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CLEMSON / Biochemistry / BCHM 3050 / What are classic examples of positive and negative gene regulation in

What are classic examples of positive and negative gene regulation in

What are classic examples of positive and negative gene regulation in

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Biochemistry
Course: Essential Elements of Biochemistry
Professor: Sri
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: BCHM Chapter 18 (Lecture 12)
Description: Transcription and Gene Regulation
Uploaded: 03/20/2016
8 Pages 240 Views 0 Unlocks
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Regulation of Transcription If you want to learn more check out How do we control government lobbyists?

Operons: Classic Examples of Positive & Negative Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes

Operons: A unit of genetic function consisting of groups of genes with related functions where a single promoter and operator serve to control the expression of all genes in that unit together. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the excess of budgeted or actual sales dollars over the break-even sales dollars?

Operons occur primarily in prokaryotes and nematodes. We also discuss several other topics like How do we estimate regression?

  • simpler in prokaryotes - many genes. sitting close to each other with 1 control box; some don't have enhancers but have overlapping sequences with control unit (aka operon)
  • Progenes controlled by 1 set of elements 

If you want to learn more check out Suppose that you estimate this equation, which is significantly different than the point in your null hypothesis. What is the likely reason this occurred?

Four Types (Motifs) of DNA-Binding Regulatory Proteins We also discuss several other topics like What is a group with synapomorphy of primary endosymbiosis?

1. Helix-Turn-Helix

2. Zinc Fingers

3. Leucine Zippers

4. Helix-Loop-Helix

  • Different "motifs* represent different shapes of proteins and how they bind to the major groove of DNA to either promote or inhibit DNA transcription (expression)."

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Depressors and activators look the same but opposite functions

Transcription Factors have DNA Binding and Activation Domains

DNA Binding Domain: examples are Homeodomains; Rich in alpha helices; Interact with the major groove of DNA via H-bonds, salt-bridges, and hydrophobic interactions; Can bind to promoters ( TATA box, CAAT box ) and also to enhancer sequences.

  • Never covalent, transient, fall away when job complete

Homeo boxes: repetitions of a.a. that allow them to interact with DNA, bind to promoters or enhancers         

Activation Domain: Bind to other transcriptional factors, sometimes RNA Pol II, and activators; They have an acidic patch ( Glu residue, eg Gla4 transcription Factor) that allows interaction with other transcription factors

  • interact with other proteins; do not interact with DNA, cannot bind to DNA because of acidic parts (negative charged like DNA backbone)
  • seeks other proteins far away because of str. and want to set up farther away from DNA

DNA-Protein Binding

Can Have Positive or Negative Effects

Positive Control - Genes are not transcribed unless an activator is present.

  • activation - turns gene on. (eg; activator proteins binding to enhancer DNA sequences)
  • deactivation - turns genes off.

Negative Control - Genes are always transcribed unless a repressor is present.

  • repression - turns genes off. (repressor proteins binding to silencer DNA sequences)
  • derepression - turns gene on,

+ : activators working (activation);

  • activators away from enhancers (deactivation)

- :depressors sitting near gene and shutting off transcription (repression);

  • depressors away from gene and transcription occurs (depression)

The Lac Operon and Trp Operon - Two Examples from Escherichia coli

The lac operon

  • An inducible operon where transcription (leading to lactose utilization) is stimulated in the presence of lactose. (break down lactose)

The trp operon

  • A repressible operon where transcription (leading to tryptophan synthesis) is inhibited in the presence of tryptophan. (make trp)

? inducible - can't tum me operon on or off

Glucose vs. Lactose

  • Glucose - what’s metabolized,  primary source (preferred)
  • Lactoses - if tolerant of lactose, can break down and use it for energy as well (adaptive process)
  • Lactose made up from glucose and galactose, break down lactose to use glucose in body

  • Bodies cannot break down glucose
  • Lactose intolerance is evolutionary feature

        

Francois Jacob        Jacques Monod 1910-1976

  • Figured out 2 sources of food
  • Glucose and lactose
  • Discovered functioning of lac operon

  • Glucose is main form of energy
  • Bodies cannot use glucose
  • Lactose isomerized to form allolactose

                

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