own ethnicity is because they were safer a safety in numbers 27 XXXI A African American Laboring Communitv African Americans could not recreate their old Country groups because they were forcibly ripped from their culture and lost it in their years of forced servitude E 1 In addition most African Americans continued to live in rural areas doing the same jobs they had been doing before the Civil War Several African Americans traveled North in search of a better life 1 They were treated worse than the new immigrants and were still discriminated against by the North and the South There was a decline in the older African American middle class during this period 1 Caused by the fact that whites began to realize there was a huge market for African American products African American institutions became more permanent 1 Churches political organizations etc Community building was much more difficult for African Americans than for new immigrants XXXII 1 Why a African Americans were viewed as white peoples opposites Worker and Unions Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor 1 An 18905 movement that concentrated on unifying and organizing craftsmen and skilled workers a This new system was required for the new working class because the workers had to be literate 2 This labor union worked tirelessly to negotiate good contracts for these workers 3 This organization avoided politics in general in order to keep from eliminating workers based on political beliefs 28 a Labor unions cannot avoid politics today due to the fact that Republicans are against labor unions while Democrats are for labor unions 1 Labor unions are Democratic 4 Unskilled workers were widely ignored by this organization a Unskilled workers follow whatever the rest of the employees are doing 1 Sheep 2 They didn39t have to convince them to join XXXIII J ovs of the Big Citv A Companies emerged solely for workers to spend their disposable income 1 Disposable income money left after bills 2 Places such as a Amusement Parks b Libraries 1 Most often in big cities 2 Increased educated workers more revenue for companies c Movies 1 Most popular 2 Inexpensive 3 All the movies shown were a In good taste b Women in the first films wore ankle length skirts or dresses long sleeves blouses up to their necks and were prim and proper the entire movie 29 XXXIV New Sexuality and the New Woman A Women began to fight the classical views of Victorian ideals 1 Separate spheres a No more covering up B The battle against these ideas were lead mostly by young women however some men did aid them on their quest C Increased awareness and desire for women s suffrage and women s rights 1 Cries for gender equality D This process mainly occurred in urban areas 1 Caused extreme worry for many conservatives a Especially farmers and rural workers 30 XXXV Progressivism A Defined 1 Idea of Progress a Claims that growth in science economic development technology and social grouping are extremely important 1 Only way to improve the human condition B Questions theories and ideas thought to have been set in stone C All progress can be interpreted in many diverse ways XXXVI The Protestant Spirit and Progressivism A Early progressives were predominately young middleclass males 1 Called ministers of reform B Social Gospel Movement 1 Consisted of a Christian intellectual movement a This movement applied fundamental principles of Christianity to solve society s problems 1 Problems addressed in this movement include poverty inequality liquor crime bad hygiene racial tensions slums poor schools and the danger of war 2 The leaders of this movement were post millennialists a They believed that Christ would not come again until humankind disposed of all social evils XXXVII Muckrakers Magazines and Realism A Original definition 1 The individual responsible for cleaning out horses stalls B During the progressive era 31 1 Journalists who were trying to sell their stories to the public would often stretch the truth invent problems and elaborated on an article in order to make the content more interesting and sellable a Big elaborate and interesting stories sell more than stories containing strictly facts 1 This is still true today C Many individuals including Theodore Roosevelt criticized and disavowed the muckrakers D This style of news became known as Yellow Journalism Yellow Press XXXVIII Yellow Journalism Today A Prime example Presidential campaign politics 1 Donald Trump Hillary Clinton Ben Carson Bernie Sanders and the media a The press doesn t cover their plans for the country nor the issues they are going to address b The press only sensationalizes their actions 1 Prime example Hillary Clinton s e mails B If an individual is in the spotlight anything they say can and will be sensationalized by the media C Yellow Journalism will continue as long as profits remain high XXXIX Muckrakers A Mass circulation has helped yellow journalism spread to the far reaches of the country 1 Realism aided this new form of journalism make more headway at a faster rate a Emergence of check out line tabloids 32 2 Other results of realism a Another intellectual movement that focused on detachment objectivity and skepticism 1 History is never objective due to the fact that history is written by the winners b Motivated reform for the middle class XL The Emergence of Settlement Houses and Women s Activism A The settlement houses were created to help immigrants especially the poor ones survive and adapt to the harsh realities of urban life 1 Based on the belief that some people will volunteer with no thoughts of a reward just to help someone else a This concept is never seen in politics 1 It s always scratch my back and I ll scratch yours B Hull House 1889 1 The first of many settlement houses 2 Created by a community of university women a These women would teach the immigrants about the US s culture laws and government in order to protect them from being cheated and taken advantage of 3 The community and corporations soon jumped on the settlement house bandwagon a Why 1 An educated worker can do a lot more tasks than an uneducated one can 2 Benefits were universal 4 There were multiple programs to help immigrants get more adjusted to life in the US 33 5 a Many immigrants attended language courses in order to survive 1 follow instructions etc They needed to speak English in order to answer questions b Food banks emerged to help feed the poor AKA food banks c Employment agencies came about in order to ensure an immigrant who had valuable job skills before moving to the US could be put in the field their skills are used for 1 No skills teach you a skill and find you a job Many immigrants were encouraged to take part in government regulation and intervention gifts a This was done due to the fact that immigrants had first hand experiences with government regulations Through progressivism people began to realize the value of immigrant a Example Some immigrant musicians knew how to make violins b Today the immigrant s gifts are discounted Progressivises were conservative in the aspect of culture 1 They spurned any acts of feminine sexuality a Women had to dress in the Victorian style 1 ankles Dresses that covered everything up to the neck wrists and 2 In essence no skin showing They rejected the consumption of alcohol a Alcoholism was a huge issue at the time A laborer would walk into a bar at the end of the week with 1 his paycheck and spend it all on booze b Progressives were strong supporters of the Women s Christian Temperance Union and the Anti Saloon League 34 1 These leagues predominately composed of women would walk into bars with baseball bats and destroy every bottle of alcohol in the place c Due to the pressure from these organizations the 18th Amendment was passed 1 Prohibition of alcohol except for prescription use 2 This caused the Mafia to become major crime bosses in the 1920s D Women s Clubs 1 These organizations main focus was not on prohibition of alcohol alone 2 They worked to reform areas of what was deemed traditional female concerns a Such as education playgrounds libraries fire and sanitation codes and health and safety legislation 3 Pushing for reform empowered many women to get involved in the political sphere of the US a This unified women under one cause that they all believed in 4 Many men started to accept the fact that women were involved in so much of the country that it only made sense that the road would lead to women s suffrage a Women finally obtained suffrage in the 19th Amendment XLI Socialism and Progressivism A During the Progressive Era Socialism was at its highest 1 Eugene V Debs a A strong believer in socialism a founder of the International Labor Union political leaders etc b Bolshevik Revolution dashed any hopes of getting elected into office 35 1 Why a Socialism and communism are viewed as the same i They are not ii Communism a Has components of socialism Within its theories b Examples of communism today i Cuba No growth or ambition of its workforce and economy ii North Korea Isolationists iii China Only in its politics its economy is capital based iii Socialism a Has nothing to do With Communism b Based on a utopian society viewpoint c Some Democratic societies use some elements of socialism i Britain Their medical system is free to everyone and the costs of the operations are divided equally amongst the people through taxes not very effective in maintaining employed doctors Appeal to Reason 1 An article pointed out the horrid conditions of food production companies a Resulted in the Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 36 C The many variations of socialists 1 gas and water socialists 9 6 medical socialists etc 37 Socialists and progressives were extremely close a Sometimes progressives and socialists would jump from one to the other without a second thought The key feature that was in uencing both ideologies was utopianism a They believed that a utopian society could be a reality in the future through progress XLII Municipal Reform and the Growing Necessities of Society A B The growth of cities causes an in ux of necessities in society The first battles of transportation and utilities Robber barons bought out other companies to create a powerful monopoly on their market of interest a More monopolies means more power Government intervention was required in order to keep these superpowers in check a The government could only get involved to a certain degree b Carnegie and Rockefeller monopoly owners who caused the government to have difficulty legislating and enforcing monopoly laws 1 Why a They gave their excess wealth to charity they started educational organizations and were overall good people with the desire and the means to help their fellow man Monopolies of the press The government put an immediate stop to these monopolies due to the fact that the government did have the right to protect the rights stated in the 1st Amendment a Freedom of the press 38 D The city government was reformed by creating and implementing structural reforms 1 Implemented to meet the growing cities needs 2 City commissions and city managers positions were created a Unfortunately these positions were held by very corrupt individuals b These people would devalue the minority and poorer voters c Also implemented new political machines which implemented 1 Cronyism politicians would hire their friends for protection and support 2 Nepotism politicians would hire their family for protection and support a Blood is thicker than water 3 Spoils System if you want something what will you do for me a AKA You scratch my back I ll scratch yours b This sort of system was illegal yet it still went on for many years XLIII Political Reform in the States A This occurred in the states in order to take power from party bosses and return it to the people 1 The people elected the senators instead of senators getting elected through nominations 2 All the reforms were meant to turn political power back to the people a Power to the people if an elected official was not doing their job correctly the people have the power to recall that official from office B Attempts to maintain a well informed honest electorate 39 1 Secret ballot an individual s voting is under the same confidentiality as the confidentiality of Confession 2 Personal registration laws gave truth and enforced one person one vote 3 Citizenship came before voting rights 4 The South still put restrictions on African American voters Women s Suffrage 1 Direct opposite of the government trying to limit the electorate 2 Men recognized the differences between women and men however they believed that women were so involved in society that the next logical step would be the vote 3 19th Amendment 1920 Finally gave women the right to vote Robert La Follette and the Wisconsin Idea 1 Progressivist opposed to railroads bossism World War I WW1 and the League of Nations a Many Americans during this time frame were Isolationists 2 Created an extensive political agenda focused on reform a Tried to dampen the power of corporations b The government agreed that the major corporations had too much power and therefore they created a law to destroy monopolies 3 Worked with the social scientists from the University of Wisconsin in order to create the Wisconsin Industrial Commission in 1911 Progressive Reform in New York 1 Instituted by Governor Charles Evans Hughes 2 The reforms aspired to regulate business and stop political corruption 3 Also worked towards social justice regulations Please note All laws made by our government are in reaction to something 40 1 It has never been proactive and most likely never Will be XLIV Campaign for Civil Rights Reborn A Criticisms of Booker T Washington s theories of accommodation grew significantly B W E B DuBois and the Niagara Movement 1 His theory focused on no surrender until their demands were met a Raise hell in order to be heard 2 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP formed in 1910 a The Crisis written by DuBois outlined the problems and solutions of civil rights b Resulted in the National Urban League and other organizations forming to 1 Achieve better economic and social conditions c DuBoise fought against Washington s theories constantly 1 Polar opposite beliefs XLV National Reform A Many issues that arose during this time frame required government intervention therefore many of the decisions came from the executive branch rather than the legislative branch B Theodore Roosevelt s Square Deal Government Business 41 Workers Consumers 42 1 1St Progressive president of the US 2 He strengthened the government through corporations a The business of the government is business b Anthracite Coal Strike 1902 c Hepburn Act 1906 1 Interstate Commerce Commission received power from the national government 3 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 a Lead to the Meat Inspection Act 1906 4 Roosevelt believed that the US needed to support the environment for future generations a Started the National Park Service 1916 and Public Lands Commission 1903 XLVI The US Goes Overseas A Protestant missionaries spread throughout the world 1 They wanted to share the gospel with the world 2 Through sharing the gospel they would help create a cultured civilization to backward peoples a Their view of cultured civilization was WASP White Anglo Saxon Protestant civilization 3 China was the main destination for many Protestant missionaries B Entrepreneurs overseas 1 Entrepreneurs began looking to foreign countries for a new export market for American goods 2 Resulted in Economic Imperialism a The ends justify the means in business 43 XLVII 1 Anything goes as long as your business ends up overseas Why were entrepreneurs going overseas for business a Frederick Jackson Turner s Significance of the Frontier in American History 1 Stated that the American frontier was closed because it was settled b Therefore entrepreneurs broadened their horizons for the next big opportunity The Rise of American Imperialism A Imperialism has a negative connotation in most cases B American Imperialism 1 Definition a We sought to expand our horizons and bring democracy to the rest of the world b Extension of the term Manifest Destiny to the world The US used its immense military power to a Trap foreign markets into doing their bidding b Build military bases in strategic areas across the Pacific Ocean c Overall grow in size and strength in order to become a world power Some advocates for expansion believed in social Darwinism a The belief that there is an elite race of people and an inferior race of people Big Navy Policy a Inspired by Alfred Thayer Mahan s The In uence of Sea Power upon History 44 b Destroy the culture of areas you wish to control and replace it with your own 1 If you do that you can control that country unchallenged for years 5 The beginnings of foreign interest a All the countries below were annexed by the US and became US territories 1 Pago Pago in 1878 2 Hawaii in 1893 3 Samoa in 1899 6 Jingoism s role in imperialism a Chauvinistic patriotism 1 This method threatens the country of interest with force in order to ensure their obedience and to maintain our own national security XLVIII The Spanish American War A Cuba was trying to achieve independence from Spain 1 The US believed that Spanish control of Cuba was against the Monroe Doctrine a Europe was not allowed to colonize any country within the Western Hemisphere 2 Therefore Cuba s independence would make the US happy B When Cuba began fighting for independence the yellow press sensationalized what was going on 1 Exaggerated the horrors committed by both sides 2 The US did not intervene until later C US government policy regarding the Spanish American War 45 Spain 1 Originally tried for peaceful negotiations between Cuba and Spain a Failed 2 McKinley and the battleship Maine a President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Havana harbor coast of Spain to protect US citizen s treatment 1 the Spanish Real reasoning behind sending the Maine was to intimidate b The battleship Maine exploded in the Spanish harbor 1 though they stated otherwise Thought to be sabotage on the part of the Spanish even 2 However it was later proven to be a manufacturing aw c Used this event in combination with others as a way to justify getting involved in the war with Spain De Lome Letter 1 Written by a Spanish ambassador 2 The letter stated that a McKinley was weak and catering to rabble and besides a low politician who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes The Maine as well as the De Lome letter spurred the Americans into the war with 1 The US won the war in 4 months The Rough Riders 1 This group was the first US volunteer cavalry and the only 1 out of 3 that actually participated in battle a This group was lead by Theodore Roosevelt after Colonel Leonard Wood was reassigned African American troops in the Spanish American War 46 1 5 regimes participated in the war against Spain 2 After the war they were awarded 5 medals of Honor H Paris Peace Treaty 1898 1 This treaty officially ended the Spanish American War 2 Spain gave up most of their territories to the victor the US because they had no choice 3 These lands include a Cuba Puerto Rico Guam and the Philippines 4 To save face the US gave Spain 26 million 5 The US took on the big brother role with Cuba a This would build resentment within Cuba XLIX Imperialism A Resulted in unequal human and territorial relationships 1 Why a Based on Social Darwinism B Imperialism is negative in nature 1 It exploits native inhabitants in order to benefit a select few individuals C Based on cosmopolitan or world view 1 It is the duty of the civilized society to spread civilization to a backward people L US Becomes a World Power A The McKinley administration had a very imperialist outlook in territorial expansion 1 Annexed Hawaii so that they could eventually become a state 47 2 Created a Naval Base at Manila in order to treat it like a colony a Justification 1 Their colonizing the country would prohibit others from doing so 2 The people there were unable to rule themselves 3 Extension of Manifest Destiny B This new imperialist mentality goes COMPLETELY against what America stood for 1 We were against colonization due to the fact that we were once under the thumb of colonization LI Debates Over the Treatv of Paris A Emilio Aguinaldo March 22 1869 February 6 1964 1 Aguinaldo was a Filipino general politician and independence leader 2 Helped start the Philippine Revolution a It consisted of a few skirmishes for independence B Anti Imperialist League 1 Worked tirelessly to stop the peace treaty from being accepted a The fight against the peace treaty was widely liked by many members of society for 2 main reasons 1 Idealism against moral 2 Self interests 2 Inevitably the Treaty of Paris was passed by 1 vote over the 23rds required to pass it LII American Filipino War A Caused by the Treaty of Paris 48 B The US was very harsh to the Philippines people just like their predecessor Spain 1 The US would not allow the Filipinos to rule themselves by any means 2 The US also committed many atrocities a If an insurrection occurred kill all those near the insurrection including those uninvolved C The Philippines mostly settled down in 1902 although some fighting did continue until 1913 1 From 1915 onward the Philippines became one of the US s strongest allies a Why 1 They had no other options due to the fact that they had no armies or government LIII The US and Cuba A The McKinley administration did not want to grant Cuba their independence once they were in the US s control 1 Resulted in the Platt Amendment a Cuba could not make treaties with foreign countries b The US had absolute authority to intervene control the Cuban economy and government c Cuba had to lease or sell land to the US for naval bases 1 Resulted in Guantanamo Bay B Cuba had to comply with the US s requirements due to the fact that their economy depended on the sugar industry in US markets 1 In essence Cuba became an American colony LIV The US and Puerto Rico 49 Foraker Act 1900 1 2 Annexed Puerto Rico as a US territory This meant that a Congress could control their policies b Insular cases upheld the Constitution form 1901 to 1904 1 Puerto Ricans had the rights of US citizens a Except for the right to vote and representation within the government c Due to the fact that Puerto Rico agreed to the terms above they didn t have to pay taxes LV China and the Open Door A B compliance C D The US pressured China to open the door to foreign industry and missions 1 market 2 This was done so that the rest of the world could have access to China s The Europeans weren t thrilled with this plan however they went along with it anyway When this method didn t work they threatened military force to get China s Boxer Rebellion 1900 1 2 This rebellion threatened China s stability and safety Imperialist action stopped it Second Action 1900 1 The foreign countries agreed to acknowledge and respect China s politics and territorial borders a China was too big to control 50 2 In addition the foreign countries accepted money instead of land to pay for the damages caused by the Boxer Rebellion LVI Theodore Roosevelt Carollarv A Hay Herran Treaty 1902 1 Columbia gave the US a land grant for the construction of the Panama Canal a This took longer because of an impasse with Columbia 1 In order to break the impasse the US encouraged Panama to revolt against Columbia then sided with them B Hay Bunau Varilla Treaty 1903 1 This treaty finalized the plans and payments for the Panama Canal 2 Completed in 1914 C The US compensated Columbia for the loss of Panama D The Panama Canal was passed to the Panamanian government in 2000 LVII Theodore Roosevelt Geopolitian A Master of gun diplomacy B Took the Monroe Doctrine further 1 Roosevelt stated that he had a right to intervene in Latin America in order to keep Europe out of there 2 It was the right of the US to keep Europe out of their business C This gave the US a big brother stigma amongst many countries 1 Not in a good way D Asia 1 The goal was to ensure the open door policy remained intact and kept the balance of power 51 2 Portsmouth Treaty 1905 a Ended the Russian Japanese War b We brokered the treaty and we favored Japan 3 Taft Katsura Agreement 1905 a The US allowed Japan to rule Korea b Only if they left the Philippines alone 4 Root Takahira Agreement 1908 a The Japanese expanded to Manchuria in order to have a buffer zone in case the Russians attacked them 5 Gentlemen s Agreement 1907 a These agreements were informal Congress was left out of it between Japan and the US 1 Japan agreed to not allow any more immigration to the US 2 The US agreed not to discriminate against the Japanese students in schools in San Francisco E Great White Fleet 1 The US wanted to ensure that no one would mess with them or their territories so they set out with 16 battleships to show off their might a 1St stop was Tokyo Bay 52
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