ANT 304 - Exam II Study Guide
ANT 304 - Exam II Study Guide ANT 304
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Chapter 5 Part II After the Ice Halocene era marked by the beginning of rapid rise in global temperatures 11600 years ago 0 0 Plants and animal species began to grow and spread into other territories Opened up new opportunities to other societies Diversity and change are two important parts of postglacial era 0 Changes in hunting and gathering formed new method of food production AGRICULTURE Led to social developments in very populated and culturally complex societies New outcome of social complexity was the invention of writing Outcomes of slower pace included longterm adjustments to desert environments of the native Australians or the maritime adjustments of the Pacific islands Two components of the transformation of late Pleistocene and Ice Age 0 0 Environmental change such as global warming Human response to new opportunities provided by the warmer climate The Beginnings of Agriculture What is Agriculture 0 Creation of an artificial ecosystem where specific plants and animals are cultivated and raised Point is to make food or isolate domesticated species from their wild counterparts Domesticating species leads to changes in their morphology where they can be distinguished from their wild relatives can be intentional or unintentional Domestication biological process that involves changes in genes and physical characteristics of plants and animals where they become dependent on humans for reproduction Cultivation cultural phenomenon where fields sows harvests and storing of seeds are intentionally prepared I Requires changes in human technology Herding requires intentional changes in relationship between humans and animals I Just like cultivation but with animals Agriculture involves changes in the way the humans use the land and in the organization of human society I Involves forest clearances cultivation of hardshelled cereals and root crops new technologies for farming and herding I Results in more villages people and faster pace toward complex society Domestication by HunterGatherer Groups 0 Transformation of societies came with the practice of cultivation processes 0 People started leaving their reliance on wild species and focused on clearing storage and building areas where harvest could be stored o This change is usually referred to as sedentism 0 First of all domesticated animals was the dog during the Paleolithic I Served as a hunting aid 0 Huntergatherers modified species on which they relied both intentionally and unintentionally o The close relationships between humans and their food sources has a long history and did not suddenly happen The Development of Domesticates o Domestication involves taking the species out of the wild and keeping them under shelter and manipulated settings 0 Domesticates undergo morphological and genetic changes through processes of natural selection 0 Selection usually happens due to human interference depending on what is wanted 0 Technologies of cultivation grindstones sickles storage facilities and plows o Technologies of the landscape field systems forest clearances terracing and irrigation The Geography of Domestication 0 Not all animals are able to be completely domesticated 0 Successful animal domesticates include sheep goat cattle pig horse camel water buffalo llama chicken turkey rabbit and guinea pig 0 Domesticated plant species are barley wheat millets sorghum rice maize manioc yam potato beans peas and lentils Why Agriculture 0 Diverse reasons for the adoption of agriculture 0 Include strategies of social competition and longterm pressures toward food production imposed by demographic growth and instability in the postglacial world 0 Not all communities adopted agriculture I Japan Jomon is a classic example The Spread of Agriculture Archaeology has shown that agriculture smarted small in a few places then dispersed Agriculture depended on the availability of wild species suitable for domestication and on those being able to form a successful farming environment Expansion of domesticates was fast through Eurasia and slow through north and south of the Americas and SubSaharan Africa Two major mechanisms of farming spread the adoption of farming by hunter gatherers and the displacement of huntergatherers by expanding farmers Farming is more advantageous than hunting and gathering because it feeds more amounts of people per area With farming came an increase in fertility and birthing rate The Consequences of Agriculture Consequences were not only demographic other consequences were settlement social complexity material culture and warfare Settlement o Farming communities are distinguished by being sedentary while hunter gatherers were seen as nomadic 0 Given good productive environments huntergatherers might have become sedentary o Farming settlements are larger and more stable than most hunter gatherer communities 0 Households took a bigger part in farming communities where hidden spaces allow accumulation of household wealth o Centrifugal tendencies the wellbeing of the community or village 0 Centripetal tendencies the success of the individual household 0 Sedentary settlements put emphasis on identity ethnicity and ancestry Social Complexity 0 Smallscale huntergather groups have flexible group membership 0 Due to adoption of agriculture new types of social organization began o Kinship is what structured the groups Material Culture 0 Sedentism allowed the collection of material goods 0 To keep material goods pottery started 0 The most standing out of material goods were designed to be worn or carried on or around the body I Beads and necklaces I Polished stone axes I Bracelets and amulets o Textiles also changed whether in different patterns or types 0 Metallurgy began the production and use of metals 0 Copper objects took form of personal ornaments Warfare 0 Growing rate of agricultural communities led to increase in human conflict that has continued till present day AgriculturalIntensification O 0 Early farming communities looked for new ways to increase productivity Irrigation allowed the cultivation of crops even with the lack of rain or difference in seasons in one of two ways I Storage of rain water in tanks or basins and released into the fields through canals I Distribution of river water to fields through canals Plowing use of animal traction as a way to plow the fields when the animals necessary were available I Increased the area of land that could be cultivated Terracing designed to increase the cultivation of high or rough terrain by the construction of tiers of drytone walling to support fertile but often narrow restricted fields I Also stabilize slopes and limit erosion Cities States and Empires The development of states 0 0 States are centralized political institutions in which ruling cities exercise control over populations that may number between several thousand and several million individuals Gather revenue from their subject populations In return to loyalty offer protection and support in times of war and famine Usually reserve themselves the right to use force either external warfare or internal control Bruce Trigger divided early state into two categories I Those that develop around cities citystates I Those that form within block of land territorial states Early states developed in areas of high primary agricultural productivity Monday September 21 2015 COMMENTS ON LAST CLASS Primate evolutionary trends 0 O O Stereoscopic vision I Humans have it I Means we can see things in 3D I Accomplished by having our eyes separately on the same plane and same level I It s the overlap in that vision that gives us 3D Movement or tendency towards an erect posture I We have an erect upright posture I Number of ideas behind why we have this Nails instead of claws I Cats and others have claws I Function is to grasp I Nail provides support for when you grasp things 0 Generalized dentition I Central and lateral incisors canines premolars and molars I The more you chew and grind your food the more nutrition you receive I Regardless of your size teeth are incredibly strong I In some places like Alaska natives would use teeth to pull of steel I Up to 200 pounds of grinding pressure with your molars o Opposable thumbs I Humans have completely opposable thumbs I Meaning we can take our thumb and fully touch the tips of our fingers I Helps do fine technical work I Great apes are almost there but they can only touch sides of fingers o I Done by most mammals I Provide a constant body temperature I Reptiles are subject to the temperature that s outside so when really cool they move really slow I Warming up curl into a ball I Cooling down sweating or openingexpanding limbs Early Societies The earliest Americans Early societies that had come into the New World Come in by way of Siberia into Alaska by land bridge Probably moving due to following of big game the hunt Biggame bison mastodon mammoth How long ago did people come into the Americas What was the tool kit they brought with them to survive What is the ultimate ancestry of Native Americans Are they related to PaleoIndians o Problematic questions Most well dated sites date to about 15000 years ago Two hypotheses o holds that the Americas were colonized by modern humans perhaps as early as 40000 years ago o holds that people come into the New World about 15000 yea rs ago Is it possible that people were here before that 0 Dr Valdez says quotSure but the data is not quite there Whenever we get a site that s dated 15000 years ago there s always an issue with the dating Clovis hypothesis is a strong one though Only issue is we get is that dates in Alaska all the way to Chile match so how did they move so fast Did all of the Native Americans come from the Bering Strait or could they have come by boat Yes that remains a good possibility 0 Looking at the ancestry of Native Americans 0 Trying to figure out a biological connection 0 Noted that there are certain dental features that occur in Native Americans that also occur in northeastern Asians o Labeled these predental features as sinodonty 0 Estimated that people were arriving into the new world about 14000 15000 yea rs ago refers to dental features that tend to be more stable evolutionary traits 0 Created by turner o Examined thousands and thousands of individuals 0 Shovel shaped incisors central and lateral incisors that look like a shovel o Shovelshaped incisors are supposedly stronger waterlogged site so preservation is terrific 0 Wood leather plants are still preserved 0 14000 yea rs ago Around 11500 years ago Clovis culture appeared 0 Big game hunters 0 Fine Clovis points are found with the bones of large animals 0 Clovis people first identified in the high plains o Clovis points first found in Clovis New Mexico Clovis points are primarily known for kill sites Besides being big game hunters they also hunted and consumed small animals and vegetable material Today one of the popular diets is the quotPaleodiet and refers to PaleoIndians 0 But has very little to do with that a true Paleodiet would have been like The large animals mammoths mastodons bison all become extinct during the time of PaleoIndians 0 So Clovis people are no longer around either 0 Smaller groups appear 0 Global phenomenon of extinction Wednesday September 23 2015 m With the end of cultures that we can identify as being PaleoIndian also is the extinction of mega fauna o Mammoth mastodon bison Why did this mega fauna become extinct all around the globe o Overkill Hypothesis PaleoIndian bands overkill or kill off the oversized mammals I Reduced to a population size that is unable to reproduce I Especially coming into the new world where there were relatively few predators of these large animals I Problem much mega fauna went into extinction a little before the PaleoIndian period so were already dying off 0 Climate change hypothesis between PaleoIndian period and Archaic large changes in the climate and in the environment I Start to see formation of deserts forest areas swampy regions great lakes etc I Change in climate leads to creation of different microenvironments I If you have a shrinking environment it may not be able to sustain these large animals I Leads to extinction because no where to support them I Areas can become desert like and have no food I Problem These large animals had survived dramatic changes in the climate before 0 Hypothesis Looks at variation in mean temperature I ce sheets reduced and climate change I Time of seasonal contrast I Seasonal changes may have been difficult on the young so litters are having trouble surviving As we transition from Paleo period to Archaic 0 Ice sheets shrinking Other environments forming Interesting coastal zones Deserts Forests OOOO o Paces where rivers or lakes are formed 8000 yea rs ago 0 Generally speaking in North America climate sea levels seems to have stabilized 0 We have more or less what we see of coast lines now 50006000 years ago 0 Populations grow more rapidly 0 Double the population than that of PaleoIndians o More sites with Archaic populations than there were of PaleoIndians Archaic populations adapt to their local environment Start to see an increase in proliferation an increase in the kinds of artifacts that are used 0 Different tools used in desert than in coastal areas More tools for Archaic than that of PaleoIndian This archaic period is a phenomenally important period 0 One of the most important periods of human development all around the world o A time period that is not particularly understood 0 Has been given relatively little attention In these different environments you have small groups of huntergatherers o What you hunt in dessert is different than what you will hunt in other areas Collecting a lot of plants and thing that they are using for housing and tools and things they are consuming berry nuts tree sap These huntergatherering groups are scattered across the landscape 0 Lets say you have groups that are in different places across this landscape 0 Then you will have times of the year where they will be moving among their zones o In one area over the summer then next zone in the fall etc o Referred to as a Seasonal route 0 Sites that are occupied and then reoccupied for thousands of years During certain times of the year you have what s known as the peak of harvest o In central Texas you might come to an area that s close to UT along creeks etc where pecans are available during a certain time of the year Smaller groups come together to make one large groups Men meet younger women Activities of status and position take place during this great harvest Once that resource dwindles down they go back to their primary territories There can be conflicts during big harvests where two of these groups overlap and resources are strained OOOO o Leads to conflicts which have to be resolved When looking at tools utilized because there are creeks and rivers because there is some stable tool supplies people tend to stay put for a month or two 0 Not like PaleoIndians following gains all the time o Able to stay place for long periods of time Certain tools come into use that were not available for PaleoIndians 0 These tools are specifically for people who stay for a while 0 Mano and metate o Pestle and mortar 00000 O O O O O Mano is handheld lobe shaped device that is used on a metate Metate is a big slab of stone Mano is moved across the surface of metate to grind up seeds Metate is usually very processed Although we know it s an agricultural tool it may be multifunctional Rodentsquirrel grindup story Pestle is made of wood or stone relatively small and quite worn Pestle is used on a mortar Mortar may be independent might be a big bowl shape Pestle pounds and leave material in mortar down to a pulp Used by pharmacists to grind up materials and pills o Moved away from mega fauna Archaic hunters focused on smaller animals whitetailed dear and rabbits Also turned to wild vegetable foods birds mollusks shellfish and fish Seems like wild vegetable foods in particular are incredibly focused and favored in the diet 0 Towards less mobility Semipermanent camps become base camps for hunting expeditions 0 Move towards permanent settlement Occurs towards middle Archaic and later Occupying the same place yeararound or at least most of the year If you have a permanent settlement you now are able to define a restricted territory Their lands their vegetables their animals which are enough to sustain that society yeararound One region that maintain this sort of mobile lifestyle o Grasslands that extend from Alaska into center of Great Plains to Texas to the Coast 0 Great Bison Belt 0 Bison and buffalo run up and down this region 0 At that location we still have groups that are mobile and following the big game 0 Kill sites are evident I Hunters round a group of bison or buffalo near a cliff stampede animals off the cliff collect dead animals at bottom and process them I Processing means removal meant skin etc I Archaeologists end up with a layer of bones that have butcher marks which give an idea of how they were processed I Enough layers of sediment and bone that there is evidence for how long this took place In terms of being mobile hunter gatherers they are processing deer rabbit those kinds of things 0 It is those populations that mobile places happen for a very long time some until colonial times 0 But then you find some societies that become sedentary o This leads to the greater societies that we know of When we get to place like the America Southwest we always talk about some of the foods they have 0 The primary food that they have gives evidence 0 This is knowledge from the Archaic 0 People who learned how to best use the environment learned it from the Archaic people It is the archaic people who start the process of domestication Discussion Section Excavation units 0 What we set up before we start digging in the field 0 Very precise 0 Always worked in the metric system Archaeology uses centimeters Important to know in what direction all features and artifacts are in 0 Need to know where North is Units are usually 1x1 but can become bigger First thing to decide is how big does your unit need to be Excavating is a very destructive process 0 Important to both limit what you excavate and be extremely precise Don t always excavate in perfect squares but definitely in rectangles Hypotenuse of 1x1 1414 meters Keep elevation equal on all ends Plan Map bird s eye view of the excavation 0 Make sure to have a key measurements north arrow Taking pictures of sites is never good enough making a map is important too Wednesday September 30 2015 State is the most formal of political organization 0 Hallmark or significant feature of civilization 0 Part of concept of the state organization is that we have the idea of government 0 Usually besides a central power there is also a formal code of law In a state there are societies that have numerous diverse groups social classes and under one rule State divided into social classes and economic functions of wealth that are distributed unequally Market economy 0 Chiefdoms have surpluses that can be collected redistributed and traded o Vast surpluses of goods and services 0 Needs specialized labor Whatever level of political organization a given society may take political organization is always involved in some form of control T or F political organization is sometimes involved in one way or another in some form of control 0 False o It is ALWAYS involved Internalized control 0 Often refrain from committing acts or doing something that we consider wrong 0 Might fear that something may happen to you from some supernatural being 0 You feel like something will happen or be bad for you if you do something wrong even though if no one knows or is aware of that wrong doing 0 Not wholly sufficient are institutions to encourage conformity to social norm 0 All societies have them 0 Externalized social control forms 0 Can be negative or positive sanctions and formal or informal sanctions I Positive sanctions are incentives to conform through awards titles recognition I Negative sanctions consist of threats of imprisonment some kind of punishment or ostracism I Formal sanctions are almost like laws that are organized and tend to regulate human behavior rather precisely through positive military awards or voluntary awards that involve some ritual or ceremony OR negative loss of rank that involve procedures of removal I Informal positive sanctions is something like a pat on the back that encourages someone and the negative sanctions are things like yelling or getting angry THESE TEND TO BE SPONTANEOUS REACTIONS Each society has definitions of dealing with people s conformity or lack there of which vary from place to place 0 Punishment varies from place to place as well Normally if there is a conflict SPECIALLY between bands or tribes we have a third party that may step in 0 When third party steps in we have a 0 Third party has no real power 0 Cannot force people to abide by whatever decision is made Centralized authorities of chiefdoms and states an authorized third party can issue a binding decision 0 People are obligated to respect that decision 0 Called Difference between negotiation and adjudication in essence in the power of decision making F Among hunters and gatherers warfare is not a common method of relieving conflict 0 Regularly have voluntary movement 0 Despite traditional view of farmers being gentle and closer to the soil it is among farming and herding communities that warfare is most prominent Most states today are still fighting for expansion but it is for power and in uence 0 States are still ever expanding Dr Valdez story 0 Most emphasis that are put around the world by the US are there to protect US interests aka business not citizens nor individuals Many years ago went to foreign country that produces sugar Foreign state looks for people to trade a good prospect Sugar was the big industry There wasn t an issue of embargo but we re buying sugar from this country 0 So when we buy sugar from these places we buy quota sugar meaning we give money to countries for what is being provided OOOO 0 US we decided to go from sugarcane sugar to beat sugar o Cocacola from Mexico still made with sugarcane sugar and is preferred 0 Place he was working had two sugarcane factories that had three 8 hour shifts so 24hours a day at two plants 0 US says that s bad so that they re going to beat sugar 0 Lead to thousands of people who are unemployed n decentralized system everyone participates in decision making 0 Loyalty and cooperation are given freely 0 People feel as if they have a voice n centralized systems there is more of a sense of coercion is a form of support for a political system 0 Based on the values a particular society considers most important 0 Religion and politics are tied into it Religion is intricately connected with politics 0 Religious beliefs can influence laws so that the things that people believe to be sinful are often unlawful o In many cases it s religion that legitimizes a particular government ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Monday October 5 2015 0 States are ever expanding 0 Today that expansion has a lot to do with in uence and 0 power In the past it was a physical and territorial expansion today it s more about this in uence and power 0 Looking at ancient china as a case study 0 In the case of tribes they produce at least some of their food through some form of farming or herding 0 One of their characteristics Domestication of plants and animals happens in a point in time that is referred to as the new stone age Neolithic revolution 0 Revolution the beginnings of domestication O O O 0 We know today that the Neolithic revolution was not a revolution in the sense of something happening quickly Process of domestication probably took thousands of years to occur The invention of food production cultication of plants and domestication of animals is a turning point in human history People now produce a reliable amount of food 0 Archaic populations were changing environments and they could now stay in one location 0 O O O 0 It could be by a river a coastal zone somewhere with a pond People could stay there for 6 months to a year Not moving around as much When this takes place people now able to observe nature how things grow where seed fall Observation year after year allows for Neolithic Revolution Domestication of animals takes a long time 0 O Wolves are kept when they are safer not as aggressive to have around Selection of certain characteristics Colors Eyes Personality 0 Today selection is a very precise kind of activity 0 Ancient Chinese legend talks about this man a great hero 0 from the past cultivated plants made pottery O O Invented agricultural implements and taught the whole world his inventions Instituted the market at noon the place where people would go to change and trade goods During this age people rested at ease acted with vigor cared for their mothers but not mothers and lived among the deer Not only did they eat what they cultivated but wore what the wove and did not think of hurting each other Variations and twists of this story In another story says people eat meat of birds but by the time Shen Nung comes along the amount of birds was inadequate so he teaches people how to grow their own food Also the rst and greatest herbalist He tried hundreds of varieties of herbs A highly poisonous grass is what killed him according to another legend The patron of Chinese druggists and herbalists Doesn t tell us much about the process of the Neolithic revolution or domestication only that is occurs of several of thousands of years 0 What do these legends show us 0 O 0 These show us of people being responsible for making their own goods Complex societies begin People are happy but life is getting harder 0 When you have pottery you more than likely have settled village life 0 Not something you make and carry around 0 Prominent crops in ancient china 0 0 Wheat is east as opposed to corn in the New World Crops that are domesticated and planted and animals tend to be a little bit different in these areas 0 In ancient china two groups we look at for early domestication O O O 0000 North central china YANG SHAO Alongside southeastern coast TAP ENK ENG Early farming cultures of ancient china North central China Another birthplace of domestication Here is where we get that king of cereal crops is the earliest of cereals o Birthplace of what would become the historical dynasties of ancient China 0 Named after the rst village where the Yang Shao culture was founded but there are better examples 0 Less common but present were cattle sheep goats 0 Still collecting other grains still hunting and still shing Important to their diet 0 Middens show that there were a lot of wild animals that were represented horse leopard deer o Houseplants are still preserved round or rectangular Earliest villages are simply two rows of houses where they face into a common space between them 3 5 meters in diameter 0 Lots of stone tools hoes digging sticks rakes stone discs with holes in them 0 Pottery tends to be painted red with black designs Sometimes near the rim they will have a particular symbol carved into them simple line 2 shape etc No ones knows what symbols mean but assumed to be beginnings of writing in north central China 0 South east coast area 0 Get what is called chordmarked pottery Pot is being made with usually a chord or rope that is wrapped around a paddle or stick and pressed on clay to make design Pottery tends to be a thick gritty brown to tan color Tend to be largerjars and bowls in signi cant forms Chord markings tends to occur all over body of the vessel All stone tools and ceramics are relatively complex speci cally attributed to that reliance and so forth Tools are more generalized in that sense 0 There is speculation of how early cultivation takes place among this culture 0 Domestication LIKELY occurred in places that are humid tropical with lots of rich ora May be nothing more than making sure plants and trees are protected from animals fences so wouldn t be eaten o Probably abounded marine life which allows for stability in terms of settlement 0 Progressive shing communities Dwelling on riverbanks estuaries lagoons O O People are there shing These people are best positioned for domestication of plants May be the rst to have used gardens to harvest root crops Swim agriculture clearing a track of land so that some crops can grow in a certain area and rejuvenate Part of domestication of plants is to gather or get those things that are very brous Not just food plants Whole range of material For all that we know there is still signi cant effort at hunting shing collection 0 No signi cant communication between Tap enk eng and Yang Shao Domestication of dogs 0 O O 0 Dogs are derived from wolves which happens very early on In Paleolndian times dogs are in burials so they existed then Animal specialists look at remains and some animals once domestication takes placebeen there for a while bones tend to be thinner lighter smaller In case of dogs group of hunters probably on a hunt come across a wolf and may have to kill it She may be female and have a litter of pups People are attracted to puppies and kept Pups start to see humans as their packed so have the equivalent of alpha males who grow to be aggressive and are destroyed The meeker smaller ones stay with the group and are allowed to live Breeding takes place for these good characteristics
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