Midterm review SYG 3325
Popular in Social Deviancy
Popular in Sociology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Garces on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SYG 3325 at Florida International University taught by Shearon Lowery in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 205 views. For similar materials see Social Deviancy in Sociology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Study Guide 1 Define deviant behavior Including the J L simmons studies recognize examples of deviance Does sociologists generally agree on the precise de nition of deviant behavior No they do not 0 Social Deviance answers vary when trying to define What things or person do you find to be deviant Some people would say prostitutes criminals drug addicts etc Deviant behavior is subjective Defined deviance 0 Parsons violation of our norms but it is also a failure to conform to social role expectations 0 Albert cohen deviant behavior refers to the violation of any rule anywhere as long as the violation excites some disapproval anger or indignation 0 John lo end defines deviance the people that we fear or feel threatened by or even people we hate 0 deviance are people disvalued by society 0 Definition from the book deviant behavior is any behavior considered deviant by public consensus which may range from maximum to minimum 2 List and brie y discuss the popular conceptions of deviant behavior 0 Statistical conception anything that varies too widely from the average is considered deviant This attributes to attitudes or behaviors The oldest one Deviation from the norm deviation from the average Its the only popular conception that is positive ex high IQ that varies from the averageit39s considered good 0 Medical conception Sees deviance as an illness and you see deviant behavior is a symptom of second type of popular conception Ex phobias addictions love addict sexual addict etc 0 Failure to conform to group normyou have to define what group you39re studying to see if they violate our norms for their own ex cultures following what you believe 0 Boat rocker interfering with the norms of society ex early leaders presidents social change feminist movements gay rights environmental groups animal rights 0 Deviant immoral behavior says that people are immoral individuals subjective because what might seem moral to you might not to another person ex honor killing because his daughter being a disgrace to his family Rooted in religious beliefs 0 Deviants are humans are human beings just like everyone else with the exception that some other time is spent engaging in activities that others disapprove of ex giving 10 of paycheck to church 3 Identify higher consensus deviance Lower consensus deviance Mundane deviance and give examples of each type We have higher consensus deviance high agreement This is when deviant behavior when 90 people believe it is truly deviant o Debatable deviance lower consensus this is because some groups view the behavior deviant while others as acceptable so there is controversy Once you hit the 90 is higher consensus o Euthanasia is going to become more controversial In switzerland you can go to do the physician assisted suicide and Oregon you have to be there for 6 months to do it 0 Third level of deviance Mundane Deviance not serious but its everyday routine deviance Ex cursing walking barefoot speeding cheating 4 Know the following theories 0 Merton39s StrainAnomie in uential theory in deviancecriminology When this theory came out believed that deviant behavior that its a product of abnormal personality Merton dis agreed with that it was the structural nature of society that cause of most deviant behavior Why American culture puts a great emphasis on one goal in country that is being successful and they tell people they should be successful because if you come here you can be successful You are expected to try to achieve the American dream You have the goal but the means to achieve that goal is limited to certain groups Merton argued when there was a discrepancy with goals and the means then you had anomie Anomie refers to without norms He says people have to adapt to anomie Society itself puts so much pressure in individuals what they are suppose to have They need cognitive dissonance change 0 Conformity accept goals and means Innovationthey accept goals but reject means ritualistic settles basically to what they have retreatment they don39t accept the goals and the means rebellion rejected goals and means but you have new goals and new means 0 Assumption we all want to be successful 0 Criticism having a lower class bias amp that he didn39t offer any practical solution 0000 Robert Agnew 0 He thought merton was correct but didnt go far enough merton considered the effect the structure of society leading to deviant behavior Agnew said we all have strains in our lives that causes bad behavior 0 Agnew came up with three different types of strain 0 Failure to achieve positively valued goals examples failed to keep job you want fail to give mothers love 0 Removal of positively valued stimuli Examples loss of job loss of friendloved ones 0 Strain caused by the stimulation of negative stimuli examples victim of a crime air pollution Control Theory HirschiBond o Acts defined by deviant is quotmore funquot 0 we dont come into this world good we come into this world without morals we seek pleasure and we want to avoid pain 0 we need society to socialize us without society we are just its its to keep us conformming o conception of human nature and our role is different because our society is the solution 0 Four parts of the bond 0 Attachment to conventional others its important because if you care about other people and your sensitive to their feelings you dont want to let them down so you wouldnt do something that would hurt them 0 Commitment to conventional activities You think twice before you doing something wrong to risk what you39ve been working on for years 0 Involvement in conventional activities this means you don39t have much free time when do you have time to be deviant o belief in the moral validity of the social rules 0 critics say Main reason is the theory is about conformity not explains theories o Hirschi said that early control theorists talked about animal impulses the point was not that deviance and criminals have animal impulses that we all do and that we all act upon it at times For example human beings dogs and chickens they sometimes assualt fellow creatures or steal and we punish the dog if they steal etc but they dont go to court like humans do we engage in deViant behaVior because we want to do it Only reason we don39t deViate is because the bond to society Matza Drift o Drifting in and out of deViance and he thinks that most deViants do have a partial bond to society 0 5 major types 0 Denial of responsibility well yeah i did it but there were forces beyond my control that made me do it Denial of injury who is hurt by what i did Denial of Victim injury was not wrong in light of the circumstances condemnation of the condemners look at what they have done its much worse than what i did 0 Appeal of higher loyalty i blew up building but i did it for peace i did it for a friend i did it for enVironment a Linguistic domination language of the power dominates the language of the powerless b how do constructionists of deViance differ from those in positive schools Can two types me integrated Yes c funamonology what did that act mean to them Social learning theorist they tend to agree on two points 1 That all behaVior is learned confirming and deViant behaVior is learned 2 Humans learn behaVior in association with others some of the theorist agree for direct learning small group of people but others theorist agree for indirect learning through social media When you have a complex society such as ours you will have many people with different norms and standards and what is seen as deViancy are just conforming to their culture norms but are automatically Violating societies norms Many times deViants are just conforming to what is comfortable to their own group s values but by doing so they are automatically Violating the larger societies rulesnorms Gabriel Tarde First social learning theorist wrote in the 1880 s he says that no one is born a criminal or deViant they learn to be and due to the form of imitation People imitate those that they are in close contact with There are no bad seeds ever it is strictly a matter of learning Sutherland criminal behavior is learned and processed through communications with other people and he said it is principally learned in small intimate groups The learning has to include the techniques to commit the act and the motivation and rationalization for committing the act differential association theory a person who becomes criminal because of an excess of definitions favorable to the violation of law over definitions unfavorable over definitions of law Glaser Principle of differential identification agreed with Sutherland s theory but he thought the important factor was with whom did you identify A person will engage in deviant behavior to the extent that he identifies with real or imaginary person from whose perspective deviant behavior is acceptable Ronald Akers attended Harvard graduate school took psychology classes with prof Skinner Akers tried to integrate Sutherland s theory with Skinner s to make a more specific theory Will be on the test Akers said deviant behavior is learned according to the principles of operant conditioning Skinner s theory of operant conditioning events that follow behavior determine the probability of its future occurrence Reinforcement positive reward received negative aversive stimulus removed or avoided Punishment positive punishment received negative reward lost or removed People will engage in deviant behavior when it is followed by reinforcement but are less likely to engage in deviant behavior when it is followed by punishment Deviant behavior will occur to the extent that it has been differentially reinforced and defined as more desirable than conforming alternatives His theory cannot explain the initial act of deviation Labeling theory underdog sociology became popular in the 1960 s impact on the field of deviance Tanenbaum wrote a book in 1939 Crime in the community he said the real problem is when the focus goes from the act to the person you can label a behavior as bad but don t label a person as bad or look at then in any negative way Edwin Lemert wrote his first book on labeling in 1951 he came up with labeling theory concepts primary and secondary deviance Primary initial act or acts of deviation Secondary We know labeling has consequences for the individual and also consequences for a group Places more importance on the social audience than does any other theory Social psychological audience people with whom you interact with on a daily basis Organizational level agents of social control police courts mental institutions psychiatrist Society at large the groups in society which define the behavior as deviant and react to it as if it were deviant Three outcomes of labeling First causes for the deviant to portray the label Second Addicts who need to accept their label to get better Third no possible effect Power Theory developed by Theo 0 social constructionist school 0 Only talks about powerful and powerless in the sheer number of deviant acts 0 Powerful tends to commit lower consensus deviance 0 corporate crimes example 0 Powerless higher consensus deviant acts 0 street crimes robbery muggings examples 0 The powerful are likely to commit a deviant act than the powerless 0 Three reasons why powerful are more deviant 0 Greater deviant motivation 0 Greater opportunities to be deviant 0 Less social control powerful aren39t watched as much as the powerless Define two types of shaming How do constructionist of deviance differ from those in positive schools Can two types be integrated Yes Positivist see deviance as realabsolute Constructionist use qualitative social construction of reality Myths of Using Alcohol 0 Black coffee will sober you up FALSE 0 Drinking only beer is unlikely to make someone alcoholic FALSE 0 Drinking different types of alcohol can make someone drunk faster FALSE it39s about the amount of alcohol 0 Sex because more excited after more drinks alcohol can impair a man39s performance only applies to some women Effects of Alcohol 0 63 according to book people drink 0 3 for women and 4 for men 0 why do people drink party escape feel good relaxation legal social reducing stressanxiety main reason why people drink Social Factors in drinking 12 Social Control Drinking Moderation drinking based on behavior model they are just trying to modify how you drink it so you dont drink excessively moderation first study 1971 in social control drinking no more than 3 drink had to be mixed drinks and you had to sip not gulp Sobell39s research husband and wife team published new studies and had amazing results and did a year follow up and reported success rates Control groups were doing better than AA Problem they are follow up was not well done because they had someone call the excessive drinkers and ask how much they were drinking Many of these people lied generated grant money 15Female Alcoholics Most groups thinks it39s worse when a women is an excessive drinker especially if shes a mother women usually happens after something traumatic happens women who drink a lot usually have had a father who drinks a lot alcoholism is a family disease women tend to drink at home They don t need anyone else Plateau drinkingterm result research on female when they 1St noticed that most people involved drinking in the day would not get drunk 16 Harrison Trice look in index Social psychological theory the question tht it asks why do some individuals become alcoholics while others do not Trice gives us his answer saying there are factors Factors 0 personality traits that are associated with alcoholism tense dependency needs feelings about being worseless low selfesteem involvement in drinking group is important whats really important is the two future alcoholic starts to drink more and not holding alcohol and becoming especially by the group standards The group rejections 0 Then finds a group like himself he joins and fits right in but they are excessive 0 5th stage When they don39t need anyone to drink with they just drink alone His theory was only meant to explain why men drink alcohol Men want to feel like a real man Robert Bales why do some groups have higher alcohol rates than other groups Three factors 0 1st one is culturally produced 0 cultural attitude of cultural means as a way of releasing stress 0 failure of the cultural to provide alternative means of reducing stress intention 17 RAND Reports Theres a different one for 4 years as moderation drinks conclusion some not all can learn to drink moderately they argue that a treatment philosophy that one drink is bad as 10 bc you probably cant stop they become a self profilient prophecyThey continue to follow up the drinkers Finding if family history or drug abuse that was a red ag Caution was that social control drinking is for some people but not successful as we would like By the 1980s it was a big deal major universities started master programs to have therapist to teach social control drinking 1 year program The idea was later discredited 18 Sobell39s research husband and wife team published new studies and had amazing results and did a year follow up and reported success rates Control groups were doing better than AA 0 Problem they are follow up was not well done because they had someone call the excessive drinkers and ask how much they were drinking Many of these people lied generated grant money 19 Behavioral Therapy and Goals of Treatment 20 Identify Flushing Response occurs mainly in J apanese Chinese person has a ushing after a certain amount of alcohol their face would turn red If yes you won t be a drinker 21 Frontloading pre gaming which means drinking before an event It came about bc federal government wanted all for age drinking to be 21 If not they would not they would withhold all funds bc there were people caught in between in different states so they would go to another area to drink 22 Low Bottom Drunks v High Bottom Drunks 0 Low has hit bottom long history of social rejection have been in jail 0 High has suffered a lot but are trying to go to AA so they can avoid losing everything 23 According to Thio how do researches define binge drinking 0 Binge drinkers drink to get drunk unlike social drinkers who drink to have fun Binge drinking is having 4 and more drinks in a social gathering for men and for women its 3 and more 24 Is alcohol stimulant or depressant Depressant 25 Four C39s o Compulsion to drink 0 loss of Control two ways to think about this 0 if you had one drink you won39t be able to stop 0 modern approach unpredictable control some people can limit themselves and others not 0 Continued drinking despite Consequences 0 DUI family thrown you out grades dropped loss job 0 When consequences mount they should stop bc its not worth but for alcoholics won39t stop Alcohol Dependency 0 Physical dependency When you don39t drink you have withdraws o Psychological dependence fear without drinking alcohol 0 Social Dependency pressures in the environment that make it difficult for one not to drink J ellinek sees it as a progress disease 0 Prealcoholic drink to release stress social drinker o Prodromal first disease stage psychologically addict onset of blackouts drinking alone secretive drinking 0 Crucial Loss of control dry drunk periods only thing you think about is drinking people notice you are drinking a lot preoccupation with alcohol socially isolated 0 Chronic benders when you drink for days they don39t know how to live without it Malnutrition 26 Why do detox centers fail Because they are short term only 28 days 29 AA and Rational Recovery Relapses Admitting problem Came to believe that power greater than ourselves can restore us to sanity made a decision to turn our will and lives to the care of God the way we understood him searching moral inventory of ourselves admitted to god ourselves and another human being in exact nature of your wrongs made a list of all person we have harmed and become willing to make amends with them all make direct amends to greater people except if they would injure others continue to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admit it sought to prayer or meditation AA will take only a Low bottom drunk history of rejection Today in AA you see high bottom drunks those who don39t want to loose what they have Why does AA work group acceptance group support things you start to do without alcoholif you go to AA it does gives you a more positive sense of selfidentity 30 Difference between rational recoveryAA Rational recovery started 1986they had group meetings then they got rid of them so it ended up being internet based Some groups meet in california but the thing is they are not suppose to meet RR they don39t believe in higher power RR they don39t have relapses bc then you39re out RR no disease RR they stop listening to addictive voice Behavioral Alcohol is not A disease it39s something learned It can be modified or eliminated Behavioral therapists They do not believe in loss of control Two goals of behavioral therapy 0 Elimination of alcohol consumption that is a learned response to stress 0 To establish alternative means of dealing with stressful situations Program something about vitamins ask
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