PHIL/PSY 241: Consciousness and Cognition - Study Guide
PHIL/PSY 241: Consciousness and Cognition - Study Guide PHIL/PSY 241
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Mathieson on Tuesday October 21, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL/PSY 241 at University of Arizona taught by William Leonard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 663 views. For similar materials see Consciousness and Cognition in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/21/14
PHILPSYC 241 Consciousness and Cognition consequent Midterm 1 Study Guide If P then Q Q therefore P 16 What is an argument Termsconceptsargumentstheorists to know Set of prepositions one of which the conclusion is intended to be supported by the rest the premises Causal closure of the physical All physical effects 17 What are necessary conditions Conditions under which can have only physical causes a fact would be true 0 Metaphysics concerned explaining the Have t0 be in place for the fact t0 be true but does indamental nature of being and the world that not entail that it is true eneornpasses it Ex It is a necessary condition to be a man to be a bachelor It is not suf cient but it is necessary Questions ahout iogie and eritieai thinking 18 What are suf cient conditions Conditions under which a fact would be true l Can a Valid argument have false premises Ifthey are in place the fact e de nitely be true Yes Ex Suf cient condition for bachelor is being an 2 Can a sound argument have false premises unmarried male No Suf cient conditions are not always necessary 3 Can an unsound argument be valid Conditions Yes Questions about the mindbody problem 4 Can an invalid argument be sound No 1 What is the mindbody problem 5 Must speakers of different languages believe distinct What is the relationshiP betWeen mental Phenomena propositions and physical phenomena No propositions are abstract arguments that are 2 Why does there appear t0 be a mindbody problem independent of language Can be expressed it arises because mental and physical phenomena differently in the same language and be expressed in seem to obviously have different properties different languages but still be the same thing 3 What is ontology 6 Can abductive arguments be valid Refers to either 1 the investigation into the basic No categories of being and how they relate to each other 7 Can inductive arguments be n 2 or referring t0 the stuff in that Pn Of study The No kind of stuff that the theory says exists 8 What makes a deductive argument strong Ontology of materialism Physical stuff A deductive argument is made strong because the 4 HoW are dualism and monism related premises entail the conclusion so the conclusion is They both seek to ansWer What kind of snbstanoe the certain It is strong when it is valid and can be even mind is made of more strong when it is sound 5 What are the dualistic responses to the mindbody 9 What makes an abductive argument strong Problem An abductive argument is made strong because it is Substance Dllalism ainpliative gives information not contained in the lnteraetionism premises Made more cogent by including more and Parallelism more supporting premises Depends on strength of EPiPhenomenalism explanation it puts forward strength on which it ProPerty Dnalism satis es explanatory Virtues 6 What are the monistic responses to the mindbody 10 What makes an inductive argument strong Problem Depends on its appealing to a representative sample idealism Other things equal the more closely the sample is to Materialism the population and the size of the sample lends to the 7 Why be a materialist argument s strengtl1 Coherent science 1 1 What are some of the theoreticalexplanatory virtues Does not haVe Problems With Phylogeny and Explanatory scope consistency predictive novelty ontogeny testability economy simplicity No interaction problems 12 What is the logical structure of modus ponens 8 Why be a dualist 1fP then Q P therefore Q Categorical difference between mental and physical 13 What is the logical structure of modus tollens Phenomena If P then Q Not Q therefore not P Possibility of an afterlife l4 What is the logical structure of denying the antecedent 9 What are the Var ions materialist theories If P then Q Not P therefore not Q BehaVi0rism 15 What is the logical structure of af rining the Redllotiye Materialism identity TheoryPhysicalism Nonreductive Materialism Functionalism identity 10 What are the various dualist theories Numerical Interactionism 10 What sorts of properties seem not to work when plugged Parallelism into Leibniz39s law Epiphenomenalism Qualitative properties anything to do with subjective mental states Questions about substance dualism l 1 What are the two kinds of interaction problem a How is interaction between physical and non 1 Who argued for substance dualism physical even possible Descartes b Causal closure of the physical Bloom did psych experiments to show that most 12 Does interactionism have to deal with both of them people across cultures are intuitive substance Yes dualists Gave an explanation why people are that 13 Does epiphenomenalism have to deal with both of them way No just the interaction problem 2 What is the indubitability argument 14 Does parallelism have to deal with both of them Tried to use Leibniz law to show that mind and body No deals with neither of them because it does not have different properties and therefore cannot be the state any interaction effect same thing My mind has the property that I cannot doubt that it Questions about idealism exists It is possible for me to doubt that my body exists My mind and body have different properties 1 What are the deductive and abductive arguments for Leibniz s law Therefore my mind and body are idealism different Deductive 3 What is the conceivability argument 1 Objects are whatever it is that we perceive Relied on the idea that if A and B are the same thing 2 What we perceive are ideas it is impossible for one to exist without the other C Therefore objects are ideas I can clearly and distinctly conceive my mind Abductive existing without my body therefore they cannot be What we perceive directly are ideas the same thing Physical objects that exist independently of 4 Is the indubitability argument deductive abductive or perception are a hypothesis posited abductively So inductive The conceivability argument they don t really help 9 Occam s razor Indubitability argument deductive What we are left with are just ideas Conceivability argument deductive 2 Which of those arguments appeals to Occam39s razor 5 How might one respond to the indubitability and Abductive argument inference of best explanation conceivability arguments One where Occam s razor is appealed to Objection to Indubitability Argument 3 What is Occam39s razor Respond to indubitability argument through Related to the theoretical virtues The best re itation by parallel reasoning Using Lois explanation has more of the theoretical virtues over lane loves Superman but doesn t love Clark the other Kent Therefore Clark Kent and Superman All other things equal a simpler explanation is cannot be the same always preferred over a complicated one Shows us that certain identities cannot be 4 Why does the answer to 2 depend on the answer to 3 used in Leibniz s law It says that physical stuff doesn t add explanatory Object to Conceivability Argument power and therefore we should get rid of it by Conceiving does not entail possibility appealing to Occam s razor You re not actually clearly and distinctly 5 How is idealism different from dualism or materialism conceiving your mind existing without your Does not appeal to any sort of physical explanation body You think you are but you re not 6 What is the tree in the quad objection and how does 6 What is an example of something you might conceive Berkeley respond to it unclearly at best Objection if no one is observing the tree in the quad Finitely many prime numbers it no longer exists 7 What is an example of something you might conceive Response God is always observing the tree in the indistinctly at best quad therefore it always exists Thousandsided polygon no different than conception of 999sided polygon Questions about epiphenomenalism 8 Which of the arguments for dualism appeals to Leibniz39s 1 What39s the difference between epiphenomenalism and law interactionism The Indubitability Argument Epiph says that physical can cause mental but not 9 Is Leibniz39s law a claim about numerical or qualitative the other way around Interactionism says both can cause each other 2 How does that difference bear on the extent to which each view faces interaction problems Interactionism has to deal with both interaction problems but epiph only has to deal with one 3 What is the problem of other minds problem No didn t try to say what states of consciousness are physical or not 3 Why did introspectionism fall out of favor First person methodology and recalcitrant no apparent means of resolution disagreement How to explain that we are justi ed in believing that 4 Who were the two major practitioners of other things have minds and knowing the properties introspectionism of those other minds Analogous argument infer other minds because people display the same behavioral properties that I do 4 How can the problem of other minds be repurposed to argue against epiphenomenalism Tichener Comell and Kulpe Germany 5 What is logical positivism Philosophy created against introspectionism Central tenet was veri cationism Sort of a method of analyzing information 6 What is the veri cation criterion of meaning According to epiph our behaviors are not caused by mental states but the way we solve other minds problem by using analogy This argument appeals to saying that their behavior is like mine therefore their mind must be like mine 5 How does Jackson respond to that argument You can be justi ed in believing something without have a causal relationship between the phenomena and the underlying cause CNN versus MSNBC both report that WWIII has started No causal relationship between CNN and MSNBC reporting the same thing but you are justi ed in believing one reported the same thing as the other I am able to infer from CNN that WWIII has started There is a common cause justi ed in believing other minds exist from behavior even though the mind is not the cause of behavior The central tenet of logical positivism claim about what the difference between meaning il and meaningless utterances The aim is that a criteria about what makes a statement meaning il we ll be able to gure out if any statement is meaningful or not Response was the veri cation criterion statement is meaning il if and only if it is truefalse in virtue of the meanings of the terms it contains true by de nition or if it can be falsi ed or veri ed by empirical data A meaning il statement does not need to be true but has to be able to be shown to be truefalse through the two ways de nition or empirical evidence John is in pain is meaningless because it is not truefalse by de nition and not capable of empirical testingobservation 7 Give some examples of statements that are meaningful 6 What is phylogenetic development Ontogenetic according to the veri cation criterion and some that are development meaningless and explain why according to the criterion the Phylogeny evolutionary development of a species former are meaning il and the latter are meaningless Ontogeny development of an individual organism Meaning ilz A bachelor is an unmarried male true 7 How might a materialist appeal to those kinds of by de nition development to argue against dualism I am the top awardwinning lm director false At what point in both phylogeny and ontogeny does because that person is in LA and I am in Tucson a nonphysical substance come into play Easier to can be shown to be false through empirical appeal to materialist views because each step can be observation explained Meaningless God exists is not truefalse by 8 What is the evolutionary argument against de nition and cannot be veri edfalsi ed through epiphenomenalism and how does Jackson respond to it empirical observation Objection Consciousness wouldn t have developed 8 What are the three forms of behaviorism evolutionarily if it didn t serve a purpose Adaptions Psychological Methodological behaviorism put to occur because they make an organism more t action in psychology Response spandrels some traits occur as adaptions Methodological because they are byproducts of other bene cial ones Methodological when studying the mind we can but they don t serve a purpose only look at behaviors Analytical IS a response to the mindbody problem that says mental states are simply a set of behavioral Questions about behaviorismearly psychology dispositions 9 Are all three forms of behaviorism responses to the mind I What is introspectionism body problem First attempt at a science of the mind as distinct from philosophy Tried to de ne the basic elements of consciousness 2 Did introspectionists take a stance on the mindbody No just analytic 10 Why does behaviorism pair well with logical positivism Behaviors are empirically observable which ts with logical positivism l 1 Why does behaviorism count as a form of materialism Mind is nothing more than behavioral dispositions and these can be understood in only physical terms 12 What does disposition mean when we talk about behavioral dispositions A disposition is a behavior in response to a given stimuli 13 Why might you think that behaviorist analyses of mental states are circular They have to appeal to mental terms in order to explain mental terms John will take chocolate if you offer it to him The behavioral disposition for John desiring chocolate But really John will only take what he believes to be chocolate Invokes mental states to explain them 14 Why might you think that behaviorism con icts with the mode of our selfknowledge The content We know a feeling associated with a mental state that is beyond the behavior We can know what mental state we are in without observing our behavior 15 When roughly was behaviorism developed Latter half of 19th century 16 Why does behaviorism seem to con ict with our explanatory practices Has serious analyses problems 17 How might perfect actors pose a problem for behaviorism Robots People with lockedin syndrome Perfect actors display all of the behavioral dispositions for being in a mental state but are not actually in a mental state Same for robots People with lockedin syndrome display none of the behavioral dispositions but are in the mental state Questions about reductive materialism 1 When roughly was reductive materialism developed l950 sish 2 In what regards does reductive materialism fare better than behaviorism as a response to the mindbody problem Same bene ts of behaviorism no interaction problems no problem of other minds no con ict with science no problems with phylogenyontogeny and none of the problems as behaviorism analytical aws con ict with what we know about our minds and explanatory practices 3 What is reductive materialism Type of materialism that says that mental states ARE THE EXACT SAME THING AS brain states Painc ber rings 4 Is reductive materialism a claim about the numerical identity or the qualitative identity of mental states The numerical identity 5 Is reductive materialism a claim about types of mental states or tokens of mental states Mental Types 6 What is the typetoken distinction Fish Fish Fish How many words 3 or 1 One TYPE of word three TOKENS Human beings Type Individuals Tokens Pain as a type versus token Reductive materialism is interested in mental state types not tokens 7 What is the species chauvinism objection If you de ne a mental state as a speci c brain state you rule out species that don t have the same brain state as not having the same mental state However the mental states may be tokens across species 8 What would have to be true of a creature for it to disprove reductive materialism It would have to be able to experience the same mental states without having the same physical brain state 9 What is multiple realizability and how does it relate to the species chauvinism objection A mental state could be realized by more than one physical state Is a major premise of the species chauvinism objection that is against reductive materialism But it is possible for two things to be in the same mental state even though they are not in the same physical state 10 Does the species chauvinism objection pose a challenge to behaviorism Dualism Idealism Just Behaviorism because it s a materialist theory ll Are there forms of materialism that aren39t challenged by the species chauvinism objection No 12 What is the difference between qualitative and nonqualitative mental states Qualitative mental states are experiences and non qualitative states t a inctional pro le Nonqualitative states can be described by materialist views whereas qualitative cannot 13 Which of those kinds of mental states seems to resist behavioristic analysis and why Qualitative because they cannot be described through physical means 14 What is the causal role argument for reductive materialism 1 Pain the occupant of causal role R The occupant of causal role R is whatever thing is caused by cuts bruises bums scrapes stubbings slaps and so on and which in tum causes wincing crying out taking pain killers and so on 2 Neural state N occupies causal role R C Therefore pain neural state N Questions about nonreductive materialism 1 How does the species chauvinism objection motivate non reductive materialism Nonreductive materialism is token materialism and says that mental states are inctional states and are therefore multiply realizable 2 What is the difference between a physical state and a inctional state A physical state is a certain collection of physical parts A inctional state is a way of performing a certain inction Functional states characterize the state in terms of causal relations 3 Answer 2 in terms of multiple realizability Functional states are multiply realizable because various physical states can produce the same inctional state 4 Is nonreductive materialism a theory of mental state types or mental state tokens Mental state tokens 5 Does nonreductive materialism posit the existence of nonphysical stuff No 6 What is the Ramsey sentence of a theory Converts a theoretical system into a inctional speci cation Replaces unknown terms with X and Y and speci es the output of the system So any terms that meet the criteria of the inction pro le will be your original term 7 What are some examples of kinds that are plausibly functional kinds and what are examples of things that are plausibly physical kinds Software vs hardware 8 What is the difference between a priori functionalism and psycho inctionalism A priori inctionalismz folk psychology Functional analyses are analyses of the meanings of mental terms These are the terms of common sense Inputs and outputs have to be extemally observable Psycho inctionalismz Functional analyses are scienti c hypotheses Can appeal to whatever kinds of inputs and outputs are suggested by the best psychological theories 9 What does it mean to say that an analysis is liberal Chauvinistic Analyses of a concept Liberal including too many things that are not actually instances of the concept Chauvinistic excluding things that are instances of the concept by being too narrow 10 How does nonreductive materialism appear to be liberal There are systems that can have a inctional pro le like mine that lack qualia 11 How does nonreductive materialism appear to be chauvinistic Depending on how you de ne inputs and outputs it can be chauvinistic by being too narrow 12 Are there other responses to the mindbody problem that also deal with liberalismchauvinism style objections Nonreductive materialism is guilty of both Behaviorism is guilty of liberalism perfect actor and chauvinism locked in syndrome Reductive materialism is guilty of chauvinism 13 How does the absent qualia pose a challenge for non reductive materialism There are systems that can have a inctional pro le like mine that lack qualia This goes to show that inctionalism can be too liberal 14 How does the inverted spectrum argument pose a challenge for nonreductive materialism Inverted spectrum argument newbom twins and one of them has contact lenses that invert colors These twins would be psycho inctionally identical and a priori inctionalism and behavioral and neural duplicates and therefore should be the same mentally However their color experiences are actually different and they don t have the same mental states This argument works against all materialist views 15 Is the homunculiheaded robots argument a kind of absent qualia argument or a kind of inverted spectrum argument Absentqualia 16 Is the Chinesenation argument a kind of absent qualia argument or a kind of inverted spectrum argument Absentqualia argument 17 What is the problem of the inputs and the outputs Problem for psycho inctionalism Must de ne a mental state by how it relates to other mental states but also causes inputs and reactions outputs There is a long causal chain so what counts as the input Problem is depending on what you pick you end up with liberalism or chauvinism 18 Do both a priori functionalism and psycho inctionalism face this problem Or just one of these theories Just psycho inctionalism 19 If just one faces the problem then why that one and not the other one A priori functionalism has inputs and outputs that are set because they are extemally observable Psycho inctionalism has inputs and outputs that are discretionary Questions about property dualism 1 Is the knowledge argument a problem for substance dualism No 2 Is the knowledge argument a problem for behaviorism Yes 3 Is the knowledge argument a problem for reductive materialism Yes 4 Is the knowledge argument a problem for nonreductive materialism Yes 5 What is the general structure of the knowledge argument Even if you were to know all of the physical facts there would still be things that you don t know Therefore there exist nonphysical facts In terms of consciousness even if we know all the physical facts they will fail to account for consciousness so materialist theories cannot be correct 6 Who is super sighted Fred What is his condition Can see colors that normal people cant 3 If XY then it is metaphysically necessary that 7 How can the case of super sighted Fred be used to form a XY knowledge argument C2 Therefore consciousness isn t the brain or We can know all about Fred s physiology and still anything else physical from C1 and 3 not know what his experience is like to see extra colors The zombie argument is that it is conceivable to have 8 Who is color blind Mary What is her condition a zombie that lacks consciousness So the brain can She has been kept in a black and white room and she exist without the mind Therefore herself is in black and white She studies everything 22 What is the conclusion of the zombie argument about the neurophysiology of color sight but even Having all of the physical information can never with all of that information she will be unable to explain consciousness know the experience of seeing color 23 What is the explanatory gap and how does it relate to the 9 How can the case of colorblind Mary be used to form a knowledge argument and the zombie argument knowledge argument Explain a phenomena in terms of another She has all of the physical information about color Ex Digestion is mechanical and enzymatic vision but she cannot know the experience of seeing activityNo explanatory gap color from this Ex What is pain Explanation neural rings 11 What is the conclusion of the knowledge argument stimulated by tissue damage and therefore there is Materialist views cannot hold because physical painExplanatory gap because you still feel like information is not enough to explain consciousness there is a missing piece Why does it give rise to 12 What is the difference between substance dualism and experience property dualism Gap between physical and experience Different substances vs different properties No amount of physical information can give rise to a 13 Does the knowledge argument favor substance dualism mental experience or property dualism Or does it equally favor both This is the knowledge argument and the Favors property dualism and perhaps substance zombie argument is an example of this dualism but not necessarily 24 What are structural features and intrinsic features 14 What is physical information Anything from science and anything inferred from that information 15 What is the hard problem Structural features are relational properties They explain things in terms of other things Intrinsic features are intrinsic properties they explain what something is like in itself The hard problem is the task of explaining conscious 25 How might one account for the explanatory gap in terms experience 16 What are the easy problems Give some examples Easy problems are how the brain performs various inctions Ex Wakefulness and sleeping visually distinguishing stimuli 17 Why is the hard problem hard and the easy problems easy of structural features and intrinsic features of things Materialist views can only give a structural account of the brain and not an intrinsic account of consciousness 26 What is an example of something that is physically impossible A comet is moving faster than the speed of light It goes against the laws of nature Easy problems require only a inctional explanation 27 What is an example of something that is physically but the hard problem conscious experience cannot impossible but metaphysically possible be explained this way 28 What is an example of something that is metaphysically 18 What is inctional explanation impossible A mechanism that performs the inction Metaphysical possible is something that can be 19 Give some examples of scienti c problems that were clearly and distinctly conceived resolved via inctional explanation Water is not H20 Identities are necessary for DNA explains genes and heredity metaphysical possibility 20 What is a philosophical zombie I do not exist A philosophical zombie is a physical duplicate of 29 How are possibility and conceivability linked in the someone that lacks consciousness zombie argument In order to have the argument work you must be able to clearly and distinctly conceive of a zombie Some might argue that it is impossible to do so 21 What is the zombie argument 1 Zombies are ideally conceivable 2 What is ideally conceivable is metaphysically possible 30 What sort of possibility is relevant for the zombie C1 Zombies are metaphysically possible from 1 argument and 2 Metaphysicallogical C1 rephrased it is metaphysically possible Talking about identities hold with metaphysical for the brain to exist without consciousness possibility Identity statements if true are metaphysically necessary 3 1 Why is that sort of possibility rather than some other sort of possibility relevant Metaphysical possibility relies on identities being equated to each other and meaning the same thing 32 How does the neuronsilicon chip substitution thought experiment go If you were to replace all of the neurons in your head with silicon chips you would remain unchanged and still be conscious 33 What is it intended to show Intended to show that consciousness does not depend on a certain physical structure it is multiply realizable 34 What is a nonreductive scienti c theory of consciousness according to David Chalmers Consciousness should be taken as a indamental irreducible part of the universe 35 Give another example of a theory in the history of science which was nonreductive in this sense Electromagnetism and charges and such 36 What are the three principle Chalmers anticipates will guide indamental laws of consciousness l The principle of structural coherence Says that there is a direct correspondence between the structure of awareness and the structure of conscious experience 2 The principle of organizational invariance Systems with the same inctional organization will have the same kind of conscious experience 3 The doubleaspect theory of information Information in the world has two basic aspects a physical aspect and a non physical experiential aspect 37 Which of those three principles is supported by appeal to the neuronsilicon chip thought experiment The principle of organizational invariance 38 How do the principles relate to one another explanatorily The first says that structural properties will answer the easy problems associated with inctional states Also beings with the same structural properties will have the same conscious experience However to answer the hard problem of experience we must accept a nonphysical aspect to consciousness TheoriesArguments and People Associated with Them George Berkeley Idealism David Lewis Causal Role Argument 0 Frank Jackson Epiphenomenalism Rene Descartes Substance Dualism Jack Smart and Ullin Place Reductive Materialism Tichener and Kulpe Introspectionism BF Skinner Behaviorism David Chalmers Property Dualism Ned Block Argued that nonreductive materialism is either too liberal or too chauvinistic
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