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FDNS 2100 Test 2 Study Guide

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FDNS 2100 Test 2 Study Guide FDNS 2100

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Study guide for test #2
Human Nutrition and Food
Tracey Brigman
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by alk88738 on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Tracey Brigman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Child and Family Studies at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 03/20/16
Exam #2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Carbohydrates (starting at slide #31)  The ADA recommends 25-35 grams of fiber daily (this is about 2X higher than the average intake)  Fiber acts as a chelating agent: bind minerals and carry them out of the body  Excessive consumption of fiber can lead to a blocked intestine: o Rare during eating patterns o Occurs with supplements o Too much bulk in the diet can limit food intake and cause both nutrient and energy deficiencies o When increasing fiber intake add 1-2 glasses of water and increase exercise  Carbohydrates to Glucose o Carbohydrates must be broken down into monosaccharides o Once in bloodstream carbohydrates travel to the liver: fructose and galactose are converted to glucose or related products  Trouble digesting milk: o Loss of the ability to produce lactose o Results in lactose intolerance o Symptoms: bloating, gas, pain, diarrhea  Glucose is the basic carbohydrate unit that each cell uses for energy o Body maintains internal supply in case of need o Body controls blood glucose concentration o Serves as structural roles in the body  The minimum DRI to feed the brain and reduce ketosis is 130 grams of carbohydrates daily for an average person  Carbohydrates below a healthy minimum o Body fat cannot be converted to glucose o With a severe deficiency the body must use protein to make glucose  This is the protein sparing action of carbohydrates  Storing Glucose as Glycogen o As blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, and the body will take up glucose o When blood glucose concentration drops, the pancreas produces glucagon, and glucose is released into the bloodstream o Some carbohydrates-rich foods raise blood glucose and insulin concentrations higher relative to others  Glycemic Index  Glycemic Index: o Good carbohydrates = low glycemic o Bad carbohydrates = high glycemic o Evidence suggests that a low glycemic diet may help control body weight o Many factors cane affect glycemic index test results o May vary person from person  Excess Glucose: o Excess glucose is stored as glycogen until muscles and liver are full o If there is still excess glucose, it is converted to fats which are stored in fat tissues o The conversion of excess glucose to fat requires many steps and costs a great deal of energy  Sugar is accused of: o Promoting and containing obesity o Causing and aggravating diabetes o Increasing the risk of heart disease o Disrupting behavior in children and adults o Causing dental decay and gum disease  Evidence Concerning Sugar: o Sugar does not cause obesity  Portion sizes have increased and physical activity has decreased o Sugar does not cause type 2 diabetes or heart disease  Body fatness is more closely related to diabetes and heart disease than diet is  Not unless you are eating so much sugar to gain weight o Sugar and behavior  Children do not react to sugar  NO scientific evidence  It is the excitement and evidence o Sugar does cause dental caries  Sugar Alcohols: o Don’t contain ethanol or any other intoxicant o Produce a low glycemic response o Body absorbs them slowly o Enters blood slower than other sugar o Side effects: gas, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea o Main benefit: don’t contribute to dental caries  Artificial Sweeteners o Make foods taste sweet and do not promote tooth decay o Practically calorie free o Best to use natural artificial sweeteners o Saccharin:  Has bitter after taste  On packet, it says that it may cause cancer in lab animals o Aspartame  Cannot be heated  Made up of two amino acids: phenylalanine and aspartic acid o Sucralose  Passes through body unchanged  Only artificial sugar made from sucrose  Three Cl- substitute for three H+ and O groups on sucrose  600X sweeter than sucrose o Stevia  Naturally sweet herb  Used as a sugar substitute especially in beverages  Erythritol  Sugar alcohol  Found naturally in several fruits  Doesn’t lead to tooth decay  Safe for people with diabetes  In reasonable amounts, it does not lead to gas intestinal side effects o Nectresse  Made from monk fruit extract  Can be used in cooking  Produced by makers of Splenda to be in competition with Stevia/Truvia Chapter 5 Lipids  Lipids: a family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not water o Ex: water and oil  Visible fat: fat you can see and its best to remove it  Invisible fat: fat you cannot see so it’s best to choose foods with low invisible fat  Functions of fat: o Shock absorbers: helps protect organs o Thermoregulation o Transport fat soluble vitamins o Store and supply energy o Provides texture and flavor in food  Energy from stored fat: o Without carbohydrate the incomplete breakdown of fat produces ketones that build up in blood and urine o Chylomicrons transport triglycerides to the fat depots: muscles, insulating fat layer under the skin, etc.  Triglycerides o The way fat is found in the body o Made up of three fatty acids and a glycerol back bone o Glycerol serves as the backbone for triglycerides o Includes a mixture of fatty acids: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated  Saturated Fatty Acids o Worst fats for you o Saturation refers to whether or not a fatty acid chain is holding all of the hydrogen atoms it can hold o Every available bond from the carbons is holding a hydrogen o Any fat that is a solid at room temperature o Diets high in saturated fats are at increased risk of heart disease and artery disease  Monounsaturated Fatty Acids o Best fats for you but still use in moderation o Contains one point of unsaturation o Reduces LDL and leaves HDL alone  Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids o Contains two or more points of unsaturation o Reduces both LDL and HDL o Linoleic acid (omega 6) and linolenic acid (omega 3):  Essential fatty acids  Body cannot make them so they have to be ingested  Used by body to make eicosanoids  Eicosanoids: regulate relaxation and contraction, blood clot formation, response to injury and infection  Trans Fatty Acids o Unusual unsaturated fatty acids o Not made by the body o Naturally occur in tiny amounts mainly in dairy foods and beef o Affects the body’s health o Consumption:  Raises LDL  Lowers HDL  Produce inflammation  Consume as little as possible  Transport of Fats o Lipoproteins:  Lipids associated with protein  Serve as transport vehicles for lipids  Major classes include: chylomicrons, VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs  HDL (High-Density Lipoproteins) o Good cholesterol o Less lipid, more protein o Takes cholesterol out of the body  LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins) o Bad cholesterol o More lipid, less protein o Deposits cholesterol in the body and arteries o Can clog arteries  Diseases caused by high fat intake o Diets high in saturated fats or trans fats are at increased risk of heart disease and artery disease o High-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancers: colon, breast, main ones o Uncontrollable risk factors: increasing age, being male, family history of premature heart disease o Risk factors that can often be controlled: high blood LDL, low blood HDL, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, high in fat diet  Phospholipids o Made up of two fatty acids, glycerol, and a phosphorus-containing molecule o Are emulsifiers: keeps fat together o Play key roles in the structure of cell membranes o Help fats travel back and forth across membranes of cells  Sterols o Sterol cholesterol serve as the precursor for making bile – helps with fat digestion o An emulsifier made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder o Vitamin D and sex hormones are also sterols  Cholesterol o Component of cell membranes o Can be made by the body o Not an essential nutrient o Forms the major parts of the plaques that narrow arteries in atherosclerosis o Most saturated food fats and trans fats raise blood cholesterol more than food cholesterol does o Found in meats, eggs, milk, animal products o Increasing HDL:  No food to increase HDL  Exercise can increase HDL  Healthy weight can increase HDL  Not smoking can increase HDL  Recommendations in the diet: o Provides 20-35% of it calories from fat o Keep saturated fat intake below 10% of caloric intake o Keep trans fat intake below 10% of caloric intake o Substitute monounsaturated and polyunsaturated for saturated and trans fat  Ways to reduce fat intake: o Broil or bake instead of fry o Remove visible fats from meats o Use two egg whites for every whole egg o Use applesauce in recipes that call for fat  Fat replacers: o Food scientists are perfecting fat replacers intended to eliminate added fats altogether o Examples:  Fibers: found in salad dressings  Sugars: found in ice cream  Proteins o Artificial Fat: Olestra  Brand name: Olean  A sucrose polymer: chemically bears some resemblance to an ordinary fat  Hydrogenation: the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make the fat more solid ad resistant to the chemical change of oxidation Chapter 6 Protein and Amino Acids  Protein contain nitrogen unlike carbohydrates and fats  Essential Amino Acids: o Amino acids that cannot be synthesized at all by the body o Body cannot make the proteins in needs to do its work without these essential nutrients o There are nine essential amino acids  Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine  Nonessential Amino Acids o Amino acids that the body can make o Under special circumstances, a nonessentials amino acids can become essential o There are eleven nonessential amino acids  Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Serine, Tyrosine  The body breaks down proteins and reuses amino acids  Cells can use amino acids for energy o Discard nitrogen as waste o Proteins can be converted to glucose: provides access to fuel  Peptide bond: connects one amino acid to another  Proteins can be denatured by digestion, heat, radiation, alcohol, acids, bases, or salts of heavy metals  Roles of Proteins: o Supporting growth and maintenance: replaces worn out cells and internal structures  Amino acids must be continuously available to build the proteins of new tissues  Muscles, skin, hair, nails, blood cells  Red blood cells live only 3-4 months  Cells lining the intestinal tract live only 3 days  Skin cells are constantly being shed and replaced  Protein turnover: each day approximately 25% of available amino acids are irretrievably diverted to other uses o Building enzymes, hormones, and other compounds  Enzymes are among the most important of the proteins formed in living cells  Hormones are chemical messengers secreted by a number of body organs in response to conditions that require regulation o Building antibodies  Large proteins of the blood  Produced by the immune system  Each designed to destroy one specific invader  Some immunities are lifelong  Some must be “boosted” at intervals o Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance  Water can diffuse freely into and out of cells  Too much fluid in cell: cell ruptures  Too little fluid in cell: cell is unable to function  Proteins cannot diffuse freely into and out of cells  Proteins attract water  By maintaining internal proteins, cells retain the fluid they need o Maintaining acid-base balance  Normal process of the body continually produces acids and bases  Blood proteins act as buffers to maintain the blood’s normal pH o Providing energy and glucose  To prevent the wasting of dietary protein and permit the synthesis of needed body protein o Dietary protein must be adequate in quantity o The diet must supply all of the essential amino acids in the proper amounts o Enough energy-yielding carbohydrate and fat must be present to permit the dietary protein to be used as such  The body’s response to protein depends on: o The body’s state of health  Malnutrition or infection may greatly increase the need for protein o Other nutrients and energy taken with the protein o The protein’s quality  Amino Acid Composition o High-quality proteins (complete proteins): dietary proteins containing all of the essential amino acids and may contain nonessential amino acids  Examples: eggs, milk, cheese, meat, poultry, seafood, soy o Limiting amino acids: can limit protein synthesis  All or none principle o Complementary proteins: two or more proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other  Limiting amino acids in plants o Complete protein pairs:  Beans (legumes) and grains, nuts, or seeds  Grains and legumes  Nuts/seeds and legumes  Vegetables and grains, nuts, or seeds  Corn and legumes  Advantages of Legumes: o Protein of some legumes is a quality almost comparable to that of meat o Excellent sources of B vitamins, iron, calcium, and other minerals  They do lack vitamin A, C, B12  Texturized vegetable protein (soy protein) o Can be formulated to look and taste like meat, fish, or poultry o Intended to match the nutrient contents of animal protein foods but often fall short o Nutrients of soybeans are also available as bean curd (tofu)\  Often rich in calcium  Variable in fat content  Adequate protein: o For adults: 0.8g/kg body weight/ day  Pounds to kg by dividing by 2.2 then multiply kg by 0.8 o Under normal circumstances, healthy adults are in nitrogen equilibrium  Nitrogen equilibrium: nitrogen in = nitrogen out  Positive nitrogen balance: nitrogen in > nitrogen out  Negative nitrogen balance: nitrogen in < nitrogen out o DRI committee recommendation diet should contain a minimum of 10% but no more than 35% of calories from protein to decrease the risk of chronic diseases  Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): world’s most widespread malnutrition problem o Marasmus: extreme food energy deficiency  Skin and bones  Muscles waste and weaken  Brain development is stunted  Metabolism is so slow that body temperature is low  Progresses to the point of no return:  Body’s machinery for protein synthesis, itself made of protein, has been degraded  At this point, attempts to prevent death by giving food or protein fail o Kwashiorkor  Each baby is weaned from breast milk as soon as the next comes along. The older baby no longer receives breast milk and is given a watery cereal with scant protein of low quality.  Proteins and hormones that previously maintained fluid balanced are diminished  Fluids leak out of the blood and accumulate in the belly and legs causing edema  Belly often bulges with a fatty liver  Cause by lack of the protein carriers that transport out of the liver  Fatty liver loses some of its ability to clear poisons from the body prolonging their toxic effects o Can occur in combination  Overconsumption: o No health benefits  May pose health risks for the hearts, kidneys, bones  Different diet styles o Fruitarian: only fruits and seeds/nuts o Lacto: no animal products but includes dairy o Ovo: no animal products but eggs o Partial: eat meat sometimes o Pesco: only meat eaten is fish o Vegan: no animal products at all o Vegetarian: eats plants and some animal products (1-2)  Vegetarian and meat-containing diets: o Those who eat well-planned vegetarian diets:  Obesity rates decrease  Heart disease rates decrease  High blood pressure rates decrease  Cancer rates decrease  Life span increases o Reason people choose a vegetarian diet:  A belief that we should not kill animals to eat their meat  Many people don’t want to endorse inhumane treatment of livestock  Health purposes (primary reason)  Environmental reasons  Fear of contracting diseases o Vegetarians diet often contain more  Fiber  Potassium  Several vitamins associated with reduced disease risk o With exceptions, vegetarians typically  Use no tobacco  Use alcohol in moderation if at all  May be more physically active than others o Weight control  Body weights are higher for people eating a mixed diet than for vegetarians  Weight increases as frequency of meat consumption increases o Heart Disease  Typically, plant-based diets are lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than diets based on fatty meats o Fats  Plant based diets generally contain unsaturated fats that are associated with lower risk of heart diseases o Vegetables  May lower disease risk by the virtue of their phytochemicals o Low blood pressure  Appropriate body weight  Diet low in total fat and saturated fat  Diet high in fiber, fruits, and vegetables o Poorly planned vegetarian diets typically lack  Iron  Zinc  Calcium  Vitamin B12  Vitamin D o Vitamin B12  Abundant in foods of animal origin and absent from vegetables  Obtaining enough poses a challenge for vegans of all ages  Deficiencies are on the rise o Poorly planned meat eater’s diet may lack  Vitamin A  Vitamin C  Folate  Fiber  Etc. Chapter 7 Vitamins  Vitamins: o Chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body o Are essential nutrients: have to get them through food or supplements o Two classes: fat soluble and water soluble  Water soluble vitamins o Directly move into the blood following absorption o Once in blood, these vitamins travel freely o Needed in frequent doses (1-3 days) o The kidneys remove excess in urine o Possible to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements o B vitamins:  Thiamin (B1)  Riboflavin (B2)  Niacin (B3)  Folate  Pyridoxine (B6)  Cobalamide (B12)  Biotin  Pantothenic Acid o Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)  Thiamin o Other names: vitamin B1 o Functions: coenzyme of energy metabolism, nerve membrane integrity o Coenzyme= TPP o RDA/Adequate Intake: 1.1-1.2mg o Dietary Sources: pork, whole grains, enriched grains, nuts o Deficiency Symptoms:  Beriberi: Muscle weakness, wasting of lower extremities, edema o Most at risk: alcoholics, elderly o Toxicity Symptoms: none  Riboflavin o Other names: vitamin B2 o Functions: coenzyme of energy metabolism o Coenzyme= FMN and FAD o RDA/Adequate Intake: 1.1-1.3mg o Dietary Sources: milk and milk products, spinach, enriched grains o Deficiency Symptoms:  Cracks at corners of mouth  Sensitivity of light  Eye disorders o Toxicity Symptoms: none  Niacin o Other names: vitamin B3, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide o Functions: coenzyme of energy metabolism o Coenzyme= NAD and NADP o RDA/Adequate Intake: 14-16mg o Dietary Sources: protein foods, enriched grains o Deficiency Symptoms:  Pellagra: diarrhea, dermatitis, death o Toxicity Symptoms: skin flushing  Folate o Other names: folic acid, folacin, PGA o Functions: coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis, many other functions o Coenzyme= DHF and THF o Requires vitamin B12 o RDA/Adequate Intake: 400 micrograms o Dietary Sources: orange juice, green vegetables, enriched grains, sunflower seeds o Deficiency Symptoms: Megaloblastic Anemia (large, immature blood cells), diarrhea, poor growth, Neural Tube Defect (NTD) o Toxicity Symptoms: none likely  Vitamin B12 o Other names: cyanocobalamin o Functions: coenzyme of folate metabolism, nerve function, many other functions o RDA/Adequate Intake: 2.4 micrograms o Dietary Sources: only from animal sources o Deficiency Symptoms: Macrocytic Anemia (red blood cells at larger than normal volume), poor nerve function o Most at risk: elderly, vegans o Toxicity Symptoms: none  Vitamin B6 o Other names: pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine o Functions: active in amino acid and urea metabolism o RDA/Adequate Intake: 1.3-1.7mg o Dietary Sources: meat, fish, most vegetables o Deficiency Symptoms:  Rashes  Scaly skin  Anemia  Headache  Vomiting o Most at risk: alcoholics, elderly o Toxicity Symptoms: nerve destruction  Biotin o Other names: sulfur-containing vitamin o Functions: coenzyme of energy metabolism o RDA/Adequate Intake: o Dietary Sources: widely distributed in foods, peanut butter, egg yolks o Deficiency Symptoms:  Depression  Muscle pain  Anorexia o Toxicity Symptoms: unknown  Pantothenic Acid o Functions: coenzyme of energy metabolism, involved in synthesis of many compounds o Coenzyme= Acetyl-coA o RDA/Adequate Intake: 5mg o Dietary Sources: widespread in foods, meats, whole-grain cereals o Deficiency Symptoms  Intestinal problems  Hypoglycemia  Insomnia o Toxicity Symptoms: none  Vitamin C o Other names: ascorbic acid o Major functions: antioxidant, collagen synthesis, helps in iron absorption, cancer prevention o RDA/Adequate Intake: 75-90mg o Dietary Sources: citrus fruits, cabbage type veggies, dark green veggies o Deficiency Symptoms:  Scurvy: bleeding gums, impaired wound healing, loose/decaying teeth o Toxicity Symptoms: intestinal disorders, interferes with medications  Antioxidants: compounds that protect cells from damage by oxidation o During metabolism, atoms may lose electrons (oxidation) o When a stable atom loses an electron, it now has an unpaired electron o If the atom doesn’t immediately pair up with other unpaired electrons, it will be high unstable  It is called a free radical  Free Radicals o “Steal” electrons from stable atoms generating more free radicals o Can cause serious damage to our cells o Production linked with: cancer, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cataracts, kidney disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease o Antioxidant vitamins donate electrons to free radicals to stabilize them  Fat soluble vitamins o Many require protein carrier for transport o First, into lymph, then into blood o Needed in periodic doses (weeks or months) o Less readily excreted and tend to remain in fat storage sites o Likely to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements o Vitamin A o Vitamin D o Vitamin E o Vitamin K  Vitamin A (preformed vitamin A, provitamin A) o Other names: retinol, retinal, retinoic acid o Pro-vitamin A (precursor) is beta-carotene (an orange pigment found in plants)  Antioxidant as beta-carotene form o Major Functions: vision, promote cell growth, support immune system, support immune system, support reproductive system o RDA/Adequate Intake:  Females= 700 micrograms  Males= 900 micrograms  2300-3000 international units if as preformed vitamin A o Dietary Sources  Preformed Vitamin A: liver, fortified milk, fortified breakfast cereal  Provitamin A: dark green and orange fruits and vegetables  Examples: sweet potatoes, spinach, greens o Deficiency Symptoms  Night blindness: slow recovery of vision after flashes of bright light at night  Xerophtalmia: total blindness  One of the developing world’s major nutrition problem (>100 million children)  Poor growth  Dry skin o Toxicity seen in supplementation and too much liver, not from eating too many fruits and veggies  Symptoms: fetal malformations, hair loss, skin changes, bone pain, fractures  Vitamin D o Other names: cholecalciferol o Is a hormone o Synthesized in body by sunlight o Major Functions: increase absorption of calcium and phosphorous, maintain optimal blood calcium and calcification of bone o RDA/Adequate Intake: 5-15 micrograms o Dietary Sources: only animal-based foods have significant amounts (unless fortified)  Examples: fortified milk, fortified breakfast cereals, fatty fish o Deficiency:  Rickets in children: bones fail to calcify normally  Osteomalacia in adults: softening of the bones o Toxicity Symptoms: kidney damage, calcium deposits in soft tissue o Most likely vitamin to become toxic  Vitamin E o Other names: tocopherol o Major Functions: antioxidant prevents breakdown of vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids, may decrease risk of heart disease o RDA/Adequate Intake: 15 micrograms a-tocopherol, 22 international units natural form, 33 international units synthetic o Dietary Sources: vegetable oils, nuts/seeds, fortified breakfast cereals, some greens, some fruits o Deficiency is not common  Symptoms: nerve degeneration, hemolysis of red blood cells o Toxicity is not common  Symptoms: muscle weakness, headaches, nausea  Vitamin K o Other names: phylloquinone, menaquinone, menadione o Major Functions: blood clotting synthesis of bone proteins o RDA/Adequate Intake: 90-120 micrograms o Dietary Sources: green veggies, liver, garbanzo beans, banana, some calcium supplements o Deficiency Symptoms: hemorrhage, fractures o Toxicity can occur with supplementation  Jaundice (yellowing of skin), anemia  Tips for preserving vitamin content of foods o Keep fruits and vegetables cool o Enzymes degrade vitamins once fruit or vegetable is picked o Refrigerate foods in moisture-proof, air-tight containers o Nutrients keep best at temperatures near freezing o Trim, peel, and cut fruits and vegetables minimally o Oxygen breaks down vitamins when more surface area is exposed o Steam, microwave or sauté in small amount of fat and a tight-fitting lid o Nutrients are retained better when there is less contact with water and shorter cooking time o Store canned foods in a cool place o Serve any liquid packed with the food whenever possible Chapter 8 Water and Minerals  Bottled Water o 1 in 15 households use bottle water o Costs 250-10,000X tap water o Not safer than tap water o Approximately 25% of bottled water is drawn from tap o FDA regulates bottled water sold in interstate commerce o FDA tests bottles water o Standards: substantially less rigorous than those applied to US tap water  Water: makes up about 60% of an adult’s weight o Most indispensable nutrient o An essential nutrient o Solvent o Cushions joints, eyes, fetus o Temperature regulation o Lubricant o Maintains blood volume o Transport mechanism  Regulation of Water Balance o ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)  Alcohol inhibits ADH = dehydration (hangover) o When blood pressure is too low or blood is too concentrated 1. Hypothalamus  pituitary  ADH release  ADH  kidneys reabsorb water (no water loss; increase BP) 2. Kidneys release renin:  Renin activates angiotensin  Angiotensin constricts blood vessels (increase BP)  Angiotensin causes adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone  Aldosterone  kidneys reabsorb water (no water loss; increase BP)  Signs of Dehydration o Mild: thirst, sudden weight loss, rough dry skin, dry mouth throat body linings, rapid pulse, low blood pressure, lack of energy, weakness, impaired kidney function, reduced quantity of urine, concentrated urine o Severe: pale skin, blush lips and fingertips, confusion, disorientation, rapid shallow breathing, weak rapid irregular pulse, thickening of blood, shock, seizures, coma, death  Body Fluids and Minerals o Water is inside and outside the cell o Major minerals form salts that dissolve in body fluids o The cells direct where the salts go and this determines where the fluids flow because water follows salts  Electrolytes o Salts that dissolve in water and dissociate o Attract water o Some reside inside the cell (K+) and outside the cell (Na+, Cl-) o Create osmotic pressure o Are pumped across cell membranes by transport proteins o Govern water flow  To control the flow of water, cells must expend energy moving electrolytes from one compartment to another  The result is fluid and electrolyte balance  Major Minerals o Calcium o Phosphorus o Magnesium o Sodium o Potassium o Chloride o Sulfur  Calcium (Ca) o Most abundant mineral in the body o Major Functions: structure of bones and teeth, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clotting, enzymes systems, adequate levels keep blood pressure low o Dietary Sources: milk and milk products, soy milk, broccoli, fortified orange juice o Calcium Balance  Depends on hormones and vitamin D when blood Ca gets too high  When blood Ca is too low, then:  Intestines  absorb more calcium  Bones  release more calcium  Kidneys  excrete more calcium  These depends on vitamin D too  Blood calcium is maintained at the expense of bones o Low intake calcium is associated with an increased risk of colon and rectal cancer o Deficiency Symptoms:  Osteoporosis:  Silent disease till elderly  Porous and fragile bones  Rickets: childhood form of osteoporosis o Bone mass peaks at approximately 35 years; after this bone loss can only be prevented; no more adding to bone density o To decrease bone loss:  Exercise (walking and weight bearing)  Adequate calcium  Adequate vitamin D  Estrogen replacement after menopause o Calcium status cannot be found out through a blood sample  Phosphorous (P) o Second most abundant mineral in the body o Major Functions: bone and teeth structure, major buffer (phosphoric acid and its salts), part of DNA and RNA, role in metabolism (many enzymes and ATP), phospholipids (in cell membranes), high phosphorous in the diet decreases Ca absorption o Dietary Sources: soft drink, animal protein, legumes, dairy products, fish o Deficiency is rare  Magnesium (Mg) o Major Functions: component of bones, important to enzymes (participates in 100s of enzyme systems), ATP metabolism, inhibits muscle contraction and blood clotting, prevents dental caries (holds Ca in enamel), protects against hypertension o Dietary Sources: dark green foods, legumes, whole grains, nuts, chocolate o Deficiency is rare o Deficiency Symptoms:  Weakness  Muscle pain  Poor heart function  Sodium (Na) o Major Functions: principal cation outside of the cell, maintains fluid and electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction o If “salt sensitive” Na+ intake increases the risk of hypertension o Dietary Sources: processed foods, table salt, condiments, sauces, soups o Deficiency is rare o Deficiency Symptoms: muscle cramps o Salt pills are not recommended for endurance athletes  Best to drink a sports drink with glucose, electrolytes, etc.  Potassium (K) o Major Functions: principal cation in body cells, crucial in fluid and electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, helps to correct hypertension o Dietary Sources: fresh fruits and vegetables, orange juice, meats, milk, whole grains, o Deficiency is rare  Seen in dehydration, diabetes, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea  Seen with use of certain drugs (diuretic, steroids, laxatives) o Deficiency Symptoms: muscle weakness o Toxicity: overuse of potassium salt  Chloride o Major Functions: major anion outside the cell, needed for fluid and electrolyte balance, HCl (hydrochloric acid) in stomach o Dietary Sources: table salt, processed foods, some vegetables o Deficiency is rare  Abundant in foods  Sulfur o Not used as a nutrient itself, but is part of other compounds  Parts of vitamins, biotin, and thiamin o Major Functions: bridges in proteins and stabilizes shape, acid/base balance, helps with skin hair and nails o Dietary Sources: all protein containing foods o Deficiency is unknown  Trace Minerals o Trace mineral content of food depends on soil, water, processing o Deficiencies are typically failure to thrive and grow o Trace minerals used in all body systems o Trace minerals are toxic are intakes not far above estimated requirements o Be careful with supplements: FDA cannot limit amounts in supplements o Interactions among them are common  If take too much can lead to deficiencies of others o Trace Minerals:  Iodine  Iron  Zinc  Selenium  Fluoride  Selenium  Chromium  Copper  Iodine o Functions: component of thyroid hormone o Sources: ocean mist (world’s major source), seafood, iodized salt o Deficiency:  Goiter: enlargement of thyroid gland  Sluggishness and weight gain  Cretinism: deficiency during pregnancy  Causes irreversible mental and physical retardation in baby  Iron o Functions: part of hemoglobin and myoglobin, carry and releases oxygen O2 o Sources: meat, fish, enriched grains/cereals, green leafy veggies o Forms of Iron:  Nonheme: found in plant and animal food; absorbed poorly  Heme: food in animal foods (meat, fish, etc.); better absorbed than nonheme o Factors that increase absorption:  Vitamin C  MFP factor (meat fish, protein)  Increase need during childhood and pregnancy o Factors that decrease absorption:  Tannic acid (tea, coffee)  Calcium and phosphorous in milk  Phytates in fiber and whole grains o Deficiency: most common nutrient deficiency in US and worldwide  Anemia: severe depletion of iron stores with low hemoglobin concentration  Behavior:  Reduced work capacity (see this long before anemia is present)  Mistaken for laziness in children: can affect cognitive functions in children long before anemia is present o Toxicity:  “hemochromatosis” = most common genetic disorder in the US  Absorb too much iron  See liver damage and infections  Blood would need to be removed to reduce iron  Iron poisoning: children accidentally taking iron pills  Leading cause of accidental poisoning in children (as few as 5 pills)  Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased heart rate  Zinc (Zn) o Functions: important in: many enzymes, insulin, DNA/RNA, immune system, vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, sperm development o Sources: shellfish, meats, poultry, liver, whole grains o Deficiency: growth retardation, arrested sexual maturation, impaired: immune function, brain function, thyroid, taste, wound healing, vitamin A function  Selenium (Se) o Functions: works as an antioxidant, makes thyroid hormone active o Deficiency: may increase risk for heart disease o Sources: meats and other animal products, whole grains  Fluoride (Fl) o Functions: forms crystal structure of teeth o Deficiency: increased risks of dental caries (most widespread health problem) o Toxicity: in communities where water Fl is too high, there is fluorosis (darkened teeth) o Sources: best source is drinking water  Fluoride does not come from food  Chromium (Cr) o Functions: associated with insulin to facilitate glucose uptake into cells o Chromium supplements do not help with losing fat and building muscle o Sources: meats, egg yolks, whole grains, vegetable oils, nuts  Copper (Cu) o Functions: helps form hemoglobin, collagen synthesis, works with many antioxidant ezyme o Deficiency: rare o Sources: legumes, whole grains, nuts, organ meats, seeds, dried fruits  Other Trace Minerals o Nickel o Silicon o Tin o Vanadium o Cobalt (part of Vitamin B12) o Boron o Arsenic o Gold


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